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Transposition of the great arteries

MedGen UID:
21245
Concept ID:
C0040761
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Great Arteries Transposition; Great Arteries Transpositions; Great Vessels Transposition; Great Vessels Transpositions; Transposition of Great Arteries; Transposition of Great Vessels
SNOMED CT: Total great vessel transposition (26146002); Complete transposition of great vessels (26146002); Classical transposition of great vessels (26146002)
Modes of inheritance:
Non-Mendelian inheritance
MedGen UID:
109109
Concept ID:
C0600599
Genetic Function
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that depends on genetic determinants in more than one gene.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Related genes: CFC1, GDF1
 
HPO: HP:0001669
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0000153
OMIM®: 602880
Orphanet: ORPHA216675

Definition

Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.

Although babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Some people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.

Each of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.

People with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Conditions with this feature

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4
MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death.
Pentalogy of Cantrell
MedGen UID:
107540
Concept ID:
C0559483
Disease or Syndrome
Pentalogy of Cantrell (POC) is a lethal multiple congenital anomalies syndrome, characterized by the presence of 5 major malformations: midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect, lower sternal defect, diaphragmatic pericardial defect, anterior diaphragmatic defect and various intracardiac malformations. Ectopia cordis (EC) is often found in fetuses with POC.
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
162917
Concept ID:
C0796154
Disease or Syndrome
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is characterized by pre- and postnatal macrosomia; distinctive craniofacial features (including macrocephaly, coarse facial features, macrostomia, macroglossia, and palatal abnormalities); and commonly, mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without structural brain anomalies. Other variable findings include supernumerary nipples, diastasis recti / umbilical hernia, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, genitourinary defects, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Skeletal anomalies can include vertebral fusion, scoliosis, rib anomalies, and congenital hip dislocation. Hand anomalies can include large hands and postaxial polydactyly. Affected individuals are at increased risk for embryonal tumors including Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, adrenal neuroblastoma, gonadoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and medulloblastoma.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 2, autosomal
MedGen UID:
237904
Concept ID:
C1415817
Disease or Syndrome
The more common form of transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped TGA, consists of complete inversion of the great vessels, so that the aorta incorrectly arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery incorrectly arises from the left ventricle. (In the less common type of TGA, levo-looped TGA, the ventricles are inverted instead) (Goldmuntz et al., 2002). This creates completely separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, an arrangement that is incompatible with life. Patients with TGA often have atrial and/or ventricular septal defects or other types of shunting that allow some mixing between the circulations in order to support life minimally, but surgical intervention is always required. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dextro-looped transposition of the great arteries, see 608808.
Meacham syndrome
MedGen UID:
373234
Concept ID:
C1837026
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped
MedGen UID:
332422
Concept ID:
C1837341
Congenital Abnormality
The more common form of transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped TGA, consists of complete inversion of the great vessels, so that the aorta incorrectly arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery incorrectly arises from the left ventricle. (In the less common type of TGA, levo-looped TGA, the ventricles are inverted instead) (Goldmuntz et al., 2002). This creates completely separate pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems, an arrangement that is incompatible with life. Patients with TGA often have atrial and/or ventricular septal defects or other types of shunting that allow some mixing between the circulations in order to support life minimally, but surgical intervention is always required.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked
MedGen UID:
336609
Concept ID:
C1844020
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects Congenital heart defects (CHTD) are among the most common congenital defects, occurring with an incidence of 8/1,000 live births. The etiology of CHTD is complex, with contributions from environmental exposure, chromosomal abnormalities, and gene defects. Some patients with CHTD also have cardiac arrhythmias, which may be due to the anatomic defect itself or to surgical interventions (summary by van de Meerakker et al., 2011). Reviews Obler et al. (2008) reviewed published cases of double-outlet right ventricle and discussed etiology and associations. Genetic Heterogeneity of Visceral Heterotaxy See also HTX2 (605376), caused by mutation in the CFC1 gene (605194) on chromosome 2q21; HTX3 (606325), which maps to chromosome 6q21; HTX4 (613751), caused by mutation in the ACVR2B gene (602730) on chromosome 3p22; HTX5 (270100), caused by mutation in the NODAL gene (601265) on chromosome 10q22; HTX6 (614779), caused by mutation in the CCDC11 gene (614759) on chromosome 18q21; HTX7 (616749), caused by mutation in the MMP21 gene (608416) on chromosome 10q26; HTX8 (617205), caused by mutation in the PKD1L1 gene (609721) on chromosome 7p12; HTX9 (618948), caused by mutation in the MNS1 gene (610766) on chromosome 15q21; HTX10 (619607), caused by mutation in the CFAP52 gene (609804) on chromosome 17p13; HTX11 (619608), caused by mutation in the CFAP45 gene (605152) on chromosome 1q23; and HTX12 (619702), caused by mutation in the CIROP gene (619703) on chromosome 14q11. Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Types of Congenital Heart Defects An X-linked form of CHTD, CHTD1, is caused by mutation in the ZIC3 gene on chromosome Xq26. CHTD2 (614980) is caused by mutation in the TAB2 gene (605101) on chromosome 6q25. A form of nonsyndromic congenital heart defects associated with cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances (CHTD3; 614954) has been mapped to chromosome 9q31. CHTD4 (615779) is caused by mutation in the NR2F2 gene (107773) on chromosome 15q26. CHTD5 (617912) is caused by mutation in the GATA5 gene (611496) on chromosome 20q13. CHTD6 (613854) is caused by mutation in the GDF1 gene (602880) on chromosome 19p13. CHTD7 (618780) is caused by mutation in the FLT4 gene (136352) on chromosome 5q35. CHTD8 (619657) is caused by mutation in the SMAD2 gene (601366) on chromosome 18q21. CHTD9 (620294) is caused by mutation in the PLXND1 gene (604282) on chromosome 3q22.
CHIME syndrome
MedGen UID:
341214
Concept ID:
C1848392
Disease or Syndrome
CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder clinically characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, and ear anomalies (CHIME). Other clinical features include distinctive facial features, abnormal growth, genitourinary abnormalities, seizures, and feeding difficulties (summary by Ng et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Genito-palato-cardiac syndrome
MedGen UID:
341558
Concept ID:
C1856466
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of male, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, cleft palate, micrognathia, conotruncal heart defects and unspecific skeletal, brain and kidney anomalies.
Conotruncal heart malformations
MedGen UID:
341803
Concept ID:
C1857586
Disease or Syndrome
A group of congenital cardiac outflow tract anomalies that include such defects as tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), double-outlet left ventricle, truncus arteriosus and transposition of the great arteries (TGA), among others. This group of defects is frequently found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome . A deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 has equally been associated in a subset of patients with various types of isolated non-syndromic conotruncal heart malformations (with the exception of DORV and TGA where this is very uncommon).
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
VACTERL association, X-linked, with or without hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
419019
Concept ID:
C2931228
Disease or Syndrome
VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral anomalies (similar to those of spondylocostal dysplasia), anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies (urethral atresia with hydronephrosis), and limb anomalies (hexadactyly, humeral hypoplasia, radial aplasia, and proximally placed thumb; see 192350). Some patients may have hydrocephalus, which is referred to as VACTERL-H (Briard et al., 1984).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 4, autosomal
MedGen UID:
462407
Concept ID:
C3151057
Disease or Syndrome
Heterotaxy ('heter' meaning 'other' and 'taxy' meaning 'arrangement'), or situs ambiguus, is a developmental condition characterized by randomization of the placement of visceral organs, including the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and stomach. The organs are oriented randomly with respect to the left-right axis and with respect to one another (Srivastava, 1997). Heterotaxy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 6
MedGen UID:
462571
Concept ID:
C3151221
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple types of congenital heart defects are associated with mutation in the GDF1 gene, including tetralogy of fallot (TOF), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR), pulmonary stenosis or atresia, atrioventricular canal, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and hypoplastic left or right ventricle (Jin et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple types of congenital heart defects, see 306955.
Right atrial isomerism
MedGen UID:
465274
Concept ID:
C3178806
Congenital Abnormality
Right atrial isomerism is characterized by bilateral triangular, morphologically right atrial, appendages, both joining the atrial chamber along a broad front with internal terminal crest.
Heterotaxy, visceral, 6, autosomal
MedGen UID:
766590
Concept ID:
C3553676
Disease or Syndrome
Visceral heterotaxy-6 (HTX6) is characterized by dextrocardia with or without accompanying complex cardiovascular defects, as well as variable manifestations of visceral heterotaxy, including situs inversus totalis (Perles et al., 2012).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Pancreatic hypoplasia-diabetes-congenital heart disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
860891
Concept ID:
C4012454
Congenital Abnormality
A rare, syndromic diabetes mellitus characterized by partial pancreatic agenesis, diabetes mellitus, and heart anomalies (including transposition of the great vessels, ventricular or atrial septal defects, pulmonary stenosis, or patent ductus arteriosis).
Cardiac anomalies - developmental delay - facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
900924
Concept ID:
C4225208
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired intellectual development and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects (MRFACD) is an autosomal dominant, complex syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech acquisition, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge with bulbous tip, and macrostomia. There is variable penetrance of cardiac malformations, ranging from no malformations to patent foramen ovale to septal defects and/or transposition of the great arteries (summary by Adegbola et al., 2015).
Heterotaxy, visceral, 7, autosomal
MedGen UID:
902629
Concept ID:
C4225217
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal visceral heterotaxy-7 is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by complex congenital heart malformations and/or situs inversus and caused by defects in the normal left-right asymmetric positioning of internal organs. The phenotype is variable (summary by Guimier et al., 2015). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of visceral heterotaxy, see HTX1 (306955).
VATER association
MedGen UID:
902479
Concept ID:
C4225671
Disease or Syndrome
VATER is a mnemonically useful acronym for the nonrandom association of vertebral defects (V), anal atresia (A), tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia (TE), and radial or renal dysplasia (R). This combination of associated defects was pointed out by Quan and Smith (1972). Nearly all cases have been sporadic. VACTERL is an acronym for an expanded definition of the association that includes cardiac malformations (C) and limb anomalies (L). The VACTERL association is a spectrum of various combinations of its 6 components, which can be a manifestation of several recognized disorders rather than a distinct anatomic or etiologic entity (Khoury et al., 1983). Also see VATER/VACTERL association with hydrocephalus (VACTERL-H; 276950) and VACTERL with or without hydrocephalus (VACTERLX; 314390).
Neu-Laxova syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene.
RAB23-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
1644017
Concept ID:
C4551510
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of acrocephaly with variable synostosis of the sagittal, lambdoid, and coronal sutures; peculiar facies; brachydactyly of the hands with syndactyly; preaxial polydactyly and syndactyly of the feet; congenital heart defects; growth retardation; mental retardation; hypogenitalism; and obesity. In addition, cerebral malformations, oral and dental abnormalities, coxa valga, genu valgum, hydronephrosis, precocious puberty, and hearing loss may be observed (summary by Altunhan et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Carpenter Syndrome Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2; 614976), in which the features of Carpenter syndrome are sometimes associated with defective lateralization, is caused by mutation in the MEGF8 gene (604267).
Ververi-Brady syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647785
Concept ID:
C4693824
Disease or Syndrome
Ververi-Brady syndrome (VEBRAS) is characterized by mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development and speech delay, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals can usually attend mainstream schools with support, and may also show autistic features (summary by Ververi et al., 2018).
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 1
MedGen UID:
1778119
Concept ID:
C5542952
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
1812470
Concept ID:
C5677000
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-66 (MRD66) is characterized by global developmental delay with mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and mild speech delay. The phenotype and severity are highly variable. Some patients have behavioral problems or autism spectrum disorder, and about 50% have variable types of seizures. Additional features may include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, tall or short stature, and mild skeletal anomalies (Rahimi et al., 2022).
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 9
MedGen UID:
1841003
Concept ID:
C5830367
Congenital Abnormality
Multiple types of congenital heart defects-9 (CHTD9) is characterized by common arterial trunk (truncus arteriosus communis) in most patients, associated with other cardiac defects, including tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, right aortic arch, ventricular hypoplasia, and hypoplastic left heart, as well as other vascular and valvular anomalies (Ta-Shma et al., 2013; Guimier et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple types of congenital heart defects, see CHTD1 (see 306955).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kowalik E
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2023 Jun;21(6):389-396. Epub 2023 May 9 doi: 10.1080/14779072.2023.2211264. PMID: 37143366
Carazo M, Andrade L, Kim Y, Wilson W, Wu FM
Heart Fail Rev 2020 Jul;25(4):609-621. doi: 10.1007/s10741-020-09914-2. PMID: 31970551
Connolly HM, Miranda WR, Egbe AC, Warnes CA
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2019;22:61-65. doi: 10.1053/j.pcsu.2019.02.006. PMID: 31027566

Curated

American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Newborn Screening ACT Sheet, Hypoxemia, Critical Congenital Heart Disease, 2013

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Restivo A, di Gioia C, Marino B, Putotto C
Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2023 Mar;306(3):502-514. Epub 2022 Dec 9 doi: 10.1002/ar.25129. PMID: 36426596
Pizula J, Devera J, Ng TMH, Yeung SL, Thangathurai J, Herrick N, Chatfield AJ, Mehra A, Elkayam U
J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Dec 6;11(23):e026862. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.026862. PMID: 36444833Free PMC Article
Panayiotou A, Thorne S, Hudsmith LE, Holloway B
Clin Radiol 2022 Apr;77(4):e261-e268. Epub 2021 Dec 31 doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2021.12.006. PMID: 34980460
Carazo M, Andrade L, Kim Y, Wilson W, Wu FM
Heart Fail Rev 2020 Jul;25(4):609-621. doi: 10.1007/s10741-020-09914-2. PMID: 31970551
Breinholt JP, John S
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2019 Apr-Jun;15(2):133-137. doi: 10.14797/mdcj-15-2-133. PMID: 31384376Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Kowalik E
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2023 Jun;21(6):389-396. Epub 2023 May 9 doi: 10.1080/14779072.2023.2211264. PMID: 37143366
Amaral F, Valente AM, Manso PH, Gali LG, Braggion-Santos MF, Rocha JM, Vicente WVA, Schmidt A
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg 2022 Aug 16;37(4):534-545. doi: 10.21470/1678-9741-2021-0528. PMID: 35895985Free PMC Article
Connolly HM, Miranda WR, Egbe AC, Warnes CA
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2019;22:61-65. doi: 10.1053/j.pcsu.2019.02.006. PMID: 31027566
Domínguez-Manzano P, Mendoza A, Herraiz I, Escribano D, Román V, Aguilar JM, Galindo A
Fetal Diagn Ther 2016;40(4):268-276. Epub 2016 Mar 5 doi: 10.1159/000444296. PMID: 26943122
Mahle WT, Gonzalez JH, Kreeger J, Marx G, Duldani G, Silverman NH
Cardiol Young 2012 Dec;22(6):664-70. doi: 10.1017/S1047951112001503. PMID: 23331585

Therapy

Breinholt JP, John S
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2019 Apr-Jun;15(2):133-137. doi: 10.14797/mdcj-15-2-133. PMID: 31384376Free PMC Article
Kutty S, Danford DA, Diller GP, Tutarel O
Heart 2018 Jul;104(14):1148-1155. Epub 2018 Jan 11 doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-311032. PMID: 29326110
Ravishankar C
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016 Aug;17(8 Suppl 1):S344-6. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000825. PMID: 27490621
Wernovsky G
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016 Aug;17(8 Suppl 1):S337-43. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000000819. PMID: 27490620
Latham GJ, Joffe DC, Eisses MJ, Richards MJ, Geiduschek JM
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2015 Sep;19(3):233-42. Epub 2015 Apr 21 doi: 10.1177/1089253215581852. PMID: 25900898

Prognosis

Sengupta A, Carreon CK, Gauvreau K, Lee JM, Sanders SP, Colan SD, Del Nido PJ, Mayer JE Jr, Nathan M
J Am Coll Cardiol 2024 Jan 30;83(4):516-527. Epub 2023 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2023.10.023. PMID: 37939977
Broberg CS, van Dissel A, Minnier J, Aboulhosn J, Kauling RM, Ginde S, Krieger EV, Rodriguez F 3rd, Gupta T, Shah S, John AS, Cotts T, Kay WA, Kuo M, Dwight C, Woods P, Nicolarsen J, Sarubbi B, Fusco F, Antonova P, Fernandes S, Grewal J, Cramer J, Khairy P, Gallego P, O'Donnell C, Hannah J, Dellborg M, Rodriguez-Monserrate CP, Muhll IV, Pylypchuk S, Magalski A, Han F, Lubert AM, Kay J, Yeung E, Roos-Hesselink J, Baker D, Celermajer DS, Burchill LJ, Wilson WM, Wong J, Kutty S, Opotowsky AR
J Am Coll Cardiol 2022 Sep 6;80(10):951-963. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.06.020. PMID: 36049802
Antonová P, Rohn V, Chaloupecky V, Simkova I, Kaldararova M, Zeman J, Popelova J, Havova M, Janousek J
Heart 2022 Nov 10;108(23):1881-1886. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2021-320035. PMID: 35851319
Wallis GA, Debich-Spicer D, Anderson RH
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 May 14;6:22. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-22. PMID: 21569592Free PMC Article
Planche C, Lacour-Gayet F, Serraf A
Pediatr Cardiol 1998 Jul-Aug;19(4):297-307. doi: 10.1007/s002469900313. PMID: 9636253

Clinical prediction guides

van Dissel AC, Opotowsky AR, Burchill LJ, Aboulhosn J, Grewal J, Lubert AM, Antonova P, Shah S, Cotts T, John AS, Kay WA, DeZorzi C, Magalski A, Han F, Baker D, Kay J, Yeung E, Vonder Muhll I, Pylypchuk S, Kuo MC, Nicolarsen J, Sarubbi B, Fusco F, Jameson SM, Cramer J, Gupta T, Gallego P, O'Donnell C, Hannah J, Dellborg M, Kauling RM, Ginde S, Krieger EV, Rodriguez F, Dehghani P, Kutty S, Wong J, Wilson WM, Rodriguez-Monserrate CP, Roos-Hesselink J, Celermajer DS, Khairy P, Broberg CS
Eur Heart J 2023 Sep 7;44(34):3278-3291. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehad511. PMID: 37592821Free PMC Article
DeWeert KJ, Lancaster T, Dorfman AL
Curr Opin Cardiol 2023 Jul 1;38(4):358-363. Epub 2023 Mar 28 doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000001052. PMID: 37016955
Beigh MVR, Pajunen KBE, Pagano JJ, Olugbuyi O, Harake DE, Noga ML, Tham EB
Pediatr Radiol 2023 May;53(6):1092-1099. Epub 2022 Dec 21 doi: 10.1007/s00247-022-05560-y. PMID: 36539566
Broberg CS, van Dissel A, Minnier J, Aboulhosn J, Kauling RM, Ginde S, Krieger EV, Rodriguez F 3rd, Gupta T, Shah S, John AS, Cotts T, Kay WA, Kuo M, Dwight C, Woods P, Nicolarsen J, Sarubbi B, Fusco F, Antonova P, Fernandes S, Grewal J, Cramer J, Khairy P, Gallego P, O'Donnell C, Hannah J, Dellborg M, Rodriguez-Monserrate CP, Muhll IV, Pylypchuk S, Magalski A, Han F, Lubert AM, Kay J, Yeung E, Roos-Hesselink J, Baker D, Celermajer DS, Burchill LJ, Wilson WM, Wong J, Kutty S, Opotowsky AR
J Am Coll Cardiol 2022 Sep 6;80(10):951-963. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.06.020. PMID: 36049802
Minnella GP, Crupano FM, Syngelaki A, Zidere V, Akolekar R, Nicolaides KH
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2020 May;55(5):637-644. doi: 10.1002/uog.21956. PMID: 31875326

Recent systematic reviews

Soares C, Vieira RJ, Costa S, Moita R, Andrade M, Guimarães H
Cardiol Young 2023 Dec;33(12):2471-2480. Epub 2023 Nov 15 doi: 10.1017/S104795112300375X. PMID: 37965690
Anzai I, Zhao Y, Dimagli A, Pearsall C, LaForest M, Bacha E, Kalfa D
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2023 Jan;14(1):70-76. doi: 10.1177/21501351221127894. PMID: 36847766
Pizula J, Devera J, Ng TMH, Yeung SL, Thangathurai J, Herrick N, Chatfield AJ, Mehra A, Elkayam U
J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Dec 6;11(23):e026862. Epub 2022 Nov 29 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.122.026862. PMID: 36444833Free PMC Article
Sandhu K, Pepe S, Smolich JJ, Cheung MMH, Mynard JP
Heart Lung Circ 2021 Nov;30(11):1602-1612. Epub 2021 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2021.07.018. PMID: 34420886
van Wijk SW, Driessen MM, Meijboom FJ, Doevendans PA, Schoof PH, Breur HM, Takken T
Cardiol Young 2018 Jul;28(7):895-902. doi: 10.1017/S1047951117001032. PMID: 29848397

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • ACMG ACT, 2013
      American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Newborn Screening ACT Sheet, Hypoxemia, Critical Congenital Heart Disease, 2013

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