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Round face

MedGen UID:
116087
Concept ID:
C0239479
Finding
Synonyms: Round facial appearance; Round facies
 
HPO: HP:0000311

Definition

The facial appearance is more circular than usual as viewed from the front. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVRound face

Conditions with this feature

Fibrous dysplasia of jaw
MedGen UID:
40219
Concept ID:
C0008029
Disease or Syndrome
Cherubism is a childhood-onset, autoinflammatory bone disease characterized by bilateral and symmetric proliferative fibroosseous lesions limited to the mandible and maxilla. The enlargement is usually symmetric in nature. The phenotype ranges from no clinical manifestations to severe mandibular and maxillary overgrowth with respiratory, vision, speech, and swallowing problems. In most affected persons, teeth are displaced, unerupted, unformed, or absent, or may appear to be floating in cystlike spaces; malocclusion, premature exfoliation of deciduous teeth, and root resorption have also been reported. The course and duration of the active process of bone destruction varies between affected individuals; the onset is usually in early childhood, and typically new lesions can occur until puberty. Regression of the lesions occurs as they become filled with bone and remodel during the second and third decade of life. By age 30 years, the facial abnormalities associated with cherubism are not usually recognizable and residual deformity of the jaws is rare. Typically, cherubism is an isolated benign condition; the affected person has normal intellectual skills and is without other physical anomalies.
5p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents.
Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism
MedGen UID:
10995
Concept ID:
C0033835
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.\n\nPeople with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).\n\nMost males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).\n\nThe intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported.
KBG syndrome
MedGen UID:
66317
Concept ID:
C0220687
Disease or Syndrome
KBG syndrome is typically characterized by macrodontia (especially of the upper central incisors), characteristic facial features (triangular face, brachycephaly, synophrys, widely spaced eyes, broad or bushy eyebrows, prominent ears, prominent nasal bridge, bulbous nose, anteverted nares, long philtrum, and thin vermilion of the upper lip), short stature, developmental delay / intellectual disability, and behavioral issues. Affected individuals may have feeding difficulties (particularly in infancy), skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, large anterior fontanelle with delayed closure, scoliosis), hearing loss (conductive, mixed, and sensorineural), seizure disorder, and brain malformations. There is significant variability in the clinical findings, even between affected members of the same family.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Kniest dysplasia
MedGen UID:
75559
Concept ID:
C0265279
Disease or Syndrome
Kniest dysplasia is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial anomalies. Skeletal anomalies include disproportionate dwarfism, a short trunk and small pelvis, kyphoscoliosis, short limbs, and prominent joints and premature osteoarthritis that restrict movement. Craniofacial manifestations include midface hypoplasia, cleft palate, early-onset myopia, retinal detachment, and hearing loss. The phenotype is severe in some patients and mild in others. There are distinct radiographic changes including coronal clefts of vertebrae and dumbbell-shaped femora. The chondrooseous morphology is pathognomonic with perilacunar 'foaminess' and sparse, aggregated collagen fibrils resulting in an interterritorial matrix with a 'Swiss-cheese' appearance (summary by Wilkin et al., 1999).
Acromicric dysplasia
MedGen UID:
78549
Concept ID:
C0265287
Congenital Abnormality
Acromicric dysplasia (ACMICD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe short stature, short hands and feet, joint limitations, and skin thickening. Radiologic features include delayed bone age, cone-shaped epiphyses, shortened long tubular bones, and ovoid vertebral bodies. Affected individuals have distinct facial features, including round face, well-defined eyebrows, long eyelashes, bulbous nose with anteverted nostrils, long and prominent philtrum, and thick lips with a small mouth. Other characteristic features include hoarse voice and pseudomuscular build, and there are distinct skeletal features as well, including an internal notch of the femoral head, internal notch of the second metacarpal, and external notch of the fifth metacarpal (summary by Le Goff et al., 2011). Allelic disorders with overlapping skeletal and joint features include geleophysic dysplasia-2 (GPHYSD2; 614185) and the autosomal dominant form of Weill-Marchesani syndrome (608328).
Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy 1A
MedGen UID:
98046
Concept ID:
C0410179
Disease or Syndrome
Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing.
Rolland-Debuqois syndrome
MedGen UID:
98145
Concept ID:
C0432209
Disease or Syndrome
The dyssegmental dysplasias are lethal forms of neonatal short-limbed dwarfism. Handmaker et al. (1977) coined the term 'dyssegmental dysplasia' because of the marked differences in size and shape of the vertebral bodies (anisospondyly), which he attributed to errors in segmentation. Fasanelli et al. (1985) proposed that there are different forms of dyssegmental dwarfism, a lethal Silverman-Handmaker type (224410) and a less severe Rolland-Desbuquois type. The Rolland-Desbuquois form is lethal in about 40% of patients. Although many patients survive beyond the newborn period, all exhibit neonatal distress (summary by Hennekam et al., 2010).
Dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
98150
Concept ID:
C0432262
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly.
Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96604
Concept ID:
C0432442
Disease or Syndrome
The main clinical manifestations of chromosome 18p deletion syndrome are mental retardation, growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphism including round face, dysplastic ears, wide mouth and dental anomalies, and abnormalities of the limbs, genitalia, brain, eyes, and heart. The round face characteristic in the neonatal period and childhood may change to a long face with linear growth of the height of the face (summary by Tsukahara et al., 2001).
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2
MedGen UID:
107893
Concept ID:
C0574083
Disease or Syndrome
Barth syndrome is characterized in affected males by cardiomyopathy, neutropenia, skeletal myopathy, prepubertal growth delay, and distinctive facial gestalt (most evident in infancy); not all features may be present in a given affected male. Cardiomyopathy, which is almost always present before age five years, is typically dilated cardiomyopathy with or without endocardial fibroelastosis or left ventricular noncompaction; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also occur. Heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; risk of arrhythmia and sudden death is increased. Neutropenia is most often associated with mouth ulcers, pneumonia, and sepsis. The nonprogressive myopathy predominantly affects the proximal muscles, and results in early motor delays. Prepubertal growth delay is followed by a postpubertal growth spurt with remarkable "catch-up" growth. Heterozygous females who have a normal karyotype are asymptomatic and have normal biochemical studies.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Megalocornea-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
162904
Concept ID:
C0796086
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal findings of Neuhauser syndrome, also known as MMR syndrome, are impaired intellectual development or developmental delay, megalocornea, hypotonia, prominent forehead, micrognathia, prominent nasal bridge, and thin upper lip or carp-like mouth (Naritomi et al., 1997). Reviews Gutierrez-Amavizca et al. (2013) reviewed published reports and tabulated the clinical features of 35 patients with Neuhauser syndrome. Primary megalocornea and psychomotor delay were present in all patients. Characteristics observed in more than half of patients included hypotonia, growth retardation, abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) and/or seizures, micro- or macrocephaly, brain malformations such as cerebral atrophy and hypoplastic corpus callosum, craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, osteoarticular abnormalities, and refractive errors. Additional features found at low frequency included primary hypothyroidism, recurrent infections, feeding difficulties, cerebral hypomyelination, dyslipidemia, sensorineural deafness, laryngomalacia, large fleshy and cup-shaped ears, obesity, and cryptorchidism. The authors stated that the classification suggested by Verloes et al. (1993) did not seem to be applicable, and proposed that the diagnosis of Neuhauser syndrome should be made in the presence of intellectual disability and megalocornea in the absence of elevated intraocular pressure, with at least 1 minor feature from among those observed in more than half of patients.
Congenital heart defect-round face-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
167108
Concept ID:
C0796162
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome described in three siblings of one Japanese family with main features of congenital heart disease, round face with depressed nasal bridge, small mouth, short stature, and relatively dark skin and typical dermatoglyphic anomalies, and intellectual deficit.
Familial partial lipodystrophy, Dunnigan type
MedGen UID:
354526
Concept ID:
C1720860
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution beginning in late childhood or early adult life. Affected individuals gradually lose fat from the upper and lower extremities and the gluteal and truncal regions, resulting in a muscular appearance with prominent superficial veins. In some patients, adipose tissue accumulates on the face and neck, causing a double chin, fat neck, or cushingoid appearance. Metabolic abnormalities include insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans and hypertriglyceridemia; hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities occur infrequently. Familial partial lipodystrophy may also be referred to as lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus, but the essential feature is loss of subcutaneous fat (review by Garg, 2004). The disorder may be misdiagnosed as Cushing disease (see 219080) (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986; Garg, 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Familial partial lipodystrophy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Types 1 and 2 were originally described as clinical subtypes: type 1 (FPLD1; 608600), characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat confined to the limbs (Kobberling et al., 1975), and FPLD2, characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and trunk (Dunnigan et al., 1974; Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). No genetic basis for FPLD1 has yet been delineated. FPLD3 (604367) is caused by mutation in the PPARG gene (601487) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD4 (613877) is caused by mutation in the PLIN1 gene (170290) on chromosome 15q26; FPLD5 (615238) is caused by mutation in the CIDEC gene (612120) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD6 (615980) is caused by mutation in the LIPE gene (151750) on chromosome 19q13; FPLD7 (606721) is caused by mutation in the CAV1 gene (601047) on chromosome 7q31; FPLD8 (620679), caused by mutation in the ADRA2A gene (104210) on chromosome 10q25; and FPLD9 (620683), caused by mutation in the PLAAT3 gene (613867) on chromosome 11q12.
Timothy syndrome
MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current).
Large congenital melanocytic nevus
MedGen UID:
330752
Concept ID:
C1842036
Neoplastic Process
Congenital melanocytic nevus syndrome is characterized by pigmentary skin defects apparent at birth. Most individuals have 1 or more large or giant lesions greater than 20 cm and up to over 60 cm in diameter, which may cover up to 80% of total body area. These lesions may or may not be hairy. Smaller 'satellite' pigmented lesions numbering in the hundreds may also be present all over the body. Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) can be associated with malignant melanoma (see CMM1, 155600), but the risk appears to be low, ranging from 1 to 2% for all individuals, but rising to 10 to 15% in those with very large nevi (greater than 40 cm). A small subset of patients with CMNS have abnormalities of the central nervous system, known as 'neurocutaneous melanosis' or 'neuromelanosis' (249400), which may be symptomatic. Patients with CMNS also tend to have a characteristic facial appearance, including wide or prominent forehead, periorbital fullness, small short nose with narrow nasal bridge, round face, full cheeks, prominent premaxilla, and everted lower lip (summary by Kinsler et al., 2008; Kinsler et al., 2012). Spitz nevi are benign melanocytic melanomas composed of epithelioid or spindle cell melanocytes. They usually present as solitary skin tumors but can occur in multiple patterns, having agminated, dermatomal, and disseminated forms (summary by Sarin et al., 2013). Nevus spilus, also known as speckled lentiginous nevus, is a congenital hyperpigmented patch that progressively evolves, with affected individuals developing dark macules and papules during childhood and adolescence. Over time, nevus spilus may give rise to common lentigines, melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, and melanomas (summary by Sarin et al., 2014).
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, Beighton type
MedGen UID:
377049
Concept ID:
C1851536
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia characterized by the association of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, visual impairment (with early-onset progressive myopia, retinal thinning, and cataracts), and conductive hearing loss. Patients are of short stature and present brachydactyly, genu valgus deformity, and joint pain.
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7
MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006).
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 1
MedGen UID:
347456
Concept ID:
C1857451
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is an endogenous form of adrenal Cushing syndrome characterized by multiple bilateral adrenocortical nodules that cause a striking enlargement of the adrenal glands. Although some familial cases have been reported, the vast majority of AIMAH cases are sporadic. Patients typically present in the fifth or sixth decade of life, approximately 10 years later than most patients with other causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). Approximately 10 to 15% of adrenal Cushing syndrome is due to primary bilateral ACTH-independent adrenocortical pathology. The 2 main subtypes are AIMAH and primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD; see 610489), which is often a component of the Carney complex (160980) and associated with mutations in the PRKAR1A gene (188830). AIMAH is rare, representing less than 1% of endogenous causes of Cushing syndrome (Swain et al., 1998; Christopoulos et al., 2005). See also ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (615830) due to somatic mutation in the PRKACA gene (601639). Cushing 'disease' (219090) is an ACTH-dependent disorder caused in most cases by pituitary adenomas that secrete excessive ACTH. Genetic Heterogeneity of ACTH-Independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia AIMAH2 (615954) is caused by germline mutation on 1 allele of the ARMC5 gene (615549) coupled with a somatic mutation in the other allele.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type
MedGen UID:
347661
Concept ID:
C1858538
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-intellectual disability syndrome, Verloes type is a rare, genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe epilepsy with hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, abnormal genitalia, and normal thyroid function. Hypotonia, moderate to severe psychomotor delay, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (including round face with prominent cheeks, blepharophimosis, large, bulbous nose with wide alae nasi, posteriorly rotated ears with dysplastic conchae, narrow mouth, cleft palate, and mild micrognathia) are additional characteristic features.
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
Brachydactyly, type E, with atrial septal defect, type 2
MedGen UID:
354662
Concept ID:
C1862101
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly type E1
MedGen UID:
396291
Concept ID:
C1862102
Finding
Any brachydactyly type E in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HOXD13 gene.
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
400627
Concept ID:
C1864846
Disease or Syndrome
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a form of ACTH-independent adrenal hyperplasia resulting in Cushing syndrome. It is usually seen as a manifestation of the Carney complex (CNC1; 160980), a multiple neoplasia syndrome. However, PPNAD can also occur in isolation (Groussin et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease See also PPNAD2 (610475), caused by mutation in the PDE11A gene (604961) on chromosome 2q31; PPNAD3 (614190), caused by mutation in the PDE8B gene (603390) on chromosome 5q13; and PPNAD4 (615830), caused by a duplication on chromosome 19p13 that includes the PRKACA gene (601639).
Pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, primary, 2
MedGen UID:
355843
Concept ID:
C1864851
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PDE11A gene.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
355927
Concept ID:
C1865181
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by macroblepharon, ectropion, and facial dysmorphism which includes severe hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, broad nasal bridge, long and smooth philtrum, and macrostomia with thin upper lip vermilion border. Other features may include large fontanelles, prominent metopic ridge, thick eyebrows, mild synophrys, increased density of upper eyelashes, anterverted nares, abnormal dentition and capillary hemangioma.
Premature aging syndrome, Okamoto type
MedGen UID:
356468
Concept ID:
C1866183
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 8
MedGen UID:
410075
Concept ID:
C1970458
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. Due to considerable phenotypic variability, Sillence et al. (1979) developed a classification of OI subtypes based on clinical features and disease severity: OI type I, with blue sclerae (166200); perinatal lethal OI type II, also known as congenital OI (166210); OI type III, a progressively deforming form with normal sclerae (259420); and OI type IV, with normal sclerae (166220). Most forms of OI are autosomal dominant with mutations in one of the 2 genes that code for type I collagen alpha chains, COL1A1 (120150) and COL1A2 (120160). Cabral et al. (2007) described a form of autosomal recessive OI, which they designated OI type VIII, characterized by white sclerae, severe growth deficiency, extreme skeletal undermineralization, and bulbous metaphyses.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Cantu type
MedGen UID:
435975
Concept ID:
C2673649
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia described in about 5 patients to date with clinical signs including short stature, peculiar facies with blepharophimosis, upward slanted eyes, abundant eyebrows and eyelashes, coarse voice, and short hands and feet.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
CHROMOSOME 1qter DELETION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
382926
Concept ID:
C2676727
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphedema-atrial septal defects-facial changes syndrome
MedGen UID:
383042
Concept ID:
C2677167
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by congenital lymphedema of the lower limbs, atrial septal defect and a characteristic facies (a round face with a prominent forehead, a flat nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, epicanthal folds, a thin upper lip and a cleft chin). It has been described in two brothers and a sister. Transmission appears to be autosomal recessive.
Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440897
Concept ID:
C2749873
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microduplication syndrome (also known as 3q29 duplication syndrome) is a condition that results from the copying (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 3 in each cell. The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q29.\n\nThe features associated with 3q29 microduplication syndrome vary widely. Some individuals with this chromosomal change have very mild or no related signs and symptoms, and the duplication is discovered because they undergo genetic testing only after a family member is diagnosed. Other people with a 3q29 microduplication have delayed development (particularly speech delay) and intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Although most affected individuals have no major birth defects, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and an unusually small head (microcephaly) can occur. 3q29 microduplication syndrome may increase the likelihood of being overweight or having obesity, although it is hard to determine whether these weight issues are caused by the duplication.
Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Megarbane type
MedGen UID:
413221
Concept ID:
C2750075
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Mégarbané type is a rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, pre- and postnatal disproportionate short stature with short, rhizomelic limbs, facial dysmorphism, a short neck and small thorax. Hypotonia, cardiomegaly and global developmental delay have also been associated. Several radiographic findings have been reported, including ribs with cupped ends, platyspondyly, square iliac bones, horizontal and trident acetabula, hypoplastic ischia, and delayed epiphyseal ossification.
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1C
MedGen UID:
420958
Concept ID:
C2932716
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481378
Concept ID:
C3279748
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial dysmorphism (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency resulting in recurrent infections, and mental retardation. Laboratory studies of patient cells show hypomethylation of satellite regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, as well as pericentromeric chromosomal instability in response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation (summary by de Greef et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome, see ICF1 (242860).
Chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
481861
Concept ID:
C3280231
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 8q21.11 deletion syndrome is characterized by impaired intellectual development and common facial dysmorphic features (summary by Palomares et al., 2011).
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A
MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 49
MedGen UID:
762260
Concept ID:
C3542549
Disease or Syndrome
TECPR2-related hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy with intellectual disability (TECPR2-HSAN with ID) is characterized by developmental delay and subsequent intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, neurologic manifestations (muscular hypotonia, sensory neuropathy with lower-limb hypo- or areflexia and ataxic gait), and autonomic dysfunction (including central hypoventilation and apnea, gastrointestinal dysmotility, dysphagia, and gastroesophageal reflux disease with recurrent aspiration). To date, more than 30 individuals with TECPR2-HSAN with ID have been identified.
Acrodysostosis 2 with or without hormone resistance
MedGen UID:
766164
Concept ID:
C3553250
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodysostosis-2 (ACRDYS2) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and spinal stenosis. Many patients have intellectual disability and some have hormone resistance (summary by Michot et al., 2012 and Lee et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, see ACRDYS1 (101800).
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766318
Concept ID:
C3553404
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND), also known as 'question-mark ear syndrome' or 'dysgnathia complex,' is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by highly variable mandibular anomalies, including mild to severe micrognathia, often with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a distinctive ear malformation that consists of separation of the lobule from the external ear, giving the appearance of a question mark. Other frequently described features include prominent cheeks, cupped and posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, and microstomia (summary by Rieder et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Distal arthrogryposis type 5D
MedGen UID:
767329
Concept ID:
C3554415
Disease or Syndrome
This autosomal recessive form of distal arthrogryposis, designated DA5D by McMillin et al. (2013), is characterized by severe camptodactyly of the hands, including adducted thumbs and wrists; mild camptodactyly of the toes; clubfoot and/or a calcaneovalgus deformity; extension contractures of the knee; unilateral ptosis or ptosis that is more severe on one side; a round-shaped face; arched eyebrows; a bulbous, upturned nose; and micrognathia. Notably, these patients do not have ophthalmoplegia. For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis type 5, see DA5 (108145).
X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type
MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016).
Desbuquois dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
860583
Concept ID:
C4012146
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia (DBQD) is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia belonging to the multiple dislocation group and characterized by severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation (stature less than -5 SD), joint laxity, short extremities, and progressive scoliosis. The main radiologic features are short long bones with metaphyseal splay, a 'Swedish key' appearance of the proximal femur (exaggerated trochanter), and advanced carpal and tarsal bone age with a delta phalanx (summary by Huber et al., 2009). Desbuquois dysplasia is clinically and radiographically heterogeneous, and had been classified into 2 types based on the presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of characteristic hand anomalies, including an extra ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, delta phalanx, bifid distal thumb phalanx, and dislocation of the interphalangeal joints (Faivre et al., 2004). However, patients with and without these additional hand anomalies have been reported to have mutations in the same gene (see, e.g., CANT1); thus, these features are not distinctive criteria to predict the molecular basis of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). In addition, Kim et al. (2010) described another milder variant of DBQD with almost normal outwardly appearing hands, but significant radiographic changes, including short metacarpals, elongated phalanges, and remarkably advanced carpal bone age. However, there is no accessory ossification center distal to the second metacarpal, and patients do not have thumb anomalies. Similar changes occur in the feet. These patients also tend to develop precocious osteoarthritis of the hand and spine with age. This phenotype is sometimes referred to as the 'Kim variant' of DBQD (Furuichi et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Desbuquois Dysplasia DBQD2 (615777) is caused by mutation in the XYLT1 gene (608124) on chromosome 16p12. Two unrelated patients with immunodeficiency-23 (IMD23; 615816), due to mutation in the PGM3 gene (172100), were reported to have skeletal features reminiscent of DBQD.
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
862731
Concept ID:
C4014294
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors.
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2
MedGen UID:
863240
Concept ID:
C4014803
Disease or Syndrome
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-2 is an autosomal dominant tumor susceptibility with syndromic incomplete penetrance, as a second hit to the ARMC5 gene is required to develop macronodular hyperplasia (Assie et al., 2013).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 45
MedGen UID:
863301
Concept ID:
C4014864
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FBXO31 gene.
Microcephaly 13, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
863517
Concept ID:
C4015080
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CENPE gene.
Cognitive impairment - coarse facies - heart defects - obesity - pulmonary involvement - short stature - skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
894554
Concept ID:
C4085597
Disease or Syndrome
CHOPS syndrome is a disorder involving multiple abnormalities that are present from birth (congenital). The name "CHOPS" is an abbreviation for a list of features of the disorder including cognitive impairment, coarse facial features, heart defects, obesity, lung (pulmonary) involvement, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.\n\nChildren with CHOPS syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development of skills such as sitting and walking. Characteristic facial features include a round face; thick hair; thick eyebrows that grow together in the middle (synophrys); wide-set, bulging eyes with long eyelashes; a short nose; and down-turned corners of the mouth.\n\nMost affected individuals are born with a heart defect called patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The ductus arteriosus is a connection between two major arteries, the aorta and the pulmonary artery. This connection is open during fetal development and normally closes shortly after birth. However, the ductus arteriosus remains open, or patent, in babies with PDA. If untreated, this heart defect causes infants to breathe rapidly, feed poorly, and gain weight slowly; in severe cases, it can lead to heart failure. Multiple heart abnormalities have sometimes been found in children with CHOPS syndrome. In addition to PDA, affected individuals may have ventricular septal defect, which is a defect in the muscular wall (septum) that separates the right and left sides of the heart's lower chamber.\n\nPeople with CHOPS syndrome have abnormalities of the throat and airways that cause momentary cessation of breathing while asleep (obstructive sleep apnea). These abnormalities can also cause affected individuals to breathe food or fluids into the lungs accidentally, which can lead to a potentially life-threatening bacterial lung infection (aspiration pneumonia) and chronic lung disease. Affected individuals are shorter than more than 97 percent of their peers and are overweight for their height. They also have skeletal differences including unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly) and abnormally-shaped spinal bones (vertebrae).\n\nOther features that can occur in CHOPS syndrome include a small head size (microcephaly); hearing loss; clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract); a single, horseshoe-shaped kidney; and, in affected males, undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Cardiac anomalies - developmental delay - facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
900924
Concept ID:
C4225208
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired intellectual development and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects (MRFACD) is an autosomal dominant, complex syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech acquisition, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge with bulbous tip, and macrostomia. There is variable penetrance of cardiac malformations, ranging from no malformations to patent foramen ovale to septal defects and/or transposition of the great arteries (summary by Adegbola et al., 2015).
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis
MedGen UID:
934584
Concept ID:
C4310617
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis (IDDDFP) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, delayed language, and dysmorphic facial features, most notably ptosis/blepharophimosis. Additional features may include poor growth, hypotonia, and seizures (summary by Mattioli et al., 2017). See also chromosome 3p deletion syndrome (613792).
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7
MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049.
Tall stature-intellectual disability-renal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
934682
Concept ID:
C4310715
Disease or Syndrome
Thauvin-Robinet-Faivre syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized overgrowth, mainly of height, and mildly delayed psychomotor development with mild or severe learning difficulties. More variable features may include congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and skeletal defects. Patients may have an increased risk for Wilms tumor (summary by Akawi et al., 2016).
Growth retardation, intellectual developmental disorder, hypotonia, and hepatopathy
MedGen UID:
934687
Concept ID:
C4310720
Disease or Syndrome
GRIDHH is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and variable liver dysfunction. Additional features, such as seizures and hearing loss, may also be present (summary by Kopajtich et al., 2016).
Cohen-Gibson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1386939
Concept ID:
C4479654
Disease or Syndrome
EED-related overgrowth is characterized by fetal or early childhood overgrowth (tall stature, macrocephaly, large hands and feet, and advanced bone age) and intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe. To date, EED-related overgrowth has been reported in eight individuals.
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
Geleophysic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
1615724
Concept ID:
C4540511
Congenital Abnormality
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639644
Concept ID:
C4551996
Disease or Syndrome
Other features of auriculo-condylar syndrome can include prominent cheeks, an unusually small mouth (microstomia), differences in the size and shape of facial structures between the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry), and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). These features vary, even among affected members of the same family.\n\nAbnormalities of the mandible are another characteristic feature of auriculo-condylar syndrome. These abnormalities often include an unusually small chin (micrognathia) and malfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects the lower jaw to the skull. Problems with the TMJ affect how the upper and lower jaws fit together and can make it difficult to open and close the mouth. The term "condylar" in the name of the condition refers to the mandibular condyle, which is the upper portion of the mandible that forms part of the TMJ.\n\nMost people with auriculo-condylar syndrome have malformed outer ears ("auriculo-" refers to the ears). A hallmark of this condition is an ear abnormality called a "question-mark ear," in which the ears have a distinctive question-mark shape caused by a split that separates the upper part of the ear from the earlobe. Other ear abnormalities that can occur in auriculo-condylar syndrome include cupped ears, ears with fewer folds and grooves than usual (described as "simple"), narrow ear canals, small skin tags in front of or behind the ears, and ears that are rotated backward. Some affected individuals also have hearing loss.\n\nAuriculo-condylar syndrome is a condition that affects facial development, particularly development of the ears and lower jaw (mandible).
PHIP-related behavioral problems-intellectual disability-obesity-dysmorphic features syndrome
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
Chung-Jansen syndrome (CHUJANS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with coarse facies and mild distal skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1682403
Concept ID:
C5193134
Disease or Syndrome
Stolerman neurodevelopmental syndrome (NEDSST) is a highly variable disorder characterized by developmental delay, often with motor and speech delay, mildly impaired intellectual development (in most patients), learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder. Psychosis is observed in a small percentage of individuals over the age of 12 years. Most individuals have nonspecific and mild dysmorphic facial features without a common gestalt. A subset of patients may have involvement of other organ systems, including gastrointestinal with poor early feeding or gastroesophageal reflux, distal skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart defects. Most mutations occur de novo, but rare autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance has been observed (Stolerman et al., 2019; Rots et al., 2023).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome
MedGen UID:
1711007
Concept ID:
C5394073
Disease or Syndrome
Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome (IMMAS) is characterized by variable pre- and postnatal overgrowth; dysmorphic features including postnatal macrocephaly, prominent forehead, round face, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, and low and broad nasal bridge; and variable musculoskeletal abnormalities. Developmental delay and impaired intellectual development are common, whereas abnormalities of cerebral imaging are uncommon but may be significant. Some patients exhibit genitourinary abnormalities, and respiratory issues have been reported (Cyrus et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1710110
Concept ID:
C5394312
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures (NEDHYMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with axial hypotonia, inability to sit or walk, and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients develop early-onset intractable seizures that prevent normal development. Additional features include feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and microcephaly. Some patients may have spastic quadriplegia, poor eye contact due to cortical blindness, variable dysmorphic features, and nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging (summary by Tan et al., 2020).
Skeletal dysplasia, mild, with joint laxity and advanced bone age
MedGen UID:
1711043
Concept ID:
C5394341
Disease or Syndrome
CSGALNACT1 deficiency is characterized by mild skeletal dysplasia, joint hypermobility, and advanced bone age. Shortness of long bones is evident prenatally, and patients exhibit short stature and relative macrocephaly. Advanced carpotarsal bone age and monkey-wrench appearance of the femur observed in infancy may disappear with age (Mizumoto et al., 2020).
COACH syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1769861
Concept ID:
C5435651
Disease or Syndrome
Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 45
MedGen UID:
1731010
Concept ID:
C5436461
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-45 (COXPD45) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by poor overall growth apparent from infancy, global developmental delay, seizures, and acute progressive neurologic deterioration with loss of skills. Other features may include dysmorphic facies and lesions on brain imaging. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and COXPD in patient tissues, consistent with a mitochondrial defect (summary by Serre et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 47
MedGen UID:
1775535
Concept ID:
C5436476
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1777442
Concept ID:
C5436821
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies, sleep disturbance, and brain abnormalities (NEDFASB) is a syndromic disorder with multisystemic involvement. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent language, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and sleep disturbances. Craniofacial dysmorphisms, while variable, include round face, prognathism, depressed nasal bridge, and cleft or high-arched palate. Brain imaging shows dysgenesis of the corpus callosum and progressive cerebellar atrophy. Additional features may include genitourinary tract anomalies, hearing loss, and mild distal skeletal defects (summary by Humbert et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 65
MedGen UID:
1787923
Concept ID:
C5543371
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-65 (MRD65) is characterized by delayed motor and speech acquisition, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may be normal or may show abnormalities, including cerebellar hypoplasia, poor development of the corpus callosum, dysmorphic hippocampus, and polymicrogyria. Feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and seizures may also be observed (Duncan et al., 2020).
BDV syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785671
Concept ID:
C5543403
Disease or Syndrome
BDV syndrome (BDVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset profound obesity, hyperphagia, and moderately impaired intellectual development accompanied by infantile hypotonia and other endocrine disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and insulin resistance (summary by Bosch et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794260
Concept ID:
C5562050
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrom (MASNS) is characterized by global developmental delay with speech delay and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Affected individuals also show movement disorders, such as dyspraxia and apraxia. More variable features include high pain tolerance, sleep disturbances, and variable nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Marbach et al., 2021).
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794266
Concept ID:
C5562056
Disease or Syndrome
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome (BRUWAG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia and severely impaired development affecting both motor and cognitive skills. Affected individuals either do not achieve independent ambulation or walk with an unsteady gait; those who walk may lose the ability due to spasticity of the lower limbs. They have absent language, poor or absent social skills, and behavioral abnormalities. Most have variable ocular findings, including nystagmus, strabismus, optic atrophy, myopia, or hypermetropia (summary by Brunet et al., 2020 and Samra et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1823986
Concept ID:
C5774213
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures (NEDHLSS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show severe hypotonia with delayed walking or inability to walk, poor or absent speech, and impaired intellectual development with behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have early-onset seizures, mild skeletal defects that are usually distal, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. More severely affected individuals have additional congenital abnormalities; however, cardiac involvement is rare (summary by Rodan et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841001
Concept ID:
C5830365
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures (NEDLBAS), is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have significant speech delay, and most demonstrate behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features. About half of patients develop seizures, which may be controlled or refractory. More variable features include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and subtle facial dysmorphism (Schalk et al., 2022).
RECON progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1841140
Concept ID:
C5830504
Disease or Syndrome
RECON progeroid syndrome (RECON) is a chromosomal instability disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, progeroid facial appearance, hypoplastic nose, prominent premaxilla, skin photosensitivity and xeroderma, muscle wasting with reduced subcutaneous fat, and slender elongated thumbs (Abu-Libdeh et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tarçın G, Çatlı G, Çetinkaya S, Eren E, Kardelen AD, Akıncı A, Böber E, Kara C, Yıldırım R, Er E, Polat R, Özhan B, Yıldız M, Kor Y, Evliyaoğlu O, Dündar B, Ercan O
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2024 Jan;100(1):19-28. Epub 2023 Oct 10 doi: 10.1111/cen.14980. PMID: 37814958
Jiang S, Yang Y, Song A, Jiang Y, Jiang Y, Li M, Xia W, Nie M, Wang O, Xing X
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Nov 8;189(5):S103-S111. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad142. PMID: 37837607
Fukuma S, Shimizu S, Niihata K, Sada KE, Yanagita M, Hatta T, Nangaku M, Katafuchi R, Fujita Y, Koizumi J, Koizumi S, Kimura K, Fukuhara S, Shibagaki Y
Clin Exp Nephrol 2017 Apr;21(2):247-256. Epub 2016 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s10157-016-1274-8. PMID: 27145768

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Jiang S, Yang Y, Song A, Jiang Y, Jiang Y, Li M, Xia W, Nie M, Wang O, Xing X
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Nov 8;189(5):S103-S111. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad142. PMID: 37837607
Packirisamy V, Sadacharan CM
J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Dec;20(12):3991-4000. Epub 2021 Mar 18 doi: 10.1111/jocd.14062. PMID: 33706422
Turan S
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Dec 30;9(Suppl 2):58-68. Epub 2017 Dec 27 doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2017.S006. PMID: 29280743Free PMC Article
Froissart R, Piraud M, Boudjemline AM, Vianey-Saban C, Petit F, Hubert-Buron A, Eberschweiler PT, Gajdos V, Labrune P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 May 20;6:27. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-27. PMID: 21599942Free PMC Article
Turleau C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 Feb 19;3:4. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-4. PMID: 18284672Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Tarçın G, Çatlı G, Çetinkaya S, Eren E, Kardelen AD, Akıncı A, Böber E, Kara C, Yıldırım R, Er E, Polat R, Özhan B, Yıldız M, Kor Y, Evliyaoğlu O, Dündar B, Ercan O
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2024 Jan;100(1):19-28. Epub 2023 Oct 10 doi: 10.1111/cen.14980. PMID: 37814958
Jiang S, Yang Y, Song A, Jiang Y, Jiang Y, Li M, Xia W, Nie M, Wang O, Xing X
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Nov 8;189(5):S103-S111. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad142. PMID: 37837607
Ramieri V, Tarani L, Costantino F, Basile E, Liberati N, Rinna C, Cascone P, Colloridi F
J Craniofac Surg 2011 Nov;22(6):2124-8. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182323cdf. PMID: 22067867
Froissart R, Piraud M, Boudjemline AM, Vianey-Saban C, Petit F, Hubert-Buron A, Eberschweiler PT, Gajdos V, Labrune P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 May 20;6:27. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-27. PMID: 21599942Free PMC Article
Turleau C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 Feb 19;3:4. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-4. PMID: 18284672Free PMC Article

Therapy

Ma B, Shang T, Huang J, Tu Z, Wang Y, Han Y, Wang Y, Wen X, Jin Q
Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Dec 23;101(51):e30294. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000030294. PMID: 36595855Free PMC Article
Kamlin COF, Schmölzer GM, Dawson JA, McGrory L, O'Shea J, Donath SM, Lorenz L, Hooper SB, Davis PG
Resuscitation 2019 Nov;144:106-114. Epub 2019 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.08.035. PMID: 31518615
Cheung D, Mian Q, Cheung PY, O'Reilly M, Aziz K, van Os S, Pichler G, Schmölzer GM
J Perinatol 2015 Jul;35(7):464-8. Epub 2015 Feb 26 doi: 10.1038/jp.2015.8. PMID: 25719544
Yi DW, Kim SY, Shin DH, Kang YH, Son SM
Endocrine 2010 Feb;37(1):213-9. Epub 2010 Jan 5 doi: 10.1007/s12020-009-9303-y. PMID: 20963573
Sacco DF, Hugenberg K
Emotion 2009 Feb;9(1):39-49. doi: 10.1037/a0014081. PMID: 19186915

Prognosis

Buchan JC, Dean WH, Foster A, Burton MJ
Int Ophthalmol 2018 Aug;38(4):1409-1414. Epub 2017 Jun 20 doi: 10.1007/s10792-017-0599-y. PMID: 28634930Free PMC Article
Ramieri V, Tarani L, Costantino F, Basile E, Liberati N, Rinna C, Cascone P, Colloridi F
J Craniofac Surg 2011 Nov;22(6):2124-8. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182323cdf. PMID: 22067867
Froissart R, Piraud M, Boudjemline AM, Vianey-Saban C, Petit F, Hubert-Buron A, Eberschweiler PT, Gajdos V, Labrune P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 May 20;6:27. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-27. PMID: 21599942Free PMC Article
Stieler K, Schnabel D, Atugoda S, Sterry W, Blume-Peytavi U
Pediatr Dermatol 2011 Mar-Apr;28(2):135-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2010.01226.x. PMID: 20738794
Turleau C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 Feb 19;3:4. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-4. PMID: 18284672Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Kawaguchi Y, Nakamura K, Tajima T, Waller BM
Sci Rep 2023 Mar 29;13(1):5129. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-31731-4. PMID: 36991032Free PMC Article
Güneş N, Alkaya DU, Demirbilek V, Yalçınkaya C, Tüysüz B
J Pediatr 2023 Jan;252:93-100. Epub 2022 Sep 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.08.052. PMID: 36067876
Tanikawa C, Kurata M, Tanizaki N, Takeuchi M, Zere E, Fukuo K, Takada K
Sci Rep 2022 Nov 3;12(1):18557. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-21919-5. PMID: 36329131Free PMC Article
Kawashima S, Yuno A, Sano S, Nakamura A, Ishiwata K, Kawasaki T, Hosomichi K, Nakabayashi K, Akutsu H, Saitsu H, Fukami M, Usui T, Ogata T, Kagami M
J Bone Miner Res 2022 Oct;37(10):1850-1859. Epub 2022 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/jbmr.4652. PMID: 35859320
Packirisamy V, Sadacharan CM
J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Dec;20(12):3991-4000. Epub 2021 Mar 18 doi: 10.1111/jocd.14062. PMID: 33706422

Recent systematic reviews

Jiang S, Yang Y, Song A, Jiang Y, Jiang Y, Li M, Xia W, Nie M, Wang O, Xing X
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Nov 8;189(5):S103-S111. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad142. PMID: 37837607

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