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Split foot

MedGen UID:
140919
Concept ID:
C0432028
Congenital Abnormality
Synonym: Split foot (disease)
SNOMED CT: Cleft foot (205358006); Split foot (205358006); Lobster claw foot (205358006)
 
HPO: HP:0001839
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0017450

Definition

A condition in which middle parts of the foot (toes and metatarsals) are missing giving a cleft appearance. The severity is very variable ranging from slightly hypoplastic 3rd toe over absent 2nd or 3rd toes as far as oligo- or monodactyl feet. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Split foot in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
MMEP syndrome
MedGen UID:
330469
Concept ID:
C1832440
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital syndromic form of split-hand/foot malformation with features of microcephaly, microphthalmia, ectrodactyly of the lower limbs and prognathism. Intellectual deficit has been reported. MMEP syndrome is considered to be a very rare condition. Disruption of the sorting nexin 3 gene (SNX3; 6q21) has been shown to play a causative role in MMEP.
Split hand-foot malformation 2
MedGen UID:
326848
Concept ID:
C1839258
Disease or Syndrome
Split-hand/split-foot malformation is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals (Elliott and Evans, 2006). For additional phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of split-hand/split-foot malformation, see SHFM1 (183600).
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3.
Split hand-foot malformation 4
MedGen UID:
343120
Concept ID:
C1854442
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Ectrodactyly-polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
384042
Concept ID:
C1857040
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly-polydactyly syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation disorder characterized by hypoplasia or absence of central digital rays of the hands and/or feet and the presence of one or more, unilateral or bilateral, supernumerary digits on postaxial rays, ranging from hypoplastic digits devoid of osseous structures to complete duplication of a digit. Cutaneous syndactyly, symphalangism and clinodactyly have also been reported. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1982.
Split hand-foot malformation 1 with sensorineural hearing loss
MedGen UID:
347431
Concept ID:
C1857344
Congenital Abnormality
Split-hand/foot malformation-1 with sensorineural hearing loss (SHFM1D) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe limb defects and moderate to severe hearing loss. There is nearly complete palmar dorsalization, with circumferential fingernails (Shamseldin et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of split-hand/foot malformation, see SHFM1 (183600).
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Acro-renal-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
395425
Concept ID:
C1860166
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome with characteristics of limb deficiencies and renal anomalies that include split hand-split foot malformation, renal agenesis, polycystic kidneys, uterine anomalies and severe mandibular hypoplasia.
Triphalangeal thumbs-brachyectrodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
348710
Concept ID:
C1860804
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of triphalangeal thumbs and brachydactyly of the hands. Ectrodactyly of the feet and, more rarely, ectrodactyly of the hands were also reported in some family members. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Tetramelic monodactyly
MedGen UID:
349989
Concept ID:
C1861233
Congenital Abnormality
A rare genetic congenital limb malformation disorder with characteristics of the presence of a single digit on all four extremities. The malformation is typically isolated however, aplastic and hypoplastic defects in the remaining skeletal parts of hands and feet have been reported. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.
Split-hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
349310
Concept ID:
C1861553
Disease or Syndrome
Fibular aplasia-ectrodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
396290
Concept ID:
C1862100
Disease or Syndrome
Ectrodactyly (split-hand/foot malformation) associated with fibular hypoplasia/aplasia is a rare disorder that appears to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with reduced penetrance and variable expression (Evans et al., 2002). A form of fibular hypoplasia/aplasia associated with oligosyndactyly and tibial campomelia has been reported (FATCO syndrome; 246570). Split-hand/foot malformation associated with tibial hypoplasia/aplasia has also been described (see SHFLD1, 119100).
ADULT syndrome
MedGen UID:
400232
Concept ID:
C1863204
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Limb-mammary syndrome
MedGen UID:
355051
Concept ID:
C1863753
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Brachyphalangy, polydactyly, and tibial aplasia/hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
355340
Concept ID:
C1864965
Disease or Syndrome
Karsch-Neugebauer syndrome
MedGen UID:
401072
Concept ID:
C1866740
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome with characteristics of split-hand and split-foot deformity and ocular abnormalities mainly a congenital nystagmus. Ten cases from four families have been reported in the literature. In some cases the hands are monodactylous. The affected patients have normal mental development. The condition seems to be autosomal dominant with a relatively high proportion of gonadal mosaicism.
Split-hand and split-foot with hypodontia
MedGen UID:
357125
Concept ID:
C1866742
Disease or Syndrome
Split hand-foot malformation 6
MedGen UID:
440845
Concept ID:
C2749665
Disease or Syndrome
Split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Some patients with SHFM have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, and orofacial clefting (Elliott and Evans, 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of split-hand/foot malformations, see SHFM1 (183600).
Split hand-foot malformation 1
MedGen UID:
419314
Concept ID:
C2931019
Congenital Abnormality
Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Some patients with SHFM1 have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, orofacial clefting (Elliott and Evans, 2006), and neurosensory hearing loss (Tackels-Horne et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Split-Hand/Foot Malformation Additional SHFM loci include SHFM2 (313350) on chromosome Xq26; SHFM3 (246560), caused by duplication of chromosome 10q24; SHFM4 (605289), caused by mutation in the TP63 gene (603273) on chromosome 3q28; SHFM5 (606708) on chromosome 2q31; and SHFM6 (225300), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13. Also see SHFM1D (220600) for a form of SHFM1 with deafness that may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene (600028). Associations Pending Confirmation For discussion of a possible association between split-hand/foot malformation and variation in the EPS15L1 gene, see 616826.0001.
Split-foot malformation-mesoaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798910
Concept ID:
C5567487
Disease or Syndrome
Split-foot malformation with mesoaxial polydactyly (SFMMP) is characterized by a split-foot defect and nail abnormalities of the hands, as well as hearing loss in some patients (Spielmann et al., 2016).
Patterson-Stevenson-Fontaine syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808766
Concept ID:
C5574964
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare variant of acrofacial dysostosis with characteristics of mandibulofacial dysostosis and limb anomalies. It has been described in less than ten patients. The mandibulofacial dysostosis consists of retrognathism, complete or occult posterior cleft palate and anomalies of the external ears. Limb anomalies consist of split-foot deformity with syndactyly of some toes. The condition is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with variable penetrance and expressivity.
ACCES syndrome
MedGen UID:
1804308
Concept ID:
C5677019
Disease or Syndrome
Aplasia cutis congenita and ectrodactyly skeletal syndrome (ACCES) is characterized by highly variable expressivity, even within the same family. Most patients exhibit scalp defects, whereas ectrodactyly is less common; however, more variable and less obvious digital and skeletal anomalies are often present. Early growth deficiency and neurodevelopmental delay are also commonly seen (Schnur et al., 2021).

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van Bokhoven H, Hamel BC, Bamshad M, Sangiorgi E, Gurrieri F, Duijf PH, Vanmolkot KR, van Beusekom E, van Beersum SE, Celli J, Merkx GF, Tenconi R, Fryns JP, Verloes A, Newbury-Ecob RA, Raas-Rotschild A, Majewski F, Beemer FA, Janecke A, Chitayat D, Crisponi G, Kayserili H, Yates JR, Neri G, Brunner HG
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Etiology

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Am J Med Genet A 2006 Jul 1;140(13):1384-95. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31247. PMID: 16691619

Diagnosis

Yang X, Lin X, Zhu Y, Luo J, Lin G
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Brunner HG, Hamel BC, Van Bokhoven H
J Med Genet 2002 Jun;39(6):377-81. doi: 10.1136/jmg.39.6.377. PMID: 12070241Free PMC Article

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Am J Med Genet 1995 Jan 30;55(3):315-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320550314. PMID: 7726229

Prognosis

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Ianakiev P, Kilpatrick MW, Toudjarska I, Basel D, Beighton P, Tsipouras P
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Genuardi M, Silvestri E, Tozzi C
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Clinical prediction guides

Yang X, Lin X, Zhu Y, Luo J, Lin G
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Am J Hum Genet 2000 Jul;67(1):59-66. Epub 2000 Jun 5 doi: 10.1086/302972. PMID: 10839977Free PMC Article

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