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Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
HPO: HP:0012187


Concentration of protoporphyrins in erythrocytes above the upper limit of normal. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration

Conditions with this feature

X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood disorder called sideroblastic anemia and movement problems known as ataxia. This condition occurs only in males.\n\nSideroblastic anemia results when developing red blood cells called erythroblasts do not make enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name. Unlike other forms of sideroblastic anemia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia does not cause a potentially dangerous buildup of iron in the body. The anemia is typically mild and usually does not cause any symptoms.\n\nX-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia causes problems with balance and coordination that appear early in life. The ataxia primarily affects the trunk, making it difficult to sit, stand, and walk unassisted. In addition to ataxia, people with this condition often have trouble coordinating movements that involve judging distance or scale (dysmetria) and find it difficult to make rapid, alternating movements (dysdiadochokinesis). Mild speech difficulties (dysarthria), tremor, and abnormal eye movements have also been reported in some affected individuals.
X-linked erythropoietic protoporphyria
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) is characterized in affected males by cutaneous photosensitivity (usually beginning in infancy or childhood) that results in tingling, burning, pain, and itching within minutes of sun/light exposure and may be accompanied by swelling and redness. Blistering lesions are uncommon. Pain, which may seem out of proportion to the visible skin lesions, may persist for hours or days after the initial phototoxic reaction. Photosensitivity is lifelong. Multiple episodes of acute photosensitivity may lead to chronic changes of sun-exposed skin (lichenification, leathery pseudovesicles, grooving around the lips) and loss of lunulae of the nails. An unknown proportion of individuals with XLP develop liver disease. Except for those with advanced liver disease, life expectancy is not reduced. The phenotype in heterozygous females ranges from asymptomatic to as severe as in affected males.
Protoporphyria, erythropoietic, 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Erythropoietic porphyria-2 is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder of heme biosynthesis, resulting in abnormal accumulation of the heme biosynthesis intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Affected individuals may have photosensitivity (summary by Yien et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EPP, see EPP1 (177000).

Recent clinical studies


Labbé RF
Clin Chem 1977 Feb;23(2 PT. 1):256-9. PMID: 832388


Timonen K, Mustajoki P, Tenhunen R, Lauharanta J
Br J Dermatol 1990 Sep;123(3):381-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1990.tb06299.x. PMID: 2206975

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