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Gastrostomy tube feeding in infancy

MedGen UID:
892362
Concept ID:
C4023342
Finding
Synonym: PEG-fed in infancy
 
HPO: HP:0011471

Definition

Feeding problem necessitating gastrostomy tube feeding. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Gastrostomy tube feeding in infancy

Conditions with this feature

Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease due to ITCH deficiency
MedGen UID:
461999
Concept ID:
C3150649
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease due to Itch deficiency is a rare, genetic, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by failure to thrive, global developmental delay, distinctive craniofacial dysmorphism (relative macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, frontal bossing, orbital proptosis, flattened midface with a prominent occiput, low, posteriorly rotated ears, micrognatia), hepato- and/or splenomegaly, and multisystemic autoimmune disease involving the lungs, liver, gut and/or thyroid gland.
Nemaline myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
815539
Concept ID:
C3809209
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-8 is a severe autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, followed by contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties apparent at birth. Most patients die in infancy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows numerous small nemaline bodies, often with no normal myofibrils (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neuropathy, and deafness
MedGen UID:
1382171
Concept ID:
C4479603
Disease or Syndrome
SPTBN4 disorder is typically characterized by severe-to-profound developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, although two individuals in one family had a milder phenotype, including one individual with normal cognitive development. Speech and language skills are often severely limited. Affected individuals rarely achieve head control. Most are unable to sit, stand, or walk. Affected individuals typically have congenital hypotonia that may transition to hypertonia. Axonal motor neuropathy leads to hyporeflexia/areflexia and weakness, which can result in respiratory difficulties requiring ventilatory support. Most affected individuals require tube feeding for nutrition. Half of affected individuals develop seizures. Cortical visual impairment and auditory neuropathy have also been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 62
MedGen UID:
1631233
Concept ID:
C4693699
Disease or Syndrome
SCN3A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SCN3A-ND) encompasses a spectrum of clinical severity associated with epilepsy and/or brain malformation. Affected individuals may have (a) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (i.e., intractable seizures with developmental delays associated with ongoing epileptiform EEG activity) with or without malformations of cortical development; or (b) malformations of cortical development with or without mild focal epilepsy. Some degree of early childhood developmental delay is seen in all affected individuals; the severity varies widely, ranging from isolated speech delay to severe developmental delay. Infantile hypotonia is common but may be mild or absent in those without DEE. In those with DEE, seizure onset is typically in the first six to 12 months of life. A variety of seizure types have been described. Seizures remain intractable to multiple anti-seizure medications in approximately 50% of individuals with DEE without malformations of cortical development (MCD) and in 90% of individuals with DEE and MCD. Seizures may be absent or infrequent in those without DEE. Brain MRI findings range from normal to showing thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, to various malformations of cortical development. Autonomic dysregulation, oromotor dysfunction leading to the need for gastrostomy tube placement, progressive microcephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and cortical visual impairment can also be seen in those with DEE.
Squalene synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648421
Concept ID:
C4748427
Disease or Syndrome
Squalene synthase deficiency (SQSD) is a rare inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis with multisystem clinical manifestations similar to Smith-Lemli-Optiz syndrome. Key clinical features include facial dysmorphism, a generalized seizure disorder presenting in the neonatal period, nonspecific structural brain malformations, cortical visual impairment, optic nerve hypoplasia, profound developmental delay / intellectual disability, dry skin with photosensitivity, and genital malformations in males.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 18
MedGen UID:
1680067
Concept ID:
C5193078
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-18 (HLD18) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of global developmental delay usually in early infancy. Affected individuals have very poor psychomotor development, including inability to sit or walk independently in the more severe cases, as well as poor or absent speech, dystonia, and spasticity. A subset of patients may develop seizures. Brain imaging shows hypomyelinating leukodystrophy affecting various brain regions; some patients may also have progressive atrophy of the corpus callosum, thalami, and cerebellum (summary by Pant et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 21
MedGen UID:
1684749
Concept ID:
C5231419
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies, seizures, and scoliosis (NEDBSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired psychomotor development, hypotonia, seizures, and structural brain anomalies, including thin corpus callosum and cerebellar atrophy. Other features include scoliosis, dysmorphic facies, and visual impairment. Affected individuals are usually unable to walk or speak and may require tube feeding in severe cases. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Knaus et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neonatal respiratory insufficiency, and thermodysregulation
MedGen UID:
1716098
Concept ID:
C5394091
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, neonatal respiratory insufficiency, and thermodysregulation (NEDHRIT) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal respiratory distress, poor feeding, and impaired global development. Affected individuals are unable to walk or speak and have poor or absent eye contact. Some patients may develop seizures (summary by Wagner et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1719418
Concept ID:
C5394218
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 1 (NSDVS1) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, variable behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features, including round face, small palpebral fissures, highly arched eyebrows, and short nose. The severity is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder and structural brain anomalies with or without seizures and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1711516
Concept ID:
C5394423
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder and structural brain anomalies with or without seizures and spasticity (NEDBASS) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, poor overall growth often with microcephaly, impaired intellectual development with delayed or absent speech, axial hypotonia, and peripheral spasticity. Additional common but variable features include early-onset seizures, optic atrophy with poor visual fixation, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, poor or absent myelination with loss of white matter volume, and often hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or cerebellum. Early death may occur (summary by Bend et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 86
MedGen UID:
1711964
Concept ID:
C5394462
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-86 (DEE86) is an X-linked neurologic syndrome characterized by severe and persistent seizures associated with EEG abnormalities beginning in the first few months of life, global developmental delay, severe motor deficits, dystonic movements, and dysmorphic facial features (Lentini et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Neurodegeneration, infantile-onset, biotin-responsive
MedGen UID:
1771692
Concept ID:
C5436520
Disease or Syndrome
Sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter deficiency (SMVTD) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Affected individuals usually present at birth or in infancy with severe feeding problems, gastrointestinal reflux, cyclic vomiting, and diarrhea associated with failure to thrive. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage may occur; tube-feeding is often required for a short time. The course and severity of the disease varies: some patients have episodes of acute metabolic decompensation during infection that respond well to treatment, whereas others show more permanent neurologic regression with loss of early motor and cognitive milestones in the first year or so of life. Less severely affected patients have normal development or mild growth and motor delays, whereas more severely affected individuals may have seizures, ataxia, spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, immune defects, and osteopenia. In severely affected patients, brain imaging shows cerebral, cerebellar, and brainstem atrophy and thin corpus callosum. Treatment with biotin, pantothenic acid, and alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to result in significant clinical improvement (Byrne et al., 2019; Hauth et al., 2022).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1781967
Concept ID:
C5543020
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities (CONRIBA) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have hypotonia with impaired motor development, respiratory insufficiency, and feeding difficulties requiring intervention. Intellectual and speech development is also delayed, and most have visual defects, including cortical visual blindness, nystagmus, and esotropia. The disorder is progressive, as manifest by developmental regression consistent with neurodegeneration. Although overt seizures are not observed, some patients may have episodic hypertonia or apnea, and EEG may show nonspecific abnormalities. Brain imaging shows unique diffusion restriction signal abnormalities affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and corticospinal tracts. Early death may occur (summary by Polovitskaya et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 6B
MedGen UID:
1779648
Concept ID:
C5543353
Disease or Syndrome
SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family.
Central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital, 2, and autonomic dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1794173
Concept ID:
C5561963
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome-2 and autonomic dysfunction (CCHS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by shallow breathing and apneic spells apparent in the neonatal period. Affected infants require mechanical ventilation due to impaired ventilatory response to hypercapnia, as well as tube feeding due to poor swallowing, aspiration, and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Some patients have other features of autonomic dysfunction, including bladder dysfunction, sinus bradycardia, and temperature dysregulation. Although mild global developmental delay with learning difficulties and seizures were present in the single family reported, it was unclear if these features were related to the hypoventilation phenotype (Spielmann et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CCHS, see CCHS1 (209880).
Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 3
MedGen UID:
1798903
Concept ID:
C5567480
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies-3 is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with onset at birth or in early infancy. Most affected individuals show very poor, if any, normal psychomotor development, poor speech, and inability to walk independently (summary by Bhoj et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies, see IHPRF1 (615419).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with gait disturbance, dysmorphic facies, and behavioral abnormalities, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1823953
Concept ID:
C5774179
Disease or Syndrome
Hijazi-Reis syndrome (HIJRS) is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, motor delay, impaired intellectual development, and speech and language delay. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features, gastrointestinal issues, and ocular anomalies. Rare patients have seizures (Hijazi et al., 2022).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIz
MedGen UID:
1824068
Concept ID:
C5774295
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIz (CDG2Z) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor overall growth, severe global developmental delay, seizures, contractures, hypotonia, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities. Serum transferrin shows a type 2 pattern of glycosylation abnormalities with a combined N- and O-glycosylation defect (Wilson et al., 2022). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Congenital myopathy 2c, severe infantile, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1840969
Concept ID:
C5830333
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2C (CMYP2C) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by severe congenital weakness usually resulting in death from respiratory failure in the first year or so of life. Patients present at birth with hypotonia, lack of antigravity movements, poor head control, and difficulties feeding or breathing, often requiring tube-feeding and mechanical ventilation. Decreased fetal movements may be observed in some cases. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype. Some patients with heterozygous mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation (CMYP2A; 161800). The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Marsaud C, Rossignol S, Tounian P, Netchine I, Dubern B
Arch Dis Child 2015 Apr;100(4):353-8. Epub 2014 Nov 18 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2013-305864. PMID: 25700540

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