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Arterial tortuosity syndrome(ATORS)

MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: ATORS
SNOMED CT: Arterial tortuosity syndrome (458432002)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): SLC2A10 (20q13.12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008818
OMIM®: 208050
Orphanet: ORPHA3342

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs). [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Bert Callewaert  |  Anne De Paepe  |  Paul Coucke   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATORS) is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by generalized tortuosity, elongation, stenosis, and aneurysms of the major arteries. Skin and joint abnormalities, including hyperextensibility or hyperlaxity of the skin, joint laxity or contractures, and inguinal hernias, may also be observed. Other abnormalities include micrognathia, elongated face, high palate, beaked nose, sliding hernia, and ventricular hypertrophy (summary by Coucke et al., 2006).  http://www.omim.org/entry/208050
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Arterial tortuosity syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissue provides strength and flexibility to structures throughout the body, including blood vessels, skin, joints, and the gastrointestinal tract.

As its name suggests, arterial tortuosity syndrome is characterized by blood vessel abnormalities, particularly abnormal twists and turns (tortuosity) of the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body (the arteries). Tortuosity arises from abnormal elongation of the arteries; since the end points of the arteries are fixed, the extra length twists and curves. Other blood vessel abnormalities that may occur in this disorder include constriction (stenosis) and abnormal bulging (aneurysm) of vessels, as well as small clusters of enlarged blood vessels just under the skin (telangiectasia).

Complications resulting from the abnormal arteries can be life-threatening. Rupture of an aneurysm or sudden tearing (dissection) of the layers in an arterial wall can result in massive loss of blood from the circulatory system. Blockage of blood flow to vital organs such as the heart, lungs, or brain can lead to heart attacks, respiratory problems, and strokes. Stenosis of the arteries forces the heart to work harder to pump blood and may lead to heart failure. As a result of these complications, arterial tortuosity syndrome is often fatal in childhood, although some individuals with mild cases of the disorder live into adulthood.

Features of arterial tortuosity syndrome outside the circulatory system are caused by abnormal connective tissue in other parts of the body. These features include joints that are either loose and very flexible (hypermobile) or that have deformities limiting movement (contractures), and unusually soft and stretchable skin. Some affected individuals have long, slender fingers and toes (arachnodactyly); curvature of the spine (scoliosis); or a chest that is either sunken (pectus excavatum) or protruding (pectus carinatum). They may have protrusion of organs through gaps in muscles (hernias), elongation of the intestines, or pouches called diverticula in the intestinal walls.

People with arterial tortuosity syndrome often look older than their age and have distinctive facial features including a long, narrow face with droopy cheeks; eye openings that are narrowed (blepharophimosis) with outside corners that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures); a beaked nose with soft cartilage; a high, arched roof of the mouth (palate); a small lower jaw (micrognathia); and large ears. The cornea, which is the clear front covering of the eye, may be cone-shaped and abnormally thin (keratoconus).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/arterial-tortuosity-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Aortic regurgitation
MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve.
Hypertensive disorder
MedGen UID:
6969
Concept ID:
C0020538
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of chronic increased pressure in the systemic arterial system.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
65965
Concept ID:
C0238397
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal narrowing or constriction of the pulmonary artery, in the main pulmonary artery and/or in the left or right pulmonary artery branches.
Carotid artery dissection
MedGen UID:
488844
Concept ID:
C0338585
Disease or Syndrome
A separation (dissection) of the layers of the carotid artery wall.
Ventricular hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
87400
Concept ID:
C0340279
Disease or Syndrome
Enlargement of the cardiac ventricular muscle tissue with increase in the width of the wall of the ventricle and loss of elasticity. Ventricular hypertrophy is clinically differentiated into left and right ventricular hypertrophy.
Aortic root aneurysm
MedGen UID:
720712
Concept ID:
C1298820
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal localized widening (dilatation) of the aortic root.
Generalized arterial tortuosity
MedGen UID:
322965
Concept ID:
C1836651
Finding
Abnormal tortuous (i.e., twisted) form of arteries affecting most or all arteries.
Aortic tortuosity
MedGen UID:
870555
Concept ID:
C4025003
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal tortuous (i.e., twisted) form of the aorta.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Ischemic stroke
MedGen UID:
215292
Concept ID:
C0948008
Disease or Syndrome
A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. It is said to be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Gunel and Lifton (1996) noted that about 20% of strokes are hemorrhagic, resulting in bleeding into the brain. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, account for the majority of strokes. Bersano et al. (2008) reviewed genetic polymorphisms that have been implicated in the development of stroke. Candidate genes include those involved in hemostasis (see, e.g., F5; 612309), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (see, e.g., ACE; 106180), homocysteine (see, e.g., MTHFR; 607093), and lipoprotein metabolism (see, e.g., APOE; 107741). See also hemorrhagic stroke, or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; 614519).
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Abnormal thrombosis
MedGen UID:
871247
Concept ID:
C4025731
Anatomical Abnormality
Venous or arterial thrombosis (formation of blood clots) of spontaneous nature and which cannot be fully explained by acquired risk (e.g. atherosclerosis).
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia
MedGen UID:
68625
Concept ID:
C0235833
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of a hernia of the diaphragm present at birth.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Hiatus hernia
MedGen UID:
483347
Concept ID:
C3489393
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of a hernia in which the upper part of the stomach, i.e., mainly the gastric cardia protrudes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Convex nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
66809
Concept ID:
C0240538
Finding
Nasal ridge curving anteriorly to an imaginary line that connects the nasal root and tip. The nose appears often also prominent, and the columella low.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Hyperextensible skin
MedGen UID:
66023
Concept ID:
C0241074
Finding
A condition in which the skin can be stretched beyond normal, and then returns to its initial position.
Thin skin
MedGen UID:
140848
Concept ID:
C0423757
Finding
Reduction in thickness of the skin, generally associated with a loss of suppleness and elasticity of the skin.
Bruising susceptibility
MedGen UID:
140849
Concept ID:
C0423798
Finding
An ecchymosis (bruise) refers to the skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. This term refers to an abnormally increased susceptibility to bruising. The corresponding phenotypic abnormality is generally elicited on medical history as a report of frequent ecchymoses or bruising without adequate trauma.
Soft skin
MedGen UID:
336730
Concept ID:
C1844592
Finding
Subjective impression of increased softness upon palpation of the skin.
Soft, doughy skin
MedGen UID:
341366
Concept ID:
C1849043
Finding
A skin texture that is unusually soft (and may feel silky), and has a malleable consistency resembling that of dough.
Progeroid facial appearance
MedGen UID:
341830
Concept ID:
C1857710
Finding
A degree of wrinkling of the facial skin that is more than expected for the age of the individual, leading to a prematurely aged appearance.
Telangiectases of the cheeks
MedGen UID:
767501
Concept ID:
C3554587
Finding
Telangiectases (small dilated blood vessels) located near the surface of the skin of the cheeks.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Keratoconus
MedGen UID:
44015
Concept ID:
C0022578
Disease or Syndrome
A cone-shaped deformity of the cornea characterized by the presence of corneal distortion secondary to thinning of the apex.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVArterial tortuosity syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Arterial tortuosity syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Colombi M, Dordoni C, Chiarelli N, Ritelli M
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2015 Mar;169C(1):6-22. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31429. PMID: 25821090
Albuisson J, Moceri P, Flori E, Belli E, Gronier C, Jeunemaitre X
Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Oct;23(10):1432. Epub 2015 Jan 21 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2014.294. PMID: 25604859Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Brunet-Garcia L, Prabaharan P, Bruyndonckx L, Field E, D'Arco F, Capelli C, Cervi E
Am J Med Genet A 2024 Mar;194(3):e63465. Epub 2023 Nov 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63465. PMID: 37916856
Shang K, Chen X, Cheng C, Luo X, Xu S, Wang W, Liu C
Neural Plast 2022;2022:4280410. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1155/2022/4280410. PMID: 35369646Free PMC Article
Ágg B, Szilveszter B, Daradics N, Benke K, Stengl R, Kolossváry M, Pólos M, Radovits T, Ferdinandy P, Merkely B, Maurovich-Horvat P, Szabolcs Z
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Apr 15;15(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01369-w. PMID: 32293489Free PMC Article
Morris SA
Curr Opin Cardiol 2015 Nov;30(6):587-93. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000218. PMID: 26398550Free PMC Article
Callewaert BL, Willaert A, Kerstjens-Frederikse WS, De Backer J, Devriendt K, Albrecht B, Ramos-Arroyo MA, Doco-Fenzy M, Hennekam RC, Pyeritz RE, Krogmann ON, Gillessen-kaesbach G, Wakeling EL, Nik-zainal S, Francannet C, Mauran P, Booth C, Barrow M, Dekens R, Loeys BL, Coucke PJ, De Paepe AM
Hum Mutat 2008 Jan;29(1):150-8. doi: 10.1002/humu.20623. PMID: 17935213

Diagnosis

Ciurică S, Lopez-Sublet M, Loeys BL, Radhouani I, Natarajan N, Vikkula M, Maas AHEM, Adlam D, Persu A
Hypertension 2019 May;73(5):951-960. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.11647. PMID: 30852920
Cubero A, Ayala J, Hamzeh G, Cortes A, Udaondo J, Aramendi JI
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2017 Mar;8(2):231-234. Epub 2016 Jun 23 doi: 10.1177/2150135116629396. PMID: 27095117
Colombi M, Dordoni C, Chiarelli N, Ritelli M
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2015 Mar;169C(1):6-22. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31429. PMID: 25821090
Van Laer L, Dietz H, Loeys B
Adv Exp Med Biol 2014;802:95-105. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7893-1_7. PMID: 24443023
Callewaert BL, Willaert A, Kerstjens-Frederikse WS, De Backer J, Devriendt K, Albrecht B, Ramos-Arroyo MA, Doco-Fenzy M, Hennekam RC, Pyeritz RE, Krogmann ON, Gillessen-kaesbach G, Wakeling EL, Nik-zainal S, Francannet C, Mauran P, Booth C, Barrow M, Dekens R, Loeys BL, Coucke PJ, De Paepe AM
Hum Mutat 2008 Jan;29(1):150-8. doi: 10.1002/humu.20623. PMID: 17935213

Therapy

Shang K, Chen X, Cheng C, Luo X, Xu S, Wang W, Liu C
Neural Plast 2022;2022:4280410. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1155/2022/4280410. PMID: 35369646Free PMC Article
Cobb H, Spray B, Daily J, Dossey A, Angtuaco MJ
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Sep;98(3):526-532. Epub 2021 Jun 10 doi: 10.1002/ccd.29803. PMID: 34110668
Boel A, Veszelyi K, Németh CE, Beyens A, Willaert A, Coucke P, Callewaert B, Margittai É
Antioxid Redox Signal 2021 Apr 10;34(11):875-889. Epub 2019 Nov 14 doi: 10.1089/ars.2019.7843. PMID: 31621376
Beyens A, Albuisson J, Boel A, Al-Essa M, Al-Manea W, Bonnet D, Bostan O, Boute O, Busa T, Canham N, Cil E, Coucke PJ, Cousin MA, Dasouki M, De Backer J, De Paepe A, De Schepper S, De Silva D, Devriendt K, De Wandele I, Deyle DR, Dietz H, Dupuis-Girod S, Fontenot E, Fischer-Zirnsak B, Gezdirici A, Ghoumid J, Giuliano F, Diéz NB, Haider MZ, Hardin JS, Jeunemaitre X, Klee EW, Kornak U, Landecho MF, Legrand A, Loeys B, Lyonnet S, Michael H, Moceri P, Mohammed S, Muiño-Mosquera L, Nampoothiri S, Pichler K, Prescott K, Rajeb A, Ramos-Arroyo M, Rossi M, Salih M, Seidahmed MZ, Schaefer E, Steichen-Gersdorf E, Temel S, Uysal F, Vanhomwegen M, Van Laer L, Van Maldergem L, Warner D, Willaert A, Collins TR, Taylor A, Davis EC, Zarate Y, Callewaert B
Genet Med 2018 Oct;20(10):1236-1245. Epub 2018 Jan 11 doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.253. PMID: 29323665
Van Laer L, Dietz H, Loeys B
Adv Exp Med Biol 2014;802:95-105. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7893-1_7. PMID: 24443023

Prognosis

Brunet-Garcia L, Prabaharan P, Bruyndonckx L, Field E, D'Arco F, Capelli C, Cervi E
Am J Med Genet A 2024 Mar;194(3):e63465. Epub 2023 Nov 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63465. PMID: 37916856
Srinivasan R, Shanbhag S, Pezzini A, Olivieri L, Morris SA
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Nov;38(11):2479-2490. Epub 2022 Jun 25 doi: 10.1007/s10554-022-02665-1. PMID: 36434337
Zhang X, Hao W, Han S, Ren CF, Yang L, Han Y, Gao B
J Neuroradiol 2022 Sep;49(5):392-397. Epub 2021 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.neurad.2021.12.001. PMID: 34896148
Ágg B, Szilveszter B, Daradics N, Benke K, Stengl R, Kolossváry M, Pólos M, Radovits T, Ferdinandy P, Merkely B, Maurovich-Horvat P, Szabolcs Z
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Apr 15;15(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01369-w. PMID: 32293489Free PMC Article
Morris SA
Curr Opin Cardiol 2015 Nov;30(6):587-93. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0000000000000218. PMID: 26398550Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Brunet-Garcia L, Prabaharan P, Bruyndonckx L, Field E, D'Arco F, Capelli C, Cervi E
Am J Med Genet A 2024 Mar;194(3):e63465. Epub 2023 Nov 2 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63465. PMID: 37916856
Ha SH, Jeong S, Park JY, Chang JY, Kang DW, Kwon SU, Kim JS, Kim BJ
Sci Rep 2023 Nov 14;13(1):19865. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-47281-8. PMID: 37963951Free PMC Article
Ágg B, Szilveszter B, Daradics N, Benke K, Stengl R, Kolossváry M, Pólos M, Radovits T, Ferdinandy P, Merkely B, Maurovich-Horvat P, Szabolcs Z
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Apr 15;15(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01369-w. PMID: 32293489Free PMC Article
Beyens A, Albuisson J, Boel A, Al-Essa M, Al-Manea W, Bonnet D, Bostan O, Boute O, Busa T, Canham N, Cil E, Coucke PJ, Cousin MA, Dasouki M, De Backer J, De Paepe A, De Schepper S, De Silva D, Devriendt K, De Wandele I, Deyle DR, Dietz H, Dupuis-Girod S, Fontenot E, Fischer-Zirnsak B, Gezdirici A, Ghoumid J, Giuliano F, Diéz NB, Haider MZ, Hardin JS, Jeunemaitre X, Klee EW, Kornak U, Landecho MF, Legrand A, Loeys B, Lyonnet S, Michael H, Moceri P, Mohammed S, Muiño-Mosquera L, Nampoothiri S, Pichler K, Prescott K, Rajeb A, Ramos-Arroyo M, Rossi M, Salih M, Seidahmed MZ, Schaefer E, Steichen-Gersdorf E, Temel S, Uysal F, Vanhomwegen M, Van Laer L, Van Maldergem L, Warner D, Willaert A, Collins TR, Taylor A, Davis EC, Zarate Y, Callewaert B
Genet Med 2018 Oct;20(10):1236-1245. Epub 2018 Jan 11 doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.253. PMID: 29323665
Morris SA
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