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Broad hallux

MedGen UID:
401165
Concept ID:
C1867131
Finding
Synonyms: Broad big toe; Broad great toe; Broad great toes; Broad halluces
 
HPO: HP:0010055

Definition

Visible increase in width of the hallux without an increase in the dorso-ventral dimension. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Pfeiffer syndrome
MedGen UID:
67390
Concept ID:
C0220658
Disease or Syndrome
Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndrome with characteristic anomalies of the hands and feet. Three clinical subtypes, which have important diagnostic and prognostic implications, have been identified. Type 1, the classic syndrome, is compatible with life and consists of craniosynostosis, midface deficiency, broad thumbs, broad great toes, brachydactyly, and variable syndactyly. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull with Pfeiffer hands and feet, together with ankylosis of the elbows. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without cloverleaf skull. Ocular proptosis is severe, and the anterior cranial base is markedly short. Various visceral malformations have been found in association with type 3. Early demise is characteristic of types 2 and 3 (Cohen, 1993). Cohen and Barone (1994) further tabulated the findings in the 3 types of Pfeiffer syndrome.
Craniofrontonasal syndrome
MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004).
Nager syndrome
MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012).
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I
MedGen UID:
78542
Concept ID:
C0265251
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality
Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by macrocephaly, widely spaced eyes associated with increased interpupillary distance, preaxial polydactyly with or without postaxial polydactyly, and cutaneous syndactyly. Developmental delay, intellectual disability, or seizures appear to be uncommon manifestations (~<10%) of GCPS and may be more common in individuals with large (>300-kb) deletions that encompass GLI3. Approximately 20% of individuals with GCPS have hypoplasia or agenesis of the corpus callosum.
Multiple sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75664
Concept ID:
C0268263
Disease or Syndrome
Initial symptoms of multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) can develop from infancy through early childhood, and presentation is widely variable. Some individuals display the multisystemic features characteristic of mucopolysaccharidosis disorders (e.g., developmental regression, organomegaly, skeletal deformities) while other individuals present primarily with neurologic regression (associated with leukodystrophy). Based on age of onset, rate of progression, and disease severity, several different clinical subtypes of MSD have been described: Neonatal MSD is the most severe with presentation in the prenatal period or at birth with rapid progression and death occurring within the first two years of life. Infantile MSD is the most common variant and may be characterized as attenuated (slower clinical course with cognitive disability and neurodegeneration identified in the 2nd year of life) or severe (loss of the majority of developmental milestones by age 5 years). Juvenile MSD is the rarest subtype with later onset of symptoms and subacute clinical presentation. Many of the features found in MSD are progressive, including neurologic deterioration, heart disease, hearing loss, and airway compromise.
Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia Cantu type
MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
Cantú syndrome is characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart with enhanced systolic function or pericardial effusion and in many, a large patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) requiring repair; and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include dilated aortic root and ascending aorta with rare aortic aneurysm, tortuous vascularity involving brain and retinal vasculature, and pulmonary arteriovenous communications. Generalized edema (which may be present at birth) spontaneously resolves; peripheral edema of the lower extremities (and sometimes arms and hands) may develop at adolescence. Developmental delays are common, but intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression.
Jackson-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
208653
Concept ID:
C0795998
Disease or Syndrome
Jackson-Weiss syndrome (JWS) is an autosomal dominant condition consisting of craniosynostosis characterized by premature fusion of the cranial sutures as well as radiographic anomalies of the feet (summary by Heike et al., 2001).
Facial dysmorphism-lens dislocation-anterior segment abnormalities-spontaneous filtering blebs syndrome
MedGen UID:
330396
Concept ID:
C1832167
Disease or Syndrome
Traboulsi syndrome is characterized by dislocated crystalline lenses and anterior segment abnormalities in association with a distinctive facies involving flat cheeks and a beaked nose. Some affected individuals develop highly unusual nontraumatic conjunctival cysts (filtering blebs), presumably caused by abnormal thinning of the sclera (Patel et al., 2014).
Type A2 brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
318690
Concept ID:
C1832702
Congenital Abnormality
Brachydactyly type A2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malformations of the middle phalanx of the index finger and by anomalies of the second toe (summary by Su et al., 2011).
Cardiac malformation, cleft lip/palate, microcephaly, and digital anomalies
MedGen UID:
318752
Concept ID:
C1832950
Disease or Syndrome
Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II
MedGen UID:
337064
Concept ID:
C1844696
Disease or Syndrome
The X-linked otopalatodigital (X-OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type 1 (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type 2 (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia type 1 (FMD1). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD1, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience a progressive skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. MNS in males results in perinatal lethality in all recorded cases. TODPD, seen only in females, is characterized by a skeletal dysplasia that is most prominent in the digits, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata.
FG syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
375687
Concept ID:
C1845567
Disease or Syndrome
FG syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
337461
Concept ID:
C1845902
Disease or Syndrome
Although the phenotypic spectrum and severity of FG syndrome is wide, the cardinal features include congenital hypotonia, delayed speech development, relative macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and anal anomalies or severe constipation (Unger et al., 2007). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FG syndrome, see FGS1 (305450).
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Keipert syndrome
MedGen UID:
338088
Concept ID:
C1850627
Disease or Syndrome
Keipert syndrome (KPTS) is characterized by craniofacial and digital abnormalities and variable learning difficulties. The distinctive facial appearance includes broad forehead, hypertelorism, prominent nose, wide mouth, and prominent upper lip with cupid bow configuration. Digital anomalies are also distinctive, with widening of all distal phalanges, particularly of the thumbs and great toes (Amor et al., 2019).
Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis type 2
MedGen UID:
383797
Concept ID:
C1855904
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare syndrome associating an acro-fronto-facio-nasal dysostosis with genitourinary anomalies. It has been described in three families. Craniofacial manifestations include wide anterior fontanelle, flat occiput, hypertelorism, ptosis, proptosis, broad nasal bridge and nasal tip, long philtrum and posteriorly rotated or low set ears. Hypospadias and shawl scrotum are present in all males. Acral manifestations include syndactyly of fingers, broad thumbs or halluces or preaxial polydactyly. The affected patients have no intellectual deficit. The condition seems to be hereditary, and transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait.
Hallux varus-preaxial polysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
341088
Concept ID:
C1856197
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic congenital limb malformation disorder with characteristics of bilateral medial displacement of the hallux and preaxial polysyndactyly of the first toes. Radiographs show broad, shortened, misshapen first metatarsals and may associate incomplete or complete duplication of proximal phalanges and duplication or triplication of distal phalanges. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1980.
Conotruncal heart malformations
MedGen UID:
341803
Concept ID:
C1857586
Disease or Syndrome
A group of congenital cardiac outflow tract anomalies that include such defects as tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), double-outlet left ventricle, truncus arteriosus and transposition of the great arteries (TGA), among others. This group of defects is frequently found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome . A deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 has equally been associated in a subset of patients with various types of isolated non-syndromic conotruncal heart malformations (with the exception of DORV and TGA where this is very uncommon).
Heart defect - tongue hamartoma - polysyndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
341804
Concept ID:
C1857587
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by congenital heart defects (e.g. coarctation of the aorta with or without atrioventricular canal and subaortic stenosis), associated with tongue hamartomas, postaxial hand polydactyly and toe syndactyly.
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
395226
Concept ID:
C1859309
Disease or Syndrome
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome (CLSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mainly by anomalies of distal limb development, with fusion and disorganization of metacarpal and phalangeal bones, radius and ulnar shortening, radioulnar synostosis, and severe syndactyly of hands and feet. Mild facial dysmorphism is present in most patients. Kidney anomalies, including renal agenesis and hypoplasia, occur in over half of patients (summary by Li et al., 2010).
Muenke syndrome
MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to 16p13.3 microdeletion
MedGen UID:
350477
Concept ID:
C1864648
Disease or Syndrome
Chromosome 16p13.3deletion syndrome is a chromosome abnormality that can affect many parts of the body. People with this condition are missing a small piece (deletion) of chromosome 16 at a location designated p13.3. Although once thought to be a severe form of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, it is now emerging as a unique syndrome. Signs and symptoms may include failure to thrive, hypotonia (reduced muscle tone), short stature, microcephaly (unusually small head), characteristic facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, organ anomalies (i.e. heart and/or kidney problems), and vulnerability to infections. Chromosome testing of both parents can provide information about whether the deletion was inherited. In most cases, parents do not have any chromosome abnormalities. However, sometimes one parent has a balanced translocation where a piece of a chromosome has broken off and attached to another one with no gain or loss of genetic material. The balanced translocation normally does not cause signs or symptoms, but it increases the risk for having a child with a chromosome abnormality like a deletion. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person.To learn more about chromosome abnormalities in general, view our GARD fact sheet on Chromosome Disorders.
Stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes
MedGen UID:
357104
Concept ID:
C1866656
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of congenital conductive deafness due to stapes ankylosis, broad thumbs and first toes and hyperopia. So far, it has been described in multiple members of six families. Other skeletal malformations were also reported including short distal phalanges and syndactyly, but symphalangism is usually absent. Transmission is autosomal dominant and the syndrome is caused by mutations in the NOG gene (17q22).
Robinow-Sorauf syndrome
MedGen UID:
356703
Concept ID:
C1867146
Disease or Syndrome
The signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome vary widely, even among affected individuals in the same family. This condition can cause mild changes in the hands and feet, such as partial fusion of the skin between the second and third fingers on each hand and a broad or duplicated first (big) toe. Delayed development and learning difficulties have been reported, although most people with this condition are of normal intelligence. Less common signs and symptoms of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome include short stature, abnormalities of the bones of the spine (the vertebra), hearing loss, and heart defects.\n\nMost people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other parts of the skull may be malformed as well. These changes can result in an abnormally shaped head, a high forehead, a low frontal hairline, droopy eyelids (ptosis), widely spaced eyes, and a broad nasal bridge. One side of the face may appear noticeably different from the other (facial asymmetry). Most people with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome also have small, rounded ears.\n\nSaethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face.\n\nRobinow-Sorauf syndrome is a condition with features similar to those of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, including craniosynostosis and broad or duplicated great toes. It was once considered a separate disorder, but was found to result from mutations in the same gene and is now thought to be a variant of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Temple-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
395636
Concept ID:
C2678486
Disease or Syndrome
Temple-Baraitser syndrome is a rare developmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and anomalies of the first ray of the upper and lower limbs with absence/hypoplasia of the nails. Most patients also have seizures; various dysmorphic facial features have been reported (summary by Jacquinet et al., 2010).
Multiple synostoses syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
414116
Concept ID:
C2751826
Disease or Syndrome
Any multiple synostoses syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FGF9 gene.
Split hand-foot malformation 1
MedGen UID:
419314
Concept ID:
C2931019
Congenital Abnormality
Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Some patients with SHFM1 have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, orofacial clefting (Elliott and Evans, 2006), and neurosensory hearing loss (Tackels-Horne et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Split-Hand/Foot Malformation Additional SHFM loci include SHFM2 (313350) on chromosome Xq26; SHFM3 (246560), caused by duplication of chromosome 10q24; SHFM4 (605289), caused by mutation in the TP63 gene (603273) on chromosome 3q28; SHFM5 (606708) on chromosome 2q31; and SHFM6 (225300), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13. Also see SHFM1D (220600) for a form of SHFM1 with deafness that may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene (600028). Associations Pending Confirmation For discussion of a possible association between split-hand/foot malformation and variation in the EPS15L1 gene, see 616826.0001.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to EP300 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
462291
Concept ID:
C3150941
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Chromosome 17p13.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462419
Concept ID:
C3151069
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Nascimento type
MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSN) is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010).
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
481470
Concept ID:
C3279840
Disease or Syndrome
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients may be asymptomatic, whereas others show global developmental delay, nonspecific dysmorphic features, and delayed myelination on brain imaging. Laboratory studies typically show increased urinary 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, although additional metabolic abnormalities may also be observed (summary by Marcadier et al., 2013).
Craniosynostosis and dental anomalies
MedGen UID:
481703
Concept ID:
C3280073
Disease or Syndrome
CRSDA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and dental anomalies, including malocclusion, delayed and ectopic tooth eruption, and/or supernumerary teeth. Some patients also display minor digit anomalies, such as syndactyly and/or clinodactyly (summary by Nieminen et al., 2011).
Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1
MedGen UID:
482290
Concept ID:
C3280660
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-1 (EMPF1) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia that may lead to death in childhood. Many patients develop refractory seizures, consistent with an epileptic encephalopathy, and thereafter show neurologic decline. The age at onset, features, and severity are variable, and some patients may not have clinical evidence of mitochondrial or peroxisomal dysfunction (summary by Sheffer et al., 2016; Fahrner et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Encephalopathy Due to Defective Mitochondrial And Peroxisomal Fission See also EMPF2 (617086), caused by mutation in the MFF gene (614785) on chromosome 2q36.
Chromosome 16q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482782
Concept ID:
C3281152
Disease or Syndrome
The interstitial 16q22 deletion syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder associated with failure to thrive in infancy, poor growth, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features, including large anterior fontanel, high forehead, diastasis of the cranial sutures, broad nasal bridge, hypertelorism, low-set abnormal ears, and short neck. The phenotypic features and deletion sizes are variable, but deletion of 16q22 appears to be critical for manifestations of the syndrome (summary by Fujiwara et al., 1992).
Short stature-optic atrophy-Pelger-HuC+t anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
762020
Concept ID:
C3541319
Disease or Syndrome
Among the Yakuts, an Asian population isolate that is located in the northeastern part of Siberia, Maksimova et al. (2010) ascertained an autosomal recessive short stature syndrome involving postnatal growth failure, small hands and feet, loss of visual acuity with abnormalities of color vision, abnormal nuclear shape in neutrophil granulocytes (Pelger-Huet anomaly; see 169400), and normal intelligence.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766551
Concept ID:
C3553637
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-2 (HPMRS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderately to severely delayed psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, brachytelephalangy, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia). Some patients may have additional features, such as cardiac septal defects or seizures (summary by Krawitz et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Short stature and advanced bone age, with or without early-onset osteoarthritis and/or osteochondritis dissecans
MedGen UID:
777109
Concept ID:
C3665488
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with SSOAD exhibit a broad phenotypic spectrum involving short stature associated with advanced bone maturation and early-onset osteoarthritis (OA), as well as mild dysmorphic features consisting of midface hypoplasia, brachydactyly, broad great toes, and lumbar lordosis. Other features include intervertebral disc disease and osteochondritis dissecans, which is characterized by separation of articular cartilage and subchondral bone from the articular surface. Phenotypes are highly variable even among patients within the same family, and there are no apparent genotype-phenotype correlations (Dateki et al., 2017). The term 'dissecans' comes from 'dis' meaning 'from' and 'secare' meaning 'cut off,' and is not to be confused with 'desiccans' derived from 'desiccare' meaning to 'dry up.' Dissecans refers to the appearance of part of the bone having been cut away.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 99
MedGen UID:
813076
Concept ID:
C3806746
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the USP9X gene.
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Tall stature-scoliosis-macrodactyly of the great toes syndrome
MedGen UID:
863127
Concept ID:
C4014690
Disease or Syndrome
Miura-type epiphyseal chondrodysplasia (ECDM) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by tall stature, arachnodactyly of the hands, macrodactyly of the great toes, scoliosis, coxa valga, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (Miura et al., 2014). Multiple extra epiphyses are present in the hands (Boudin et al., 2018). Mutation in the NPR3 gene (108962) results in Boudin-Mortier syndrome (BOMOS; 619543), a similar phenotype of tall stature, arachnodactyly, elongated great toes, and multiple extra epiphyses.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 29
MedGen UID:
863578
Concept ID:
C4015141
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
SETBP1 haploinsufficiency disorder (SETBP1-HD) is characterized by hypotonia and mild motor developmental delay; intellectual abilities ranging from normal to severe disability; speech and language disorder; behavioral problems (most commonly attention/concentration deficits and hyperactivity, impulsivity), and refractive errors and strabismus. Typically children with SETBP1-HD whose intellect is in the normal or borderline range (IQ 80-90) were diagnosed following genetic testing for behavioral problems and/or severe speech and language disorders (respectively: the inability to produce sounds in words correctly, and deficits in the understanding and/or expression of words and sentences). To date, 47 individuals with SETBP1-HD have been reported.
MEND syndrome
MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects (MEND) is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014).
Microcephaly-corpus callosum hypoplasia-intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
899880
Concept ID:
C4225352
Disease or Syndrome
PPP2R1A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) is characterized by: severe, persistent hypotonia; developmental delay with variable intellectual outcomes, typically in the moderate-to-severe intellectual disability range; seizures (more commonly seen in individuals with microcephaly and/or severe intellectual disability); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other behavioral problems (anxiousness, repetitive movements, self-injurious or destructive behavior, and autism spectrum disorder); feeding and swallowing issues; and dysmorphic features of the head and face. A minority of affected individuals have ear anomalies, hearing loss, ptosis, generalized joint hypermobility, and patent ductus arteriosus. Brain MRI findings are nonspecific but typically include complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly may be seen in a subset of affected individuals and is often associated with specific pathogenic variants in PPP2R1A: c.544C>T (p.Arg182Trp) and c.547C>T (p.Arg183Trp).
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897005
Concept ID:
C4225419
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS) is a clinically recognizable condition that includes the cardinal findings of craniofacial features, cerebellar defects, and cardiovascular malformations resulting in the alternate diagnostic name of 3C syndrome. Dysmorphic facial features may include brachycephaly, hypotonic face with protruding tongue, flat appearance of the face on profile view, short midface, widely spaced eyes, downslanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears with overfolding of the upper helix, smooth or short philtrum, and high or cleft palate. Affected individuals also typically have a characteristic metacarpal phalangeal profile showing a consistent wavy pattern on hand radiographs. RSS is associated with variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Eye anomalies and hypercholesterolemia may be variably present.
Orofaciodigital syndrome XV
MedGen UID:
934668
Concept ID:
C4310701
Disease or Syndrome
Alazami-Yuan syndrome
MedGen UID:
934669
Concept ID:
C4310702
Disease or Syndrome
Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
934706
Concept ID:
C4310739
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (OCNDS) frequently have nonspecific clinical features, delayed language development, motor delay, intellectual disability (typically in the mild-to-moderate range), generalized hypotonia starting in infancy, difficulty feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Developmental delay affects all areas of development, but language is more impaired than gross motor skills in most individuals. Intellectual disability has been reported in about three quarters of individuals. Less common findings may include kyphoscoliosis, postnatal short stature, disrupted circadian rhythm leading to sleep disturbance, seizures, and poor coordination.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1627464
Concept ID:
C4540327
Disease or Syndrome
NEDDFL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and impaired intellectual development, poor growth with small head size, dysmorphic facial features, and mild abnormalities of the hands and feet (summary by Stankiewicz et al., 2017).
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations
MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation.
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 14
MedGen UID:
1635470
Concept ID:
C4706604
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of orofaciodigital syndrome, with autosomal recessive inheritance and C2CD3 mutations. The disease has characteristics of severe microcephaly, trigonocephaly, severe intellectual disability and micropenis, in addition to oral, facial and digital malformations (gingival frenulum, lingual hamartomas, cleft/lobulated tongue, cleft palate, telecanthus, up-slanting palpebral fissures, microretrognathia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and duplication of hallux). Corpus callosum agenesis and vermis hypoplasia with molar tooth sign on brain imaging are also associated.
Regressive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1648288
Concept ID:
C4747922
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia with or without Pelger-Huet anomaly (SKPHA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia of variable severity with or without abnormal nuclear shape and chromatin organization in blood granulocytes (Hoffmann et al., 2002; Borovik et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2020). Initial skeletal features may improve with age (Sobreira et al., 2014).
Osteochondrodysplasia, brachydactyly, and overlapping malformed digits
MedGen UID:
1648332
Concept ID:
C4748496
Disease or Syndrome
Osteochondrodysplasia, brachydactyly, and overlapping malformed digits (OCBMD) is characterized by bilateral symmetric skeletal defects that primarily affect the limbs. Affected individuals have mild short stature due to shortening of the lower leg bones, as well as hand and foot malformations, predominantly brachydactyly and overlapping digits. Other skeletal defects include scoliosis, dislocated patellae and fibulae, and pectus excavatum (Shabbir et al., 2018).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Arthrogryposis, distal, type 2B2
MedGen UID:
1674500
Concept ID:
C5193097
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis type 2B2 (DA2B2) is characterized by congenital contractures of the distal limb joints and facial dysmorphism. Marked inter- and intrafamilial variability has been reported (summary by Daly et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see 108120.
Robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
1676687
Concept ID:
C5193143
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome-2 (RRS2) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by postnatal mesomelic short stature and relative macrocephaly as well as dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, wide short nose with anteverted nares, and triangular mouth. Variable other congenital anomalies may be present, including omphalocele, ventral hernia, and cardiac anomalies (White et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome, see RRS1 (268310).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Ectodermal dysplasia with facial dysmorphism and acral, ocular, and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684719
Concept ID:
C5231477
Disease or Syndrome
EDFAOB is characterized by linear hypopigmentation and craniofacial asymmetry in association with ocular, dental, and acral anomalies. Brain imaging has revealed some abnormalities, including diffuse cystic leukoencephalopathy and mildly enlarged lateral ventricles, but patients show no intellectual or neurologic impairment (Vabres et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
FG syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Buratti-Harel syndrome
MedGen UID:
1788293
Concept ID:
C5543351
Disease or Syndrome
Buratti-Harel syndrome (BURHAS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, global developmental delay, mild motor and speech delay, and mild to moderately impaired intellectual development. Some patients are able to attend special schools and show learning difficulties, whereas others are more severely affected. Patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, strabismus, and small low-set ears. Additional features may include laryngomalacia with feeding difficulties and distal skeletal anomalies (summary by Buratti et al., 2021).
Synpolydactyly type 1
MedGen UID:
1809573
Concept ID:
C5574994
Congenital Abnormality
Synpolydactyly (SPD), or syndactyly type II, is defined as a connection between the middle and ring fingers and fourth and fifth toes, variably associated with postaxial polydactyly in the same digits. Minor local anomalies and various metacarpal or metatarsal abnormalities may be present (summary by Merlob and Grunebaum, 1986). In some families with SPD, the foot anomalies are characterized by preaxial as well as postaxial polydactyly, and appear to be fully penetrant. The more severe features of classic SPD, involving 3/4 synpolydactyly in the hands and 4/5 synpolydactyly in the feet, also occur, but at reduced penetrance. This foot phenotype is not seen in patients with classic SPD due to HOXD13 polyalanine tract expansions (Goodman et al., 1998). Malik (2012) reviewed the syndactylies, noting that the extreme phenotypic heterogeneity observed in SPD families consists of approximately 18 clinical variants that can be 'lumped' into 3 categories: typical SPD features, minor variants, and unusual phenotypes. Genetic Heterogeneity of Synpolydactyly See also SPD2 (608180), caused by mutation in the fibulin-1 gene (FBLN1; 135820) on chromosome 22q13, and SPD3 (610234), which has been mapped to chromosome 14q11.2-q12.
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 68
MedGen UID:
1802176
Concept ID:
C5677008
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-68 (MRD68) is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, microcephaly, poor growth, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Cif et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824004
Concept ID:
C5774231
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities (NEDDFSB) is a multisystemic developmental disorder characterized by feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with moderate to severely impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and skeletal defects, mainly affecting the distal extremities. More variable additional findings include hypotonia, seizures, and ocular defects. Brain imaging tends to show structural defects of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia (Duijkers et al., 2019).
Orofaciodigital syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
1824021
Concept ID:
C5774248
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome XIX (OFD19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by tongue nodules; dental anomalies including congenital absence or abnormal shape of incisors; narrow, high-arched or cleft palate; retrognathia; and digital anomalies. Some patients have notching of the upper or lower lip (Iturrate et al., 2022).
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).
LADD syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1824096
Concept ID:
C5774323
Disease or Syndrome
Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome-1 (LADD1) is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lacrimoauriculodentodigital Syndrome LADD syndrome-2 (LADD2; 620192) is caused by mutation in the FGFR3 gene (134934) on chromosome 4p16, and LADD syndrome-3 (LADD3; 620193) is caused by mutation in the FGF10 gene, an FGFR ligand, on chromosome 5p12.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1840880
Concept ID:
C5830244
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures (NEDFSS), is characterized by these features and global developmental delay with delayed or absent walking, moderate to severely impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech acquisition. Affected individuals may also have behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop various types of seizures that are usually well-controlled with medication. Rare patients are noted to have heat intolerance or insensitivity to pain (Lines et al., 2022).

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Burger EB, Hovius SE, Burger BJ, van Nieuwenhoven CA
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2016 Aug 3;98(15):1298-306. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.15.01416. PMID: 27489321
Silva CC, Pedroso JL, Souza PV, Pinto WB, Barsottini OG
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2014 Jan;72(1):81-2. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20130207. PMID: 24637986
Low K, Smith J, Lee S, Newbury-Ecob R
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Aug;161A(8):2056-9. Epub 2013 Jul 3 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36016. PMID: 23824731
Kasnauskiene J, Ciuladaite Z, Preiksaitiene E, Matulevičienė A, Alexandrou A, Koumbaris G, Sismani C, Pepalytė I, Patsalis PC, Kučinskas V
Eur J Med Genet 2012 Apr;55(4):274-7. Epub 2012 Mar 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2012.02.010. PMID: 22450339
Göcke H, Muradow I, Zerres K, Hansmann M
Prenat Diagn 1986 Mar-Apr;6(2):151-7. doi: 10.1002/pd.1970060211. PMID: 3703823

Therapy

Casas-Alba D, López-Sala L, Pérez-Ordóñez M, Mari-Vico R, Bolasell M, Martínez-Monseny AF, Muchart J, Fernández-Fernández JM, Martorell L, Serrano M
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jan;185(1):256-260. Epub 2020 Oct 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61939. PMID: 33098379

Clinical prediction guides

Casas-Alba D, López-Sala L, Pérez-Ordóñez M, Mari-Vico R, Bolasell M, Martínez-Monseny AF, Muchart J, Fernández-Fernández JM, Martorell L, Serrano M
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jan;185(1):256-260. Epub 2020 Oct 24 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61939. PMID: 33098379
Burger EB, Hovius SE, Burger BJ, van Nieuwenhoven CA
J Bone Joint Surg Am 2016 Aug 3;98(15):1298-306. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.15.01416. PMID: 27489321

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