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Encopresis

MedGen UID:
754509
Concept ID:
C2945606
Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: Fecal Soiling; Soilings, Fecal
SNOMED CT: Encopresis (302690004); Fecal soiling (302690004)
 
HPO: HP:0040183

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Seizures-scoliosis-macrocephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
909039
Concept ID:
C4225248
Disease or Syndrome
Seizures, scoliosis, and macrocephaly/microcephaly syndrome (SSMS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, impaired intellectual development, behavioral problems, poor or absent speech, seizures, dysmorphic facial features with macro- or microcephaly, and skeletal abnormalities, including scoliosis and delayed bone age. Other features may include hypotonia, gastrointestinal problems, and exostoses (summary by Gentile et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Shepard JA, Poler JE Jr, Grabman JH
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2017 Nov-Dec;46(6):767-797. Epub 2016 Dec 2 doi: 10.1080/15374416.2016.1247356. PMID: 27911597
Nijman RJ
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Sep;37(3):731-48, x. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2008.06.007. PMID: 18794006
Youssef NN, Di Lorenzo C
J Clin Gastroenterol 2001 Sep;33(3):199-205. doi: 10.1097/00004836-200109000-00006. PMID: 11500607

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Benson K, Bazier A, Schwartzkopf K, Waseem S, Gilbert E
Neurogastroenterol Motil 2023 Oct;35(10):e14644. Epub 2023 Jul 10 doi: 10.1111/nmo.14644. PMID: 37427680
Gizli Çoban Ö, Önder A, Sürer Adanır A
Arch Pediatr 2021 Jan;28(1):59-63. Epub 2020 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2020.10.002. PMID: 33223199
Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008 Aug;47(8):921-9. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318179964f. PMID: 18645422
Brazzelli M, Griffiths P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD002240. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002240. PMID: 11687154
Fritz GK, Armbrust J
Psychiatr Clin North Am 1982 Aug;5(2):283-96. PMID: 6750570

Diagnosis

LeLeiko NS, Mayer-Brown S, Cerezo C, Plante W
Pediatr Rev 2020 Aug;41(8):379-392. doi: 10.1542/pir.2018-0334. PMID: 32737251
Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008 Aug;47(8):921-9. doi: 10.1097/CHI.0b013e318179964f. PMID: 18645422
Loening-Baucke V
Curr Opin Pediatr 2002 Oct;14(5):570-5. doi: 10.1097/00008480-200210000-00002. PMID: 12352250
Patel DR, Pratt HD
Indian J Pediatr 1999 May-Jun;66(3):439-46. doi: 10.1007/BF02845538. PMID: 10798091
Loening-Baucke V
Pediatr Clin North Am 1996 Feb;43(1):279-98. doi: 10.1016/s0031-3955(05)70406-5. PMID: 8596685

Therapy

Nijman RJ
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2008 Sep;37(3):731-48, x. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2008.06.007. PMID: 18794006
Brazzelli M, Griffiths P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD002240. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002240. PMID: 11687154
Patel DR, Pratt HD
Indian J Pediatr 1999 May-Jun;66(3):439-46. doi: 10.1007/BF02845538. PMID: 10798091
Gleghorn EE, Heyman MB, Rudolph CD
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1991 Dec;30(12):669-72. doi: 10.1177/000992289103001203. PMID: 1764874
Fritz GK, Armbrust J
Psychiatr Clin North Am 1982 Aug;5(2):283-96. PMID: 6750570

Prognosis

Baroud E, Zar-Kessler C, Bender S
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Jul;61(7):851-853. Epub 2022 Jan 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.12.011. PMID: 34990763
Taurines R, Schmitt J, Renner T, Conner AC, Warnke A, Romanos M
Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2010 Dec;2(4):267-89. Epub 2010 Nov 10 doi: 10.1007/s12402-010-0040-0. PMID: 21432612
Glassberg KI, Combs AJ
Curr Opin Urol 2009 Jul;19(4):412-8. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32832c90d9. PMID: 19451817
Culbert TP, Banez GA
Pediatr Clin North Am 2007 Dec;54(6):927-47; xi. doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2007.09.001. PMID: 18061784
Fritz GK, Armbrust J
Psychiatr Clin North Am 1982 Aug;5(2):283-96. PMID: 6750570

Clinical prediction guides

Dayan J, Creveuil C, Bapt-Cazalets N
Encephale 2022 Sep;48 Suppl 1:S30-S33. Epub 2022 Aug 31 doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2022.08.005. PMID: 36057483
Wang R, Van den Heuvel M, Rickard M, El-Bardisi Y, Mistry N, Koyle M, Farhat W, Santos JD
J Pediatr Urol 2021 Aug;17(4):450.e1-450.e6. Epub 2021 Apr 3 doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.03.032. PMID: 33947637
Gizli Çoban Ö, Önder A, Sürer Adanır A
Arch Pediatr 2021 Jan;28(1):59-63. Epub 2020 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2020.10.002. PMID: 33223199
Elder JS, Diaz M
Nat Rev Urol 2013 Nov;10(11):640-8. Epub 2013 Oct 15 doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2013.221. PMID: 24126731
Glassberg KI, Combs AJ
Curr Opin Urol 2009 Jul;19(4):412-8. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32832c90d9. PMID: 19451817

Recent systematic reviews

Assis GM, Silva CPCD, Martins G
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2019 Nov-Dec;95(6):628-641. Epub 2019 Apr 19 doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2019.02.007. PMID: 31009619
Niemczyk J, Wagner C, von Gontard A
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2018 Dec;27(12):1523-1537. Epub 2017 Oct 10 doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1062-3. PMID: 29019014
Beaudry-Bellefeuille I, Booth D, Lane SJ
Perm J 2017;21:17-047. doi: 10.7812/TPP/17-047. PMID: 29035187Free PMC Article
Freeman KA, Riley A, Duke DC, Fu R
J Pediatr Psychol 2014 Sep;39(8):887-902. Epub 2014 Jun 12 doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsu039. PMID: 24925894
Brazzelli M, Griffiths P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;(4):CD002240. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002240. PMID: 11687154

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