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Brisk reflexes

MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Synonym: Brisk deep tendon reflexes
 
HPO: HP:0001348

Definition

Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Brisk reflexes

Conditions with this feature

Fucosidosis
MedGen UID:
5288
Concept ID:
C0016788
Disease or Syndrome
Fucosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by defective alpha-L-fucosidase with accumulation of fucose in the tissues. Clinical features include angiokeratoma, progressive psychomotor retardation, neurologic signs, coarse facial features, and dysostosis multiplex. Fucosidosis has been classified into 2 major types. Type 1 is characterized by rapid psychomotor regression and severe neurologic deterioration beginning at about 6 months of age, elevated sweat sodium chloride, and death within the first decade of life. Type 2 is characterized by milder psychomotor retardation and neurologic signs, the development of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum, normal sweat salinity, and longer survival (Kousseff et al., 1976).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D
MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78641
Concept ID:
C0268126
Disease or Syndrome
Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by an enzymatic defect in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) pathway. ADSL deficiency leads to the accumulation of toxic intermediates, including succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) in body fluids. There are 3 major phenotypic forms of the disorder that correlate with different values of the S-Ado and SAICAr concentration ratios (S-Ado/SAICAr) in the cerebrospinal fluid. These include the most severe fatal neonatal encephalopathy (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio less than 1); childhood form (type I) with severe psychomotor retardation (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio close to 1), and a milder form (type II) with psychomotor retardation or hypotonia (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio greater than 2) (summary by Baresova et al., 2012).
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 30
MedGen UID:
163235
Concept ID:
C0796237
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PAK3 gene.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Reardon type
MedGen UID:
322238
Concept ID:
C1833603
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Reardon type is an extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (see this term) described in several members of a single family to date and characterized by short stature, vertebral and femoral abnormalities, cervical instability and neurologic manifestations secondary to anomalies of the odontoid process.
Striatonigral degeneration, infantile, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
374113
Concept ID:
C1839022
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A
MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16.
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
X-linked immunoneurologic disorder
MedGen UID:
341162
Concept ID:
C1848144
Disease or Syndrome
A syndrome with characteristics of immune deficiency and neurological disorders in females and neonatal death in males. The syndrome has been described in only one family with nine affected individuals (five males and four females) spanning two generations. Symptomatic females present slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, leg hyperreflexia, pes cavus, increased muscle tone in the legs, poor bladder function, static reduced night vision and frequent sinopulmonary infections associated with IgG2 deficiency. Males present with low birth weight and severe hypotonia that leads to death in the neonatal period. The gene locus has been mapped to Xq26-qter.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
342798
Concept ID:
C1853100
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome-4 (COFS4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, arthrogryposis, and neurologic abnormalities. Cellular studies show a defect in both transcription-coupled and global genome nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER and GG-NER) (summary by Jaspers et al., 2007 and Kashiyama et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, see 214150.
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7
MedGen UID:
344049
Concept ID:
C1853445
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.
Methylmalonic aciduria, cblA type
MedGen UID:
344422
Concept ID:
C1855109
Disease or Syndrome
For this GeneReview, the term "isolated methylmalonic acidemia" refers to a group of inborn errors of metabolism associated with elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentration in the blood and urine that result from the failure to isomerize (convert) methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) into succinyl-CoA during propionyl-CoA metabolism in the mitochondrial matrix, without hyperhomocysteinemia or homocystinuria, hypomethioninemia, or variations in other metabolites, such as malonic acid. Isolated MMA is caused by complete or partial deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mut0 enzymatic subtype or mut– enzymatic subtype, respectively), a defect in the transport or synthesis of its cofactor, 5-deoxy-adenosyl-cobalamin (cblA, cblB, or cblD-MMA), or deficiency of the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. Prior to the advent of newborn screening, common phenotypes included: Infantile/non-B12-responsive form (mut0 enzymatic subtype, cblB), the most common phenotype, associated with infantile-onset lethargy, tachypnea, hypothermia, vomiting, and dehydration on initiation of protein-containing feeds. Without appropriate treatment, the infantile/non-B12-responsive phenotype could rapidly progress to coma due to hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Partially deficient or B12-responsive phenotypes (mut– enzymatic subtype, cblA, cblB [rare], cblD-MMA), in which symptoms occur in the first few months or years of life and are characterized by feeding problems, failure to thrive, hypotonia, and developmental delay marked by episodes of metabolic decompensation. Methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase deficiency, in which findings range from complete absence of symptoms to severe metabolic acidosis. Affected individuals can also develop ataxia, dysarthria, hypotonia, mild spastic paraparesis, and seizures. In those individuals diagnosed by newborn screening and treated from an early age, there appears to be decreased early mortality, less severe symptoms at diagnosis, favorable short-term neurodevelopmental outcome, and lower incidence of movement disorders and irreversible cerebral damage. However, secondary complications may still occur and can include intellectual disability, tubulointerstitial nephritis with progressive impairment of renal function, "metabolic stroke" (bilateral lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia during acute metabolic decompensation), pancreatitis, growth failure, functional immune impairment, bone marrow failure, optic nerve atrophy, arrhythmias and/or cardiomyopathy (dilated or hypertrophic), liver steatosis/fibrosis/cancer, and renal cancer.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood.
Microcephaly 2, primary, autosomal recessive, with or without cortical malformations
MedGen UID:
346929
Concept ID:
C1858535
Disease or Syndrome
In WDR62 primary microcephaly (WDR62-MCPH), microcephaly (occipitofrontal circumference [OFC] = -2 SD) is usually present at birth, but in some instances becomes evident later in the first year of life. Growth is otherwise normal. Except for brain malformations in most affected individuals, no other congenital malformations are observed. Central nervous system involvement can include delayed motor development, mild-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), behavior problems, epilepsy, spasticity, and ataxia.
Dystonia with cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
392987
Concept ID:
C2673697
Disease or Syndrome
Paraplegia-intellectual disability-hyperkeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
411554
Concept ID:
C2745996
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of intellectual deficit, spasticity in the lower limbs (spastic paraplegia), pes cavus deformity of both feet, an abnormal gait, and palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. It has been reported in four brothers. The mother of the affected boys had normal intelligence, plantar hyperkeratosis and a strong facial resemblance to her retarded sons. Her three daughters were normal. This syndrome most likely an X-linked recessive condition.
Autosomal recessive Parkinson disease 14
MedGen UID:
414488
Concept ID:
C2751842
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nOften the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.
Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
418994
Concept ID:
C2931112
Congenital Abnormality
Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is a rare condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased muscle size. Affected individuals have up to twice the usual amount of muscle mass in their bodies. They also tend to have increased muscle strength. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is not known to cause any medical problems, and affected individuals are intellectually normal.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
17q11.2 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
501218
Concept ID:
C3495679
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome that has characteristics of dysmorphic features and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven patients within one family. 17q11.2 microduplication encompasses the NF1 region. The underlying mechanism may be non-allelic homologous recombination. The study of pedigree suggests that this microduplication segregates within the family for at least two generations. Two patients displayed a normal clinical presentation, suggesting an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance.
Hyperekplexia 3
MedGen UID:
766202
Concept ID:
C3553288
Disease or Syndrome
Other signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia can include muscle twitches when falling asleep (hypnagogic myoclonus) and movements of the arms or legs while asleep. Some infants, when tapped on the nose, extend their head forward and have spasms of the limb and neck muscles. Rarely, infants with hereditary hyperekplexia experience recurrent seizures (epilepsy).\n\nHereditary hyperekplexia is a condition in which affected infants have increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and an exaggerated startle reaction to unexpected stimuli, especially loud noises. Following the startle reaction, infants experience a brief period in which they are very rigid and unable to move. During these rigid periods, some infants stop breathing, which, if prolonged, can be fatal. Infants with hereditary hyperekplexia have hypertonia at all times, except when they are sleeping.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of hereditary hyperekplexia typically fade by age 1. However, older individuals with hereditary hyperekplexia may still startle easily and have periods of rigidity, which can cause them to fall down. They may also continue to have hypnagogic myoclonus or movements during sleep. As they get older, individuals with this condition may have a low tolerance for crowded places and loud noises. People with hereditary hyperekplexia who have epilepsy have the seizure disorder throughout their lives.\n\nHereditary hyperekplexia may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is a major cause of unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 8B
MedGen UID:
766874
Concept ID:
C3553960
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX16 gene have cells of complementation group 9 (CG9, equivalent to CGD). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 8
MedGen UID:
862877
Concept ID:
C4014440
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 8, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration with onset in childhood. Affected individuals may have normal or delayed early development, and often have episodic acute neurologic decompensation and regression associated with febrile illnesses. The developmental regression results in variable intellectual disability and motor deficits, such as hypotonia, axial hypertonia, and spasticity; some patients may lose the ability to walk independently. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and isolated deficiency of mitochondrial complex III in skeletal muscle and fibroblasts. Brain imaging shows a characteristic pattern of multifocal small cystic lesions in the periventricular and deep cerebral white matter (summary by Dallabona et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-2 (MSSGM2) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, and short stature. Patients develop diabetes in the second or third decade of life, and hypothyroidism and delayed puberty have also been reported (Abdulkarim et al., 2015; Kernohan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism, see MSSGM1 (616033).
Spastic tetraplegia-thin corpus callosum-progressive postnatal microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
900192
Concept ID:
C4225254
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic tetraplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of those features and severely impaired global development in early infancy. Most patients are unable to achieve independent walking or speech; some patients have seizures (summary by Srour et al., 2015 and Heimer et al., 2015).
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
899774
Concept ID:
C4225268
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 is characterized by thin skin with visible veins and wrinkles, cataract or corneal clouding, clenched fingers, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and moderate intellectual disability. In addition, patients exhibit a combination of muscular hypotonia with brisk muscle reflexes (Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cutis laxa, see ARCL1 (123700).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
901897
Concept ID:
C4225312
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-2 (PEOB2) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and signs and symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxia, such as impaired gait and dysarthria. Some patients may have respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory studies are consistent with a defect in mtDNA replication (summary by Reyes et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Early-onset progressive diffuse brain atrophy-microcephaly-muscle weakness-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934638
Concept ID:
C4310671
Disease or Syndrome
PEBAT is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent soon after birth or in infancy, profound intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and seizures. Most patients are never able to walk due to hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and secondary hypomyelination. The disorder shows progressive features, including microcephaly, consistent with a neurodegenerative process (summary by Miyake et al., 2016; Flex et al., 2016).
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Autosomal dominant striatal neurodegeneration type 1
MedGen UID:
934775
Concept ID:
C4310808
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant striatal degeneration is a neurologic disorder characterized by variable movement abnormalities due to dysfunction in the striatal part of the basal ganglia (summary by Kuhlenbaumer et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Striatal Degeneration See also ADSD2 (616922), caused by mutation in the PDE10A gene (610652) on chromosome 6q27.
Spinocerebellar ataxia 44
MedGen UID:
1611168
Concept ID:
C4521563
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 25
MedGen UID:
1618081
Concept ID:
C4539808
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 7
MedGen UID:
1647672
Concept ID:
C4693583
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-7 (NBIA7) is characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and manifests as a progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Severity and rate of progression are variable (Drecourt et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16
MedGen UID:
1631337
Concept ID:
C4693779
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-16 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia, nystagmus, and mildly delayed motor development in infancy. Affected individuals have motor disabilities, including ataxic or broad-based gait, hyperreflexia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and a mild pyramidal syndrome. Some patients have cognitive impairment, whereas others may have normal cognition or mild intellectual disability with speech difficulties. Brain imaging typically shows hypomyelination, leukodystrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Simons et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Jaberi-Elahi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647359
Concept ID:
C4693848
Disease or Syndrome
JABELS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability with additional variable features. Patients have onset of symptoms in infancy, but the severity is highly variable. Some patients have social interaction and learn to walk but have an ataxic gait and abnormal movements, such as tremor or dystonia, whereas others do not achieve any motor control and are unable to speak. Additional features may include retinal anomalies, visual impairment, microcephaly, abnormal foot or hand posturing, and kyphoscoliosis; some patients have dysmorphic facial features or seizures. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2016 and Bertoli-Avella et al., 2018).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
1648387
Concept ID:
C4748058
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D (PCH1D) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and a motor neuronopathy apparent at birth or in infancy. Patients have respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, and severely delayed or minimal gross motor development. Other features may include eye movement abnormalities, poor overall growth, contractures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (summary by Burns et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 58
MedGen UID:
1648488
Concept ID:
C4748195
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1648466
Concept ID:
C4748737
Disease or Syndrome
Ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1658844
Concept ID:
C4751570
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic metabolic liver disease with characteristics of progressive neurodegeneration, cutaneous abnormalities including varying degrees of ichthyosis or seborrheic dermatitis, and systemic iron overload. Patients manifest with infantile-onset seizures, encephalopathy, abnormal eye movements, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia, brisk reflexes, cortical blindness and deafness, myoclonus and hepato/splenomegaly, as well as oral manifestations including microdontia, widely spaced and pointed teeth with delayed eruption and gingival overgrowth.
Hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity
MedGen UID:
1667792
Concept ID:
C4755254
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity is an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy characterized by onset in the first year of life of severe spasticity, mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in an inability to achieve independent ambulation. Affected individuals show delayed motor development and nystagmus; some may have mild mental retardation. Brain MRI shows hypomyelination and white matter lesions in the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord (summary by Taft et al., 2013).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108
MedGen UID:
1680544
Concept ID:
C5193009
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-108 (MRX108) is characterized by early hypotonia, global developmental delay, and moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Brisk tendon reflexes, variable facial dysmorphism, and fifth finger clinodactyly may be present (Khayat et al., 2019).
Lethal arthrogryposis-anterior horn cell disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677784
Concept ID:
C5193016
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease (CAAHD) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder with highly variable severity. Affected individuals are usually noted to have contractures in utero on prenatal ultrasound studies, and present at birth with generalized contractures manifest as arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). Patients have severe hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency, often resulting in death in infancy or early childhood. Some patients may survive into later childhood with supportive care, but may be unable to walk or sit independently due to a combination of muscle weakness and contractures. Cognition may be normal. The disorder also includes multiple congenital anomalies associated with AMC and hypotonia, including high-arched palate, myopathic facies, and bulbar weakness. Neuropathologic studies demonstrate severe loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, as well as diffuse motor neuron axonopathy (summary by Smith et al., 2017 and Tan et al., 2017). Distinction from Lethal Congenital Contracture Syndrome 1 Biallelic mutation in the GLE1 gene can also cause LCCS1, which is lethal in utero. However, distinguishing between LCCS1 and CAAHD is controversial. Smith et al. (2017) suggested that differentiating between the 2 disorders has limited utility, and that they may represent a genotype/phenotype correlation rather than 2 different disease entities. In contrast, Said et al. (2017) concluded that LCCS1 represents a distinct clinical entity in which all affected individuals die prenatally and exhibit no fetal movements. Vuopala et al. (1995) differentiated CAAHD from LCCS1, noting that both are prevalent in Finland. LCCS1 is always fatal during the fetal period, presenting with severe hydrops and intrauterine growth retardation. In LCCS1, the spinal cord is macroscopically thinned because of an early reduction of the anterior horn and a paucity of anterior horn cells. The skeletal muscles are extremely hypoplastic, even difficult to locate. Infants with CAAHD survive longer than those with LCCS1, and when present, hydrops and intrauterine growth retardation are mild. The macroscopic findings of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles are closer to normal, although microscopic analysis also shows degeneration of anterior horn cells. In addition, birthplaces of ancestors of affected individuals do not show clustering in the northeast part of Finland, as is the case with LCCS1.
Microcephaly, growth deficiency, seizures, and brain malformations
MedGen UID:
1676229
Concept ID:
C5193042
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, growth deficiency, seizures, and brain malformations (MIGSB) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth deficiency with severe microcephaly, and poor or absent psychomotor development. Additional features include optic atrophy, early-onset seizures, dysmorphic facial features, and brain malformations, such as partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and simplified gyration (summary by Shaheen et al., 2015).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1672866
Concept ID:
C5193058
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-27 (SCAR27) is an adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by gait difficulties and other cerebellar signs, such as eye movement abnormalities, dysarthria, and difficulty writing. The disorder is progressive, and some patients may lose independent ambulation. Additional features include spasticity of the lower limbs and cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (summary by Eidhof et al., 2018).
Ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination, and dysmorphic facial features
MedGen UID:
1682428
Concept ID:
C5193147
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyotic keratoderma, spasticity, hypomyelination, and dysmorphic features (IKSHD) is characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and increased keratinization, resulting in ichthyosis; hypomyelination of central white matter, causing spastic paraplegia and central nystagmus; and optic atrophy, resulting in reduction of peripheral vision and visual acuity (Mueller et al., 2019). In addition, patients exhibit mild facial dysmorphism (Kutkowska-Kazmierczak et al., 2018).
Pachygyria, microcephaly, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facies, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684879
Concept ID:
C5231486
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-15 (CDCBM15) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly associated with abnormal facial features, hypotonia, and variable global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging shows variable malformation of cortical development on the lissencephaly spectrum, mainly pachygyria and thin corpus callosum (summary by Mitani et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features
MedGen UID:
1720321
Concept ID:
C5394173
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic limb shortening with dysmorphic features (RLSDF) is characterized by rhizomelic shortening of the extremities, predominantly of the upper limbs, and variable dysmorphic features, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, depressed or broad nasal bridge, and micrognathia. Hearing loss has also been observed (Sajan et al., 2019; Pagnamenta et al., 2023).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 8, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1713414
Concept ID:
C5394199
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-8 (IBGC8) is a progressive neurologic disorder with insidious onset of motor symptoms in adulthood. Affected individuals develop gait difficulties, parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, and dysarthria. Some may demonstrate cognitive decline or memory impairment. Brain imaging shows extensive calcifications in various brain regions including the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Because serum calcium and phosphate are normal, the disorder is thought to result from defects in the integrity of the neurovascular unit in the brain (summary by Schottlaender et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600).
Hypervalinemia and hyperleucine-isoleucinemia
MedGen UID:
1719306
Concept ID:
C5394277
Disease or Syndrome
Hypervalinemia and hyperleucine-isoleucinemia (HVLI) is a branched-chain amino acid metabolic disorder characterized by highly elevated plasma valine and leucine concentrations. The patient presented in adulthood with headache and mild memory impairment, and had abnormal symmetric white matter signals on brain MRI (Wang et al., 2015).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency disease
MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883); MC4DN22 (619355), caused by mutation in the COX16 gene (618064); and MC4DN23 (620275), caused by mutation in the COX11 gene (603648). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010).
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 6
MedGen UID:
1759760
Concept ID:
C5436279
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-6 (FTDALS6) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder with highly variable manifestations. Some patients present in adulthood with progressive FTD, often classified as the 'behavioral variant,' which is characterized by reduced empathy, impulsive behavior, personality changes, and reduced verbal output. Other patients present with features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction resulting in rapidly progressive paralysis and death from respiratory failure. The pathologic hallmarks of this disease include pallor of the corticospinal tract due to loss of motor neurons (in ALS). In both ALS and FTD, there are ubiquitin-positive inclusions within surviving neurons as well as deposition of pathologic TDP43 (TARDBP; 605078) or p62 (SQSTM1; 601530) aggregates. Patients with a D395G mutation (601023.0014) have been shown to develop pathologic tau (MAPT; 157140) aggregates. Some patients with the disorder may have features of both diseases, and there is significant interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (summary by Johnson et al., 2010; Wong et al., 2018; Al-Obeidi et al., 2018; Darwich et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 50
MedGen UID:
1753519
Concept ID:
C5436623
Disease or Syndrome
Coenzyme q10 deficiency, primary, 9
MedGen UID:
1740444
Concept ID:
C5436638
Disease or Syndrome
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency-9 (COQ10D9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of cerebellar ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy in the first decade of life. Some patients may have additional neurologic signs and symptoms, including intellectual disability and seizures. Treatment with CoQ10 may offer clinical benefit (summary by Malicdan et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency, see COQ10D1 (607426).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 3
MedGen UID:
1764816
Concept ID:
C5436682
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 3 (MC4DN3) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients present with encephalomyopathic features in early infancy, whereas others may present later in infancy or the first years of life after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and developmental delay or regression with poor eye contact and loss of motor skills with ataxia. Additional features observed in some patients include proximal renal tubulopathy, macrocytic anemia, sensorineural hearing loss, nystagmus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, consistent with systemic involvement. Brain imaging in most patients shows lesions consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV. Most patients die in infancy (summary by Valnot et al., 2000 and Antonicka et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 20
MedGen UID:
1771040
Concept ID:
C5436726
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 20 (MC4DN20) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, and global developmental delay. Additional features include elevated liver enzymes, increased serum lactate, metabolic acidosis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may result in cardiorespiratory failure and early death. Patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Baertling et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 21
MedGen UID:
1732562
Concept ID:
C5436727
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 21 (MC4DN21) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms in infancy. Affected individuals present with congenital lactic acidosis and later show global developmental delay with delayed speech and learning disabilities. Additional features include motor dysfunction manifest as spasticity, dystonia, and pyramidal tract signs. Ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures may also occur. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted hyperintensities in subcortical regions, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (Pitceathly et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 20
MedGen UID:
1765130
Concept ID:
C5436730
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-20 (HLD20) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of developmental milestones at about 12 to 16 months of age after normal early development. Patients lose motor, language, and cognitive skills and show poor overall growth with microcephaly. The disorder is progressive, resulting in feeding difficulties and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may have seizures. Brain imaging shows subcortical white matter abnormalities and a thin corpus callosum, suggesting a myelination defect. Death usually occurs in childhood (Al-Abdi et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 14
MedGen UID:
1778516
Concept ID:
C5543322
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 14 (PCH14) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia, and early-onset seizures. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, agenesis or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and sometimes a simplified gyral pattern. Early death may occur (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 15
MedGen UID:
1781311
Concept ID:
C5543326
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 15 (PCH15) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by congenital onset of progressive microcephaly and poor or absent psychomotor development with severely impaired intellectual development apparent from birth. Other features may include spastic quadriplegia, early-onset seizures, and chronic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Brain imaging shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 6B
MedGen UID:
1779648
Concept ID:
C5543353
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1781936
Concept ID:
C5543427
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction (NEDCAM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with prominent motor abnormalities, mainly axial hypotonia, gait ataxia, and appendicular spasticity. Affected individuals have cognitive impairment and speech delay; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. The severity is variable (summary by Kour et al., 2021).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 30
MedGen UID:
1778853
Concept ID:
C5543620
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-30 (SCAR30) is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, motor dysfunction, and cerebellar ataxia. Affected individuals may also have psychiatric abnormalities, such as obsessive behavior, psychotic episodes, or hallucinations. Brain imaging usually shows cerebellar atrophy, although this may be an age-dependent feature (summary by Langer et al., 2018).
Neuroocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
1790414
Concept ID:
C5551362
Disease or Syndrome
Neuroocular syndrome (NOC) encompasses a broad spectrum of overlapping anomalies, with developmental delay or impaired intellectual development as a consistent finding. Eye abnormalities show marked variability in the type and severity of defects, and include anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and coloboma. Other common systemic features include congenital heart and kidney defects, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and microcephaly (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2FF
MedGen UID:
1794191
Concept ID:
C5561981
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2FF (CMT2FF) is an autosomal dominant progressive axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy characterized by early-childhood onset of difficulties walking or running due to atrophy and weakness of the lower limbs. Most patients have foot and ankle deformities, requiring surgery or walking aids. Some patients lose independent ambulation. There is also prominent involvement of the upper limbs, with weakness and atrophy of the forearm, wrist, and intrinsic hand muscles. Proximal muscle function is preserved. Affected individuals have variable distal sensory impairment. Most patients have hyporeflexia, although brisk reflexes, suggesting upper motor involvement, have been described in 1 family. Sural nerve biopsy showed abnormal myelination (Rebelo et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210).
Spastic paraplegia 85, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1794263
Concept ID:
C5562053
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-85 (SPG85) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of motor symptoms in the first few years of life. Affected individuals have spasticity and hyperreflexia of the lower limbs resulting in gait abnormalities. Older patients may have upper limb involvement and demonstrate axonal polyneuropathy. Additional features include optic atrophy, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, and urinary incontinence. Brain imaging may show cerebellar atrophy (summary by Wagner et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Generalized epilepsy-paroxysmal dyskinesia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1801137
Concept ID:
C5574945
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized epilepsy-paroxysmal dyskinesia syndrome is characterised by the association of paroxysmal dyskinesia and generalised epilepsy (usually absence or generalised tonic-clonic seizures) in the same individual or family. The prevalence is unknown. Analysis in one of the reported families led to the identification of a causative mutation in the <i>KCNMA1</i> gene (chromosome 10q22), encoding the alpha subunit of the BK channel. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intention tremor, pyramidal signs, dyspraxia, and ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1823969
Concept ID:
C5774196
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intention tremor, pyramidal signs, dyspraxia, and ocular anomalies (NEDITPO) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, intention tremor, dyspraxia, and vertical strabismus (Rahikkala et al., 2022).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with multisystem involvement due to mitochondrial dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1824013
Concept ID:
C5774240
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with multisystem involvement due to mitochondrial dysfunction (CONDMIM) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized primarily by neurologic deficits. Patients show global developmental delay and variably impaired intellectual development with speech delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and respiratory distress early in life. Other features include visual impairment due to optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and neuromuscular abnormalities. The severity is highly variable. The disorder is progressive; about half of patients show developmental regression with loss of previous skills. Features suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder include cataracts, cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, and increased lactate. Some patients develop seizures, some have dysmorphic facial features, and some have nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging. Death in childhood may occur (Kaiyrzhanov et al., 2022).
Atelis syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1824055
Concept ID:
C5774282
Disease or Syndrome
Atelis syndrome-2 (ATELS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor overall growth with microcephaly and short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and congenital cardiac defects. Additional more variable features may include hematologic abnormalities, variable ocular abnormalities, motor delay, and anxiety. Patient cells exhibit a unique chromosomal instability phenotype consisting of segmented and dicentric chromosomes with mosaic variegated hyperploidy (Grange et al., 2022). See also ATELS1 (620184), caused by mutation in the SLF2 gene (610348). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 23
MedGen UID:
1840958
Concept ID:
C5830322
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 23 (MC4DN23) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile-onset encephalopathy (Rius et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kenan G, Regev T, Kushnir M, Cohen O, Gandelman-Marton R, Kimiagar I, Armon C
J Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 15;434:120179. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120179. PMID: 35124414
Lohmann E, Periquet M, Bonifati V, Wood NW, De Michele G, Bonnet AM, Fraix V, Broussolle E, Horstink MW, Vidailhet M, Verpillat P, Gasser T, Nicholl D, Teive H, Raskin S, Rascol O, Destée A, Ruberg M, Gasparini F, Meco G, Agid Y, Durr A, Brice A; French Parkinson's Disease Genetics Study Group; European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease
Ann Neurol 2003 Aug;54(2):176-85. doi: 10.1002/ana.10613. PMID: 12891670

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ullah A, Krishin J, Haider N, Aurangzeb B, Abdullah, Suleman S, Ahmad W, Hansen T, Basit S
Neurogenetics 2022 Jul;23(3):203-212. Epub 2022 Apr 23 doi: 10.1007/s10048-022-00692-7. PMID: 35460391
Kenan G, Regev T, Kushnir M, Cohen O, Gandelman-Marton R, Kimiagar I, Armon C
J Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 15;434:120179. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120179. PMID: 35124414
Zhang X, Yang K, Le W
Adv Exp Med Biol 2020;1207:53-74. doi: 10.1007/978-981-15-4272-5_3. PMID: 32671738
Bienfait HM, Baas F, Koelman JH, de Haan RJ, van Engelen BG, Gabreëls-Festen AA, Ongerboer de Visser BW, Meggouh F, Weterman MA, De Jonghe P, Timmerman V, de Visser M
Neurology 2007 May 15;68(20):1658-67. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000263479.97552.94. PMID: 17502546
Gordon N
Brain Dev 2000 Jan;22(1):3-7. doi: 10.1016/s0387-7604(99)00075-3. PMID: 10761826

Diagnosis

Kenan G, Regev T, Kushnir M, Cohen O, Gandelman-Marton R, Kimiagar I, Armon C
J Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 15;434:120179. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2022.120179. PMID: 35124414
Psychogios K, Xiromerisiou G, Kargiotis O, Safouris A, Fiolaki A, Bonakis A, Paraskevas GP, Giannopoulos S, Tsivgoulis G
Eur J Neurol 2021 Nov;28(11):3866-3869. doi: 10.1111/ene.14981. PMID: 34655264
Jaulent P, Charriere S, Feillet F, Douillard C, Fouilhoux A, Thobois S
J Neurol 2020 Feb;267(2):531-542. Epub 2019 Nov 7 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09608-2. PMID: 31701331
Aizpurua M, Selvackadunco S, Yull H, Kipps CM, Ironside JW, Bodi I
Neuropathology 2019 Apr;39(2):135-140. Epub 2019 Mar 7 doi: 10.1111/neup.12538. PMID: 30847986Free PMC Article
Russell JA
Muscle Nerve 1994 Jun;17(6):578-80. doi: 10.1002/mus.880170603. PMID: 8196699

Therapy

Majeed I, Khan SU, Khan ZR, Hayat S, Ullah I, Ali A
J Med Case Rep 2023 Sep 14;17(1):390. doi: 10.1186/s13256-023-04128-0. PMID: 37705001Free PMC Article
Dams L, Kraemer M, Becker J
Mult Scler 2022 Jun;28(7):1159-1162. Epub 2021 Dec 21 doi: 10.1177/13524585211057512. PMID: 34931927
Aizpurua M, Selvackadunco S, Yull H, Kipps CM, Ironside JW, Bodi I
Neuropathology 2019 Apr;39(2):135-140. Epub 2019 Mar 7 doi: 10.1111/neup.12538. PMID: 30847986Free PMC Article
Stretz C, Song X, Killory BD, Ollenschleger MD, Nouh AM
Conn Med 2016 Mar;80(3):163-6. PMID: 27169300
Russell JA
Muscle Nerve 1994 Jun;17(6):578-80. doi: 10.1002/mus.880170603. PMID: 8196699

Prognosis

Ullah A, Krishin J, Haider N, Aurangzeb B, Abdullah, Suleman S, Ahmad W, Hansen T, Basit S
Neurogenetics 2022 Jul;23(3):203-212. Epub 2022 Apr 23 doi: 10.1007/s10048-022-00692-7. PMID: 35460391
Stretz C, Song X, Killory BD, Ollenschleger MD, Nouh AM
Conn Med 2016 Mar;80(3):163-6. PMID: 27169300
McColgan P, Viegas S, Gandhi S, Bull K, Tudor R, Sheikh F, Pinney J, Fontana M, Rowczenio D, Gillmore JD, Gilbertson JA, Whelan CJ, Shah S, Jaunmuktane Z, Holton JL, Schott JM, Werring DJ, Hawkins PN, Reilly MM
J Neurol 2015 Jan;262(1):228-34. Epub 2014 Dec 9 doi: 10.1007/s00415-014-7594-2. PMID: 25488473Free PMC Article
Vishnu VY, Modi M, Prabhakar S, Bhansali A, Goyal MK
J Neurol Sci 2014 Jan 15;336(1-2):251-3. Epub 2013 Oct 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.10.003. PMID: 24139699
de Carvalho M, Swash M
J Neurol Sci 2007 Dec 15;263(1-2):26-34. Epub 2007 Jul 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2007.05.021. PMID: 17610902

Clinical prediction guides

Park JJ, Lee E, Anwar MM, Han S, Kaliaperumal C
Childs Nerv Syst 2023 Dec;39(12):3633-3637. Epub 2023 Jul 22 doi: 10.1007/s00381-023-06065-1. PMID: 37480522
Ullah A, Krishin J, Haider N, Aurangzeb B, Abdullah, Suleman S, Ahmad W, Hansen T, Basit S
Neurogenetics 2022 Jul;23(3):203-212. Epub 2022 Apr 23 doi: 10.1007/s10048-022-00692-7. PMID: 35460391
Huin V, Coarelli G, Guemy C, Boluda S, Debs R, Mochel F, Stojkovic T, Grabli D, Maisonobe T, Gaymard B, Lenglet T, Tard C, Davion JB, Sablonnière B, Monin ML, Ewenczyk C, Viala K, Charles P, Le Ber I, Reilly MM, Houlden H, Cortese A, Seilhean D, Brice A, Durr A
Brain 2022 Jun 30;145(6):2121-2132. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab449. PMID: 34927205
Jaulent P, Charriere S, Feillet F, Douillard C, Fouilhoux A, Thobois S
J Neurol 2020 Feb;267(2):531-542. Epub 2019 Nov 7 doi: 10.1007/s00415-019-09608-2. PMID: 31701331
Vishnu VY, Modi M, Prabhakar S, Bhansali A, Goyal MK
J Neurol Sci 2014 Jan 15;336(1-2):251-3. Epub 2013 Oct 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2013.10.003. PMID: 24139699

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