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Abnormality of the nail

MedGen UID:
163115
Concept ID:
C0853087
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonyms: Abnormal Nail; Abnormal Nails; Abnormalities, Nail; Abnormality, Nail; Nail Abnormalities; Nail Abnormality; Nail, Abnormal; Nails, Abnormal
 
HPO: HP:0001597

Definition

Abnormality of the nail. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAbnormality of the nail
Follow this link to review classifications for Abnormality of the nail in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Chilblain lupus 1
MedGen UID:
9822
Concept ID:
C0024145
Disease or Syndrome
Chilblain lupus is a cutaneous form of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; 152700) characterized by the appearance of painful bluish-red papular or nodular lesions of the skin in acral locations (including the dorsal aspects of fingers and toes, heels, nose, cheeks, ears, and, in some cases, knees) precipitated by cold and wet exposure (summary by Lee-Kirsch et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Chilblain Lupus See also CHBL2 (614415), caused by mutation in the SAMHD1 gene (606754) on chromosome 20q11. Mutations in the TREX1 and SAMHD1 genes also cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS1, 225750 and AGS5, 612952, respectively).
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome
MedGen UID:
11443
Concept ID:
C0037231
Disease or Syndrome
Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive, early childhood-onset disorder characterized by ichthyosis, impaired intellectual development, spastic paraparesis, macular dystrophy, and leukoencephalopathy. It is caused by deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (summary by Lossos et al., 2006).
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Adactylia, unilateral
MedGen UID:
113098
Concept ID:
C0220660
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence/hypoplasia of fingers excluding thumb, unilateral is a rare, non-syndromic, terminal transverse limb reduction defect characterized by unilateral absence of the terminal portions of digits 2 to 5, with a mildly hypoplastic thumb and small nail remnants on the digital stumps. Metacarpal bones may be variably reduced.
Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum
MedGen UID:
66357
Concept ID:
C0221060
Disease or Syndrome
The most basic description of Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction. The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) are most frequently involved, but other cranial nerves may be involved as well. Other variable features include orofacial dysmorphism and limb malformations. Mental retardation has been reported in a subset of patients. Most cases of Moebius syndrome are sporadic, but familial occurrence has been reported (Verzijl et al., 2003). The definition of and diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome have been controversial and problematic. The syndrome has most frequently been confused with hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP; see 601471), which is restricted to involvement of the facial nerve and no other abnormalities. Verzijl et al. (2003) and Verzijl et al. (2005) concluded that HCFP and Moebius syndrome are distinct disorders, and that Moebius syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of the brainstem. Moebius syndrome was defined at the Moebius Syndrome Foundation Research Conference in 2007 as congenital, nonprogressive facial weakness with limited abduction of one or both eyes. Additional features can include hearing loss and other cranial nerve dysfunction, as well as motor, orofacial, musculoskeletal, neurodevelopmental, and social problems (summary by Webb et al., 2012). Kumar (1990) provided a review of Moebius syndrome, which was critiqued by Lipson et al. (1990). Briegel (2006) provided a review of Moebius sequence with special emphasis on neuropsychiatric findings.
Bullous dystrophy, macular type
MedGen UID:
167089
Concept ID:
C0795974
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary bullous dystrophy of the macular type (HBDM) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the formation of bullae without evident trauma, hyper- and hypopigmentation, absence of hair at birth, and, in some cases, microcephaly, mildly impaired intellectual development, short conic fingers, and aberrations of nails (summary by Wijker et al., 1995).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Golden type
MedGen UID:
208672
Concept ID:
C0796172
Disease or Syndrome
A rare primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of severe short stature, coarse facies, thoracolumbar kyphoscoliosis and enlarged joints with contractures. Psychomotor delay and intellectual disability may also be associated. Radiographic features include flat vertebral bodies, lacy ossification of the metaphyses of long bones and iliac crests, and marked sclerosis of the skull base.
Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular degeneration (HJMD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by sparse and short hair from birth followed by progressive macular degeneration leading to blindness.
Ectodermal dysplasia with natal teeth, Turnpenny type
MedGen UID:
371331
Concept ID:
C1832444
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder with manifestation of hypo or oligodontia and acanthosis nigricans. It has been described in four generations of one family. Onset generally occurs during adolescence. Some patients are born with multiple teeth. Hair anomalies (sparse body and scalp hair) also reported. Inheritance is autosomal dominant.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 11
MedGen UID:
332073
Concept ID:
C1835851
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Hypotrichosis 7
MedGen UID:
322969
Concept ID:
C1836672
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a condition that affects hair growth. People with this condition have sparse hair (hypotrichosis) on the scalp beginning in infancy. This hair is usually coarse, dry, and tightly curled (often described as woolly hair). Scalp hair may also be lighter in color than expected and is fragile and easily broken. Affected individuals often cannot grow hair longer than a few inches. The eyebrows, eyelashes, and other body hair may be sparse as well. Over time, the hair problems can remain stable or progress to complete scalp hair loss (alopecia) and a decrease in body hair.\n\nRarely, people with autosomal recessive hypotrichosis have skin problems affecting areas with sparse hair, such as redness (erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair growth, they may also develop bumps called hyperkeratotic follicular papules that develop around hair follicles, which are specialized structures in the skin where hair growth occurs.
Coxopodopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
333474
Concept ID:
C1840061
Disease or Syndrome
Ischiocoxopodopatellar syndrome (ICPPS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a/hypoplasia of the patellas and various anomalies of the pelvis and feet. Pelvic anomalies include bilateral absent or delayed ossification of the ischiopubic junction and infraacetabular axe cut notches. Other major signs are a wide gap between the first and second toes, short fourth and fifth rays of the feet, and pes planus (summary by Bongers et al., 2001). Pediatric-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension may be seen in association with ICPPS (Kerstjens-Frederikse et al., 2013 and Levy et al., 2016).
Hypotrichosis 2
MedGen UID:
374435
Concept ID:
C1840299
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis simplex can affect all body hair or be limited to the scalp. Usually patients with the scalp-limited form of hypotrichosis present with normal hair at birth; they experience a progressive, gradual loss of scalp hair beginning at the middle of the first decade and leading to almost complete loss of scalp hair by the third decade. A few sparse, fine, short hairs remain in some individuals. Body hair, beard, eyebrows, axillary hair, teeth, and nails develop normally. Light and electron microscopy of hairs from early hypotrichosis simplex revealed no structural changes, whereas hairs from patients with advanced hypotrichosis showed focal areas of defective cuticular structure. Men and women are equally affected (summary by Betz et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see 605389.
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
375070
Concept ID:
C1843004
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these 3 features, which begin at birth or in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Irrthum et al., 2003).
Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
334410
Concept ID:
C1843463
Disease or Syndrome
A rare clinical variant of epidermolytic ichthyosis, with manifestations of blistering phenotype at birth and the development from early infancy of annular polycyclic erythematous scales on the trunk and extremities. It has been reported in less than 10 families. The disease is caused by mutations in the KRT1 (12q11-q13) and KRT10 (17q21-q23) genes, encoding keratins 1 and 10 respectively. These mutations impair keratin filament formation and weaken the structural stability of the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Otoonychoperoneal syndrome
MedGen UID:
376704
Concept ID:
C1850105
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by the association of dysplastic external ears, nail hypoplasia, and variable skeletal malformations, such as hypoplastic or absent fibulae, abnormalities of the scapula, clavicle, and acromioclavicular joint, and talipes equinovarus, among others. Joint contractures and mild facial dysmorphism have also been reported.
Keratosis palmoplantaris striata 2
MedGen UID:
343725
Concept ID:
C1852127
Disease or Syndrome
PPKS2 is characterized by linear hyperkeratosis of the palms, which is particularly evident in affected individuals who perform manual labor. Hyperkeratosis of the soles primarily involves pressure points, and diffuse background palmoplantar thickening may also be present. (Armstrong et al., 1999; Whittock et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the striate form of palmoplantar keratoderma, see PPKS1 (148700).
Acral peeling skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
342862
Concept ID:
C1853354
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
344437
Concept ID:
C1855175
Disease or Syndrome
Metaphyseal dysostosis-intellectual disability-conductive deafness syndrome is characterised by metaphyseal dysplasia, short-limb dwarfism, mild intellectual deficit and conductive hearing loss, associated with repeated episodes of otitis media in childhood. It has been described in three brothers born to consanguineous Sicilian parents. Variable manifestations included hyperopia and strabismus. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive.
Toe, rotated fifth
MedGen UID:
348254
Concept ID:
C1861060
Finding
Steatocystoma multiplex-natal teeth syndrome
MedGen UID:
356586
Concept ID:
C1866650
Disease or Syndrome
The syndrome steatocystoma multiplex and natal teeth is characterized by generalized multiple steatocystomas and natal teeth.
Hypotrichosis 5
MedGen UID:
440568
Concept ID:
C2748535
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-5 (HYPT5), also known as Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis-2 (MUHH2), is a form of hereditary hypotrichosis characterized by twisting hair. Affected individuals have little or no scalp hair at birth, wiry and irregular scalp hair in childhood, and sparse or no forehead and parietal hair at puberty. Eyebrows and eyelashes are thin, and pubic and axillary hair fails to develop. Scarring alopecia is modest, and vertex hair is normal (summary by Zhang et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description of Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis, see MUHH1 (146550). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see 605389.
Keratosis palmoplantaris striata 3
MedGen UID:
418996
Concept ID:
C2931123
Disease or Syndrome
Any striate palmoplantar keratoderma in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT1 gene.
Hypotrichosis 3
MedGen UID:
462782
Concept ID:
C3151432
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis simplex can affect all body hair (generalized; see 605389) or be limited to the scalp. Usually patients with the scalp-limited form of hypotrichosis present with normal hair at birth; they experience a progressive, gradual loss of scalp hair beginning at the middle of the first decade and leading to almost complete loss of scalp hair by the third decade. A few sparse, fine, short hairs remain in some individuals. Body hair, beard, eyebrows, axillary hair, teeth, and nails develop normally. Light and electron microscopy of hairs from patients with early hypotrichosis simplex revealed no structural changes, whereas hairs from patients with advanced hypotrichosis showed focal areas of defective cuticular structure. Men and women are equally affected (summary by Betz et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389).
Hypotrichosis 9
MedGen UID:
481882
Concept ID:
C3280252
Disease or Syndrome
A hypotrichosis that has material basis in an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 10q11.23-q22.3.
Hypotrichosis 10
MedGen UID:
481883
Concept ID:
C3280253
Disease or Syndrome
A hypotrichosis that has material basis in an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7p22.3-p21.3.
Polydactyly, postaxial, type A6
MedGen UID:
815219
Concept ID:
C3808889
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmentation-punctate palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome
MedGen UID:
816111
Concept ID:
C3809781
Disease or Syndrome
Cole disease is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital or early-onset punctate keratoderma associated with irregularly shaped hypopigmented macules, which are typically found over the arms and legs but not the trunk or acral regions. Skin biopsies of palmoplantar lesions show nonspecific changes including hyperorthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis. Hypopigmented areas of skin, however, reveal a reduction in melanin content in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes, as well as hyperkeratosis and a normal number of melanocytes. Ultrastructurally, melanocytes show a disproportionately large number of melanosomes in the cytoplasm and dendrites, whereas keratinocytes show a paucity of these organelles, suggestive of impaired melanosome transfer (summary by Eytan et al., 2013). Some patients also exhibit calcinosis cutis or early-onset calcific tendinopathy (Eytan et al., 2013).
Hypotrichosis 12
MedGen UID:
863000
Concept ID:
C4014563
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypotrichosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPL21 gene.
Hypotrichosis 1
MedGen UID:
1644234
Concept ID:
C4551976
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex (HHS) is a rare form of nonsyndromic hereditary hypotrichosis without characteristic hair shaft anomalies. Affected individuals typically show normal hair at birth, but hair loss and thinning of the hair shaft start during early childhood and progress with age. HHS can be largely divided into 2 forms: the scalp-limited form (e.g., 146520) and the generalized form, such as HYPT1, in which all body hair is affected. HHS is characterized by progressive hair follicle miniaturization, which is a typical feature of androgenetic alopecia (see 109200). HHS can be inherited either as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait (e.g., HYPT8, 278150) (summary by Shimomura et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nonsyndromic Hypotrichosis See also HYPT2 (146520), caused by mutation in the CDSN gene (602593) on chromosome 6p21; HYPT3 (613981), caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT4 (146550), caused by mutation in the HRURF gene (619257) on chromosome 8p21; HYPT5 (612841), caused by mutation in the EPS8L3 gene (614989) on chromosome 1p13; HYPT6 (607903), caused by mutation in the DSG4 gene (607892) on chromosome 18q12; HYPT7 (604379), caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) on chromosome 3q27; HYPT8 (278150), caused by mutation in the LPAR6 gene (609239) on chromosome 13q14; HYPT9 (614237), mapped to chromosome 10q11.23-q22.3; HYPT10 (614238), mapped to chromosome 7p22.3-p21.3; HYPT11 (615059), caused by mutation in the SNRPE gene (128260) on chromosome 1q32; HYPT12 (615885), caused by mutation in the RPL21 gene (603636) on chromosome 13q12; HYPT13 (615896), caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT14 (618275), caused by mutation in the LSS gene (600909) on chromosome 21q22; and HYPT15 (620177), caused by mutation in the C3ORF52 gene (611956) on chromosome 3q13.
Epidermolysis bullosa, junctional 3B, severe
MedGen UID:
1807897
Concept ID:
C5676939
Disease or Syndrome
Severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa 3B (JEB3B) is an autosomal recessive skin blistering disorder characterized by extreme fragility of the skin and epithelia of various extracutaneous tissues. Skin blisters and erosions are present at birth. The plane of skin cleavage is through the lamina lucida of the cutaneous basement membrane zone. Patients die in infancy to early adulthood (summary by Has et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the subtypes of JEB, see JEB1A (226650). Reviews Has et al. (2020) reviewed the clinical and genetic aspects, genotype-phenotype correlations, disease-modifying factors, and natural history of epidermolysis bullosa.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gupta MK, Lipner SR
Dermatol Clin 2021 Apr;39(2):221-230. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2020.12.002. PMID: 33745635
Prasasya R, Grotheer KV, Siracusa LD, Bartolomei MS
Hum Mol Genet 2020 Sep 30;29(R1):R107-R116. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddaa133. PMID: 32592473Free PMC Article
Halteh P, Scher RK, Lipner SR
Am J Clin Dermatol 2017 Dec;18(6):763-770. doi: 10.1007/s40257-017-0289-6. PMID: 28488241

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chularojanamontri L, Pattanaprichakul P, Leeyaphan C, Suphatsathienkul P, Wongdama S, Bunyaratavej S
Biomed Res Int 2021;2021:9113418. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1155/2021/9113418. PMID: 34938812Free PMC Article
Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM, Tosti A
J Cosmet Dermatol 2007 Mar;6(1):53-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00290.x. PMID: 17348997

Diagnosis

Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM, Tosti A
J Cosmet Dermatol 2007 Mar;6(1):53-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00290.x. PMID: 17348997
Leppard B, Sanderson KV, Behan F
Br Med J 1974 Feb 23;1(5903):310-2. doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5903.310. PMID: 4819153Free PMC Article

Therapy

Iorizzo M, Piraccini BM, Tosti A
J Cosmet Dermatol 2007 Mar;6(1):53-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00290.x. PMID: 17348997

Prognosis

Chularojanamontri L, Pattanaprichakul P, Leeyaphan C, Suphatsathienkul P, Wongdama S, Bunyaratavej S
Biomed Res Int 2021;2021:9113418. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1155/2021/9113418. PMID: 34938812Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Chularojanamontri L, Pattanaprichakul P, Leeyaphan C, Suphatsathienkul P, Wongdama S, Bunyaratavej S
Biomed Res Int 2021;2021:9113418. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1155/2021/9113418. PMID: 34938812Free PMC Article
Caputo R, Cappio F, Rigoni C, Scarabelli G, Toffolo P, Spinelli G, Crosti C
Arch Dermatol 1993 Oct;129(10):1307-9. doi: 10.1001/archderm.129.10.1307. PMID: 8215496

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