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Rod-cone dystrophy

MedGen UID:
1632921
Concept ID:
C4551714
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Rod Cone Dystrophies; Rod Cone Dystrophy; Rod-Cone Dystrophies; Rod-Cone Dystrophy
 
HPO: HP:0000510

Definition

An inherited retinal disease subtype in which the rod photoreceptors appear to be more severely affected than the cone photoreceptors. Typical presentation is with nyctalopia (due to rod dysfunction) followed by loss of mid-peripheral field of vision, which gradually extends and leaves many patients with a small central island of vision due to the preservation of macular cones. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Phytanic acid storage disease
MedGen UID:
11161
Concept ID:
C0034960
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Retinitis pigmentosa
MedGen UID:
20551
Concept ID:
C0035334
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) refers to a heterogeneous group of inherited ocular diseases that result in a progressive retinal degeneration affecting 1 in 3,000 to 5,000 people (Veltel et al., 2008). Symptoms include night blindness, the development of tunnel vision, and slowly progressive decreased central vision starting at approximately 20 years of age. Upon examination, patients have decreased visual acuity, constricted visual fields, dyschromatopsia (tritanopic; see 190900), and the classic fundus appearance with dark pigmentary clumps in the midperiphery and perivenous areas ('bone spicules'), attenuated retinal vessels, cystoid macular edema, fine pigmented vitreous cells, and waxy optic disc pallor. RP is associated with posterior subcapsular cataracts in 39 to 72% of patients, high myopia, astigmatism, keratoconus, and mild hearing loss in 30% of patients (excluding patients with Usher syndrome; see 276900). Fifty percent of female carriers of X-linked RP have a golden reflex in the posterior pole (summary by Kaiser et al., 2004). Juvenile Retinitis Pigmentosa Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis (see 204000), whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). Autosomal recessive forms of juvenile retinitis pigmentosa can be caused by mutation in the SPATA7 (609868), LRAT (604863), and TULP1 (602280) genes (see LCA3, 604232, LCA14, 613341, and LCA15, 613843, respectively). An autosomal dominant form of juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (see 604393) is caused by mutation in the AIPL1 gene (604392).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-C
MedGen UID:
39477
Concept ID:
C0086649
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections.
Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
Dubowitz syndrome (DS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized primarly by growth retardation, microcephaly, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cutaneous eczema, a mild to severe intellectual deficit and genital abnormalities.
Retinitis pigmentosa 1
MedGen UID:
67395
Concept ID:
C0220701
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RP1 gene.
Hooft disease
MedGen UID:
75686
Concept ID:
C0268479
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1B
MedGen UID:
79470
Concept ID:
C0282527
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Muscular atrophy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
137966
Concept ID:
C0342281
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hereditary ataxia with characteristics of neurogenic muscular atrophy associated with signs of cerebellar ataxia, degeneration of the retina and diabetes mellitus. Onset of the disease is in adolescence and the course is slowly progressive.
Flynn-Aird syndrome
MedGen UID:
91009
Concept ID:
C0343108
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by childhood onset of bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss, ocular anomalies (myopia, cataract, retinitis pigmentosa), central and peripheral nervous system features (dementia, epilepsy, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy), ectodermal features (skin atrophy, alopecia, dental caries), and skeletal anomalies (bone cysts, joint stiffness, scoliosis, kyphosis). Laboratory examination may reveal elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein.
PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased.
Hyperimmunoglobulin D with periodic fever
MedGen UID:
140768
Concept ID:
C0398691
Disease or Syndrome
Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often.\n\nMevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA).\n\nPeople with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy.\n\nDuring episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why some people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA and some do not. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy.
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3
MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements, and in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration.
NARP syndrome
MedGen UID:
231285
Concept ID:
C1328349
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-associated Leigh syndrome and NARP (neurogenic muscle weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa) are part of a continuum of progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormalities of mitochondrial energy generation. Leigh syndrome (or subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is characterized by onset of symptoms typically between ages three and 12 months, often following a viral infection. Decompensation (often with elevated lactate levels in blood and/or CSF) during an intercurrent illness is typically associated with psychomotor retardation or regression. Neurologic features include hypotonia, spasticity, movement disorders (including chorea), cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Extraneurologic manifestations may include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. About 50% of affected individuals die by age three years, most often as a result of respiratory or cardiac failure. NARP is characterized by proximal neurogenic muscle weakness with sensory neuropathy, ataxia, and pigmentary retinopathy. Onset of symptoms, particularly ataxia and learning difficulties, is often in early childhood. Individuals with NARP can be relatively stable for many years, but may suffer episodic deterioration, often in association with viral illnesses.
Retinitis pigmentosa 23
MedGen UID:
238456
Concept ID:
C1419610
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the OFD1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 28
MedGen UID:
244030
Concept ID:
C1419614
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FAM161A gene.
Usher syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
292820
Concept ID:
C1568247
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher syndrome type 2D
MedGen UID:
292821
Concept ID:
C1568249
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is characterized by the following: Congenital, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss that is mild to moderate in the low frequencies and severe to profound in the higher frequencies. Intact or variable vestibular responses. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP); progressive, bilateral, symmetric retinal degeneration that begins with night blindness and constricted visual fields (tunnel vision) and eventually includes decreased central visual acuity; the rate and degree of vision loss vary within and among families.
Retinitis pigmentosa 18
MedGen UID:
371314
Concept ID:
C1832378
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRPF3 gene.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 12
MedGen UID:
330455
Concept ID:
C1832394
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness that is characterized by prelingual onset with severe to profound, stable hearing loss and has material basis in mutation in the CDH23 gene on chromosome 10q22.
Usher syndrome type 1D
MedGen UID:
322051
Concept ID:
C1832845
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Retinitis pigmentosa 17
MedGen UID:
322153
Concept ID:
C1833245
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-17 (RP17) is characterized by relatively mild disease, with decreased visual acuity, visual field constriction, nyctalopia, and slow progression. Many affected individuals have preserved central vision and acuity until the sixth or seventh decades of life (de Bruijn et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 27
MedGen UID:
320323
Concept ID:
C1834329
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NRL gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 33
MedGen UID:
332080
Concept ID:
C1835895
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SNRNP200 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 31
MedGen UID:
372159
Concept ID:
C1835923
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TOPORS gene.
Senior-Loken syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
332226
Concept ID:
C1836517
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with the main features of nephronophthisis (NPHP; see 256100) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA; see 204000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 9
MedGen UID:
332304
Concept ID:
C1836841
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
324636
Concept ID:
C1836916
Disease or Syndrome
Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (AXPC1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011).
Retinitis pigmentosa 11
MedGen UID:
325055
Concept ID:
C1838601
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal dystrophies characterized by a progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, eventually resulting in severe visual impairment. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of RP, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 14
MedGen UID:
325056
Concept ID:
C1838603
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TULP1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 12
MedGen UID:
374019
Concept ID:
C1838647
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CRB1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 13
MedGen UID:
325486
Concept ID:
C1838702
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRPF8 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa Y-linked
MedGen UID:
326805
Concept ID:
C1839079
Disease or Syndrome
Y-linked form of retinitis pigmentosa.
Retinitis pigmentosa 6
MedGen UID:
333305
Concept ID:
C1839368
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region Xp21.3-p21.2.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked recessive 5
MedGen UID:
374254
Concept ID:
C1839566
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 5 (CMTX5), part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by peripheral neuropathy, early-onset (prelingual) bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, and optic neuropathy. The onset of peripheral neuropathy is between ages five and 12 years. The lower extremities are affected earlier and more severely than upper extremities. Initial manifestations often include foot drop or gait disturbance. Onset of visual impairment is between ages seven and 20 years. Intellect and life span are normal. Carrier females do not have findings of CMTX5.
Retinitis pigmentosa 26
MedGen UID:
333996
Concept ID:
C1842127
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CERKL gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 7
MedGen UID:
334168
Concept ID:
C1842475
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in mutation in the PRPH2 gene on chromosome 6p21.
Retinitis pigmentosa 30
MedGen UID:
334614
Concept ID:
C1842816
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FSCN2 gene.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 37
MedGen UID:
375076
Concept ID:
C1843028
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYO6 gene.
X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
336862
Concept ID:
C1845136
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is characterized by moderate intellectual deficit and severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa. It has been described in five males spanning three generations of one family. Some patients also had microcephaly. It is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait.
Retinitis pigmentosa 3
MedGen UID:
336999
Concept ID:
C1845667
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration that primarily affects the rod photoreceptors (Demirci et al., 2002). It typically causes an early-onset night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often causing patients to become legally blind by the age of 30 to 40 years. In RP3, affected males have a severe phenotype, and carrier females show a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe RP (Jin et al., 2007). Mutation in the RPGR gene is believed to account for approximately 70% of XLRP (Vervoort et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Cone-rod dystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
337598
Concept ID:
C1846529
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy-10 (CORD10) is characterized by progressive loss of visual acuity and color vision, followed by night blindness and loss of peripheral vision. Patients may experience photophobia and epiphora in bright light (Abid et al., 2006). Mutation in SEMA4A can also cause a form of retinitis pigmentosa (RP35; 610282). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970.
Hypoprebetalipoproteinemia, acanthocytosis, retinitis pigmentosa, and pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
337612
Concept ID:
C1846582
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Senior-Loken syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
337697
Concept ID:
C1846979
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-4 (SLSN4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the association of the cystic renal disorder nephronophthisis with late-onset retinitis pigmentosa (Schuermann et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Usher syndrome type 1G
MedGen UID:
339683
Concept ID:
C1847089
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher syndrome type 1C
MedGen UID:
338506
Concept ID:
C1848604
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher syndrome type 2A
MedGen UID:
338513
Concept ID:
C1848634
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is characterized by the following: Congenital, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss that is mild to moderate in the low frequencies and severe to profound in the higher frequencies. Intact or variable vestibular responses. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP); progressive, bilateral, symmetric retinal degeneration that begins with night blindness and constricted visual fields (tunnel vision) and eventually includes decreased central visual acuity; the rate and degree of vision loss vary within and among families.
Spastic tetraplegia-retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
376519
Concept ID:
C1849112
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by the association of nonprogressive spastic quadriparesis, retinitis pigmentosa, intellectual disability, and variable deafness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Rod-cone dystrophy, sensorineural deafness, and Fanconi-type renal dysfunction
MedGen UID:
376565
Concept ID:
C1849333
Disease or Syndrome
Rod-cone dystrophy, sensorineural deafness, and Fanconi-type renal dysfunction (RCDFRD) is characterized by onset of hearing impairment and reduced vision within the first 5 years of life. Renal dysfunction results in rickets-like skeletal changes, and death may occur in childhood or young adulthood due to renal failure (Beighton et al., 1993).
Late-adult onset retinitis pigmentosa
MedGen UID:
340316
Concept ID:
C1849400
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that is characterized by onset of symptoms in the fifth or sixth decade of life.
Retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability-deafness-hypogenitalism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340317
Concept ID:
C1849401
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndromic retinitis pigmentosa characterized by pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus with hyperinsulinism, acanthosis nigricans, secondary cataracts, neurogenic deafness, short stature mild hypogonadism in males and polycystic ovaries with oligomenorrhea in females. Inheritance is thought to be autosomal recessive. It can be distinguished from Alstrom syndrome (see this term) by the presence of intellectual disability and the absence of renal insufficiency. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1993.
Saldino-Mainzer syndrome
MedGen UID:
341455
Concept ID:
C1849437
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
376636
Concept ID:
C1849678
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also D-bifunctional protein deficiency (261515), caused by mutation in the HSD17B4 gene (601860) on chromosome 5q2. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995).
Retinitis pigmentosa 35
MedGen UID:
339931
Concept ID:
C1853214
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-35 (RP35) is characterized by night blindness with progressive loss of vision. Pigment deposits and narrowing of vasculature are seen in the retina (Abid et al., 2006). Mutation in SEMA4A can also cause a form of cone-rod dystrophy (CORD10; 610283). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Senior-Loken syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
387907
Concept ID:
C1857779
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-6 (SLSN6) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the association of nephronophthisis resulting in end-stage renal disease in the second decade of life with retinal degeneration (Sayer et al., 2006). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Joubert syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
347545
Concept ID:
C1857780
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
347610
Concept ID:
C1858054
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-6 (BBS6) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the cardinal features of postaxial polydactyly, retinitis pigmentosa, kidney defects, obesity, and mental retardation (Slavotinek et al., 2000). Zaghloul and Katsanis (2009) estimated that mutations in the MKKS gene account for 5.8% of the total BBS mutational load. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347179
Concept ID:
C1859564
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-3 (BBS3) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinal dystrophy, polydactyly, renal structural abnormalities, and history of obesity. Although mental retardation has been considered part of the BBS phenotype, several patients with BBS3 and normal intelligence have been reported. Additionally, the obesity in several BBS3 patients has been reversible with caloric restriction and exercise (Young et al., 1998; Ghadami et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
347180
Concept ID:
C1859565
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-7 (BBS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, postaxial polydactyly, mental retardation, obesity, renal anomalies, and hypogenitalism (Harville et al., 2010). Zaghloul and Katsanis (2009) estimated the contribution of BBS7 gene mutations to the total BBS mutational load to be 1.50%. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
347181
Concept ID:
C1859566
Disease or Syndrome
BBS8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, hypogonadism, and developmental delay (Ansley et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
347182
Concept ID:
C1859567
Disease or Syndrome
BBS9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by obesity, polydactyly, renal anomalies, retinopathy, and mental retardation (Abu-Safieh et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
347909
Concept ID:
C1859568
Disease or Syndrome
BBS10 is characterized by progressive retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, cognitive impairment, and renal dysplasia (Stoetzel et al., 2006). BBS10 represents a major locus for BBS, with mutations in the BBS10 gene accounting for approximately 20% of BBS patients (Stoetzel et al., 2006; Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
347910
Concept ID:
C1859570
Disease or Syndrome
BBS12 is a clinically pleiotropic autosomal recessive ciliopathy. The patients with BBS12 studied by Stoetzel et al. (2007) and Harville et al. (2010) met the diagnostic criteria of Beales et al. (1999), which required the presence of either 4 primary features, including rod-cone dystrophy, polydactyly, obesity, learning disabilities, hypogonadism (in males), and/or renal anomalies; or 3 primary plus 2 secondary features (e.g., developmental delay, ataxia, cataracts). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 25
MedGen UID:
350427
Concept ID:
C1864446
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the EYS gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 36
MedGen UID:
351175
Concept ID:
C1864621
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRCD gene.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 10
MedGen UID:
350481
Concept ID:
C1864669
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
356065
Concept ID:
C1865695
Disease or Syndrome
Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMDAX) is characterized by postnatal growth failure, including rhizomelic short stature in early childhood that evolves into short trunk in late childhood, and thoracic hypoplasia that may cause mild to moderate respiratory problems in the neonatal period and later susceptibility to airway infection. Impaired visual acuity comes to medical attention in early life and vision rapidly deteriorates. Retinal changes are diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa or pigmentary retinal degeneration on funduscopic examination and as cone-rod dystrophy on electroretinogram. Radiologic hallmarks include short ribs with flared and cupped anterior ends, mild spondylar dysplasia, lacy iliac crests, and metaphyseal irregularities essentially confined to the proximal femora (summary by Suzuki et al., 2011).
RHYNS syndrome
MedGen UID:
356371
Concept ID:
C1865794
Disease or Syndrome
RHYNS syndrome is characterized by gaze palsy, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural hearing loss, hypopituitarism, nephronophthisis, and mild skeletal dysplasia (Di Rocco et al., 1997).
Usher syndrome type 1E
MedGen UID:
400865
Concept ID:
C1865865
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Usher syndrome type 1F
MedGen UID:
356393
Concept ID:
C1865885
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Colobomatous microphthalmia - obesity - hypogenitalism - intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
400954
Concept ID:
C1866256
Disease or Syndrome
Colobomatous microphthalmia-obesity-hypogenitalism-intellectual disability syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic microphthalmia disorder characterized by bilateral, usually asymmetrical, microphthalmia associated typically with a unilateral coloboma, truncal obesity, borderline to mild intellectual disability, hypogenitalism and, more variably, nystagmus, cataracts and developmental delay.
Retinitis pigmentosa 19
MedGen UID:
400996
Concept ID:
C1866422
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ABCA4 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 10
MedGen UID:
357247
Concept ID:
C1867299
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-10 (RP10) is characterized in most patients by early onset and rapid progression of ocular symptoms, beginning with night blindness in childhood, followed by visual field constriction. Some patients experience an eventual reduction in visual acuity. Funduscopy shows typical changes of RP, including optic disc pallor, retinal vascular attenuation, and bone-spicule pattern of pigmentary deposits in the retinal midperiphery. Electroretinography demonstrates equal reduction in rod and cone responses (Jordan et al., 1993; Bowne et al., 2002; Bowne et al., 2006). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 9
MedGen UID:
356743
Concept ID:
C1867300
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) is characterized by a typical fundus appearance, narrowed retinal vessels, and changes in the electrophysiological responses of the eye. Early signs are night blindness and constriction of the visual fields with a variable ages of onset (summary by Jay et al., 1992).
Retinitis pigmentosa 37
MedGen UID:
410004
Concept ID:
C1970163
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NR2E3 gene.
Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 74
MedGen UID:
453237
Concept ID:
C2239351
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MSRB3 gene.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 13
MedGen UID:
393032
Concept ID:
C2673873
Disease or Syndrome
BBS13 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with features of obesity, polydactyly, and retinitis pigmentosa (Leitch et al., 2008; Xing et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
393033
Concept ID:
C2673874
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-14 (BBS14) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy with features of retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, mental retardation, and renal disease (Leitch et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
PHARC syndrome
MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
Fiskerstrand type peripheral neuropathy is a slowly-progressive Refsum-like disorder associating signs of peripheral neuropathy with late-onset hearing loss, cataract and pigmentary retinopathy that become evident during the third decade of life.
Retinitis pigmentosa 46
MedGen UID:
382614
Concept ID:
C2675496
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-46 (RP46) is characterized by night blindness, loss of peripheral vision, and reduced visual acuity. Funduscopic findings are typical of RP, including pale optic discs, attenuated retinal vessels, and intraretinal pigment deposits. Electroretinography shows substantial loss of rod and cone photoreceptor function (Hartong et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 29
MedGen UID:
393710
Concept ID:
C2677325
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 4q32-q34.
Oculoauricular syndrome
MedGen UID:
393758
Concept ID:
C2677500
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoauricular syndrome (OCACS) is characterized by complex ocular anomalies, including congenital cataract, anterior segment dysgenesis, iris coloboma, and early-onset retinal dystrophy, and dysplastic ears with abnormal external ear cartilage (summary by Gillespie et al., 2015).
Retinitis pigmentosa 41
MedGen UID:
383126
Concept ID:
C2677516
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PROM1 gene.
Deafness, cataract, retinitis pigmentosa, and sperm abnormalities
MedGen UID:
395517
Concept ID:
C2678011
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa 2
MedGen UID:
394544
Concept ID:
C2681923
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by constriction of the visual fields, night blindness, and fundus changes, including 'bone corpuscle' lumps of pigment. RP unassociated with other abnormalities is inherited most frequently (84%) as an autosomal recessive, next as an autosomal dominant (10%), and least frequently (6%) as an X-linked recessive in the white U.S. population (Boughman et al., 1980). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Joubert syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
440688
Concept ID:
C2749019
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked, and sinorespiratory infections, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
440716
Concept ID:
C2749137
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa and sinorespiratory infections with or without deafness (RPSRDF) is characterized by typical features of RP, including night blindness, constricted visual fields, progressive reduction in visual acuity, bone-spicule pigmentation, and extinguished responses on electroretinography. Affected individuals also experience severe recurrent sinorespiratory infections, and some develop progressive hearing loss. Carrier females may show an attenuated ocular and/or respiratory phenotype (Zito et al., 2003; Moore et al., 2006).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 9B
MedGen UID:
440765
Concept ID:
C2749346
Disease or Syndrome
Adult Refsum disease (ARD is associated with elevated plasma phytanic acid levels, late childhood-onset (or later) retinitis pigmentosa, and variable combinations of anosmia, polyneuropathy, deafness, ataxia, and ichthyosis. Onset of symptoms ranges from age seven months to older than age 50 years. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure caused by cardiomyopathy are potentially severe health problems that develop later in life.
Leber congenital amaurosis 14
MedGen UID:
442375
Concept ID:
C2750063
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis, whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 50
MedGen UID:
442563
Concept ID:
C2750789
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BEST1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 42
MedGen UID:
442864
Concept ID:
C2751986
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KLHL7 gene.
Usher syndrome type 2C
MedGen UID:
419359
Concept ID:
C2931213
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is characterized by the following: Congenital, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss that is mild to moderate in the low frequencies and severe to profound in the higher frequencies. Intact or variable vestibular responses. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP); progressive, bilateral, symmetric retinal degeneration that begins with night blindness and constricted visual fields (tunnel vision) and eventually includes decreased central visual acuity; the rate and degree of vision loss vary within and among families.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
422453
Concept ID:
C2936863
Disease or Syndrome
BBS2 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, polydactyly, renal disease, hypogonadism, obesity, dysmorphic features, and variable degrees of cognitive impairment (Innes et al., 2010). Mutation in the BBS2 gene is the third most frequent cause of BBS, accounting for approximately 8% of cases (Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
423627
Concept ID:
C2936864
Disease or Syndrome
BBS4 is a rare multisystemic disorder characterized primarily by retinal dystrophy, obesity, polydactyly, and renal dysfunction that accounts for less than 3% of BBS (Katsanis et al., 2002). Anosmia has been described in patients with BBS4 (Iannaccone et al., 2005), as well as polydactyly confined to the hands (Carmi et al., 1995). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 54
MedGen UID:
462041
Concept ID:
C3150691
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-54 (RP54) is characterized by typical signs of RP, including poor night vision and peripheral field loss, retinal bone spicule-type pigment deposits, pale optic discs, and markedly reduced or extinguished responses on electroretinography. Atypical features that have been observed include early degeneration of the cone photoreceptor system with macular abnormalities, and ring scotoma on the visual field (Collin et al., 2010). Patients may exhibit an early-onset form of cone-rod dystrophy (CORD23), with central vision loss and ring scotoma around the fovea that progresses to marked chorioretinal atrophy in the macular area (Serra et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000. For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy, see CORD2 (120970).
Retinitis pigmentosa 51
MedGen UID:
462065
Concept ID:
C3150715
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TTC8 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 55
MedGen UID:
462158
Concept ID:
C3150808
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ARL6 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 56
MedGen UID:
462169
Concept ID:
C3150819
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-56 (RP56) is an early-onset form of RP with progressive visual-field loss and deterioration of visual acuity (Bandah-Rozenfeld et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 57
MedGen UID:
462171
Concept ID:
C3150821
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PDE6G gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 58
MedGen UID:
462229
Concept ID:
C3150879
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZNF513 gene.
Cone-rod dystrophy 15
MedGen UID:
462262
Concept ID:
C3150912
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy-15 (CORD15) is characterized by onset of reduced vision in the third to fifth decades of life. Visual acuity progressively worsens, and most patients exhibit reduced color vision and central scotomas (Cohen et al., 2012; Sobolewska et al., 2023). Retinitis pigmentosa-65 (RP65) is an adult-onset form of RP, with night blindness developing in the second to fourth decades of life. In addition to constriction of visual fields, patients may experience photophobia, reduced visual acuity, and difficulties with color vision (Henderson et al., 2010; Bessette et al., 2018; Dawood et al., 2021). Retinal macular dystrophy-5 (MCDR5) is a late-onset form of macular dystrophy, with most patients noting symptoms in the fourth to sixth decades of life. Symptoms include reduced visual acuity, glare, poor contrast vision, and metamorphopsia; night blindness is uncommon (Stingl et al., 2017; Charbel Issa et al., 2019; Ba-Abbad et al., 2021). Macular atrophy is a characteristic feature in all patients, and early involvement may be observed even in patients with RP who exhibit relatively preserved visual acuity (Malechka et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970; for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000; for retinal macular dystrophy, see 136550. Reviews Bessette et al. (2018) reviewed published reports of patients with disease-causing mutations in the CDHR1 gene. The median age of patients was 36 years, and the majority retained visual acuity of 20/70 or better in at least one eye. Most patients developed symptoms between the first and third decades of life (range, infancy through fourth decade). Night blindness was the most common presenting symptom (54%), followed by photosensitivity (39%) and decreased vision (31%). Macular atrophy was the most common fundus feature reported (96%), followed by vascular attenuation (69%) and peripheral bone spicules (54%). The authors noted significant inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability among patients with CDHR1 mutations.
Retinitis pigmentosa 4
MedGen UID:
462351
Concept ID:
C3151001
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RHO gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 49
MedGen UID:
462409
Concept ID:
C3151059
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-49 (RP49) is characterized by onset of night blindness in childhood, followed by progressive loss of visual fields and reduced visual acuity. Typical fundus features are present, including pale optic disc, attenuated vasculature, and pigment deposits in the midperiphery (Zhang et al., 2004; Katagiri et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 47
MedGen UID:
462411
Concept ID:
C3151061
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-47 (RP47) is characterized by relatively late-onset visual decline, although most patients experience night blindness in childhood. A characteristic golden sheen, considered to be pathognomonic for Oguchi disease (258100), may be observed in the periphery on ultra-widefield fundus images (Nishiguchi et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 45
MedGen UID:
462416
Concept ID:
C3151066
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CNGB1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 44
MedGen UID:
462418
Concept ID:
C3151068
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RGR gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 20
MedGen UID:
462436
Concept ID:
C3151086
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPE65 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 40
MedGen UID:
462457
Concept ID:
C3151107
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PDE6B gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 39
MedGen UID:
462488
Concept ID:
C3151138
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-39 (RP39) is characterized by the typical features of RP, including constriction of visual fields and reduced vision, with the fundus showing bone-spicule pigment deposition and attenuation of retinal vessels (Kaiserman et al., 2007; Jung et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 43
MedGen UID:
462489
Concept ID:
C3151139
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-43 (RP43) is characterized by night blindness in the first decade of life, with progressive loss of peripheral visual fields and reduction in visual acuity. Examination reveals typical features of RP, including waxy pallor of optic disc, attenuated retinal vessels, and bone-spicule pigment in midperipheral retina. Macular edema and/or atrophy has been observed in some patients. Electroretinographic responses are markedly reduced or absent (summary by Huang et al., 1995 and Corton et al., 2010).
Retinitis pigmentosa 48
MedGen UID:
462540
Concept ID:
C3151190
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GUCA1B gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 59
MedGen UID:
462577
Concept ID:
C3151227
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DHDDS gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 38
MedGen UID:
462578
Concept ID:
C3151228
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) describes a group of disorders with progressive degeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in a rod-cone pattern of dysfunction. RP has a prevalence of 1 in 3,500, and is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous (summary by Mackay et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 60
MedGen UID:
462784
Concept ID:
C3151434
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRPF6 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 61
MedGen UID:
481671
Concept ID:
C3280041
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-61 (RP61) is an autosomal recessive photoreceptor degenerative disorder initially characterized by impairment of night vision and midperipheral visual field loss. Bone spicule pigmentation in the retinal periphery is present, and loss of rod function is detected by electroretinography (ERG) (Khan et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 62
MedGen UID:
481672
Concept ID:
C3280042
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MAK gene.
Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase deficiency
MedGen UID:
482058
Concept ID:
C3280428
Disease or Syndrome
AMACR deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by adult onset of variable neurodegenerative symptoms affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Features may include seizures, visual failure, sensorimotor neuropathy, spasticity, migraine, and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. Serum pristanic acid and C27 bile acid intermediates are increased (summary by Smith et al., 2010).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 4
MedGen UID:
482246
Concept ID:
C3280616
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Retinitis pigmentosa 63
MedGen UID:
482632
Concept ID:
C3281002
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 6q23.
Cone-rod dystrophy 16
MedGen UID:
482675
Concept ID:
C3281045
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are clinically and genetically overlapping heterogeneous retinal dystrophies. RP is characterized initially by rod photoreceptor dysfunction, giving rise to night blindness, which is followed by progressive rod and cone photoreceptor dystrophy, resulting in midperipheral vision loss, tunnel vision, and sometimes blindness. In contrast to RP, CORD is characterized by a primary loss of cone photoreceptors and subsequent or simultaneous loss of rod photoreceptors. The disease in most cases becomes apparent during primary-school years, and symptoms include photoaversion, decrease in visual acuity with or without nystagmus, color vision defects, and decreased sensitivity of the central visual field. Because rods are also involved, night blindness and peripheral vision loss can occur. The diagnosis of CORD is mainly based on electroretinogram (ERG) recordings, in which cone responses are more severely reduced than, or equally as reduced as rod responses (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2012).
Usher syndrome type 1K
MedGen UID:
761332
Concept ID:
C3539124
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5B
MedGen UID:
762202
Concept ID:
C3542026
Disease or Syndrome
The overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD) represent the milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders. The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX2 gene have cells of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder type 3B
MedGen UID:
763607
Concept ID:
C3550693
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 1
MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4B
MedGen UID:
766851
Concept ID:
C3553937
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder-4B (PBD4B) includes the overlapping phenotypes of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD) and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), which represent milder manifestations of the Zellweger syndrome spectrum (ZSS) of peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs). The clinical course of patients with the NALD and IRD presentation is variable and may include developmental delay, hypotonia, liver dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss, retinal dystrophy, and visual impairment. Children with the NALD presentation may reach their teens, and those with the IRD presentation may reach adulthood (summary by Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PBD(NALD/IRD), see 601539. Individuals with mutations in the PEX6 gene have cells of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC). For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Usher syndrome type 1J
MedGen UID:
766858
Concept ID:
C3553944
Disease or Syndrome
Usher syndrome type I (USH1) is characterized by congenital, bilateral, profound sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular areflexia, and adolescent-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Unless fitted with a cochlear implant, individuals do not typically develop speech. RP, a progressive, bilateral, symmetric degeneration of rod and cone functions of the retina, develops in adolescence, resulting in progressively constricted visual fields and impaired visual acuity.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
811538
Concept ID:
C3714980
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-17 (BBS17) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cognitive impairment, obesity, renal dysfunction, and hypogenitalism. Polydactyly, most often postaxial, is also a primary feature of BBS; in BBS17, mesoaxial polydactyly, with fused or Y-shaped metacarpals, is a distinct manifestation (Deffert et al., 2007; Schaefer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 66
MedGen UID:
811638
Concept ID:
C3715216
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RBP3 gene.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
812504
Concept ID:
C3806174
Disease or Syndrome
BBS18 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney failure, and cognitive disability (Scheidecker et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
813018
Concept ID:
C3806688
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIm, or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-22 (DEE22), is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by infantile-onset seizures, hypsarrhythmia on EEG, hypotonia, and developmental delay associated with severe intellectual disability and lack of speech. These features are consistent with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Brain malformations usually include cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Additionally, some patients may have dysmorphic features or coarse facies (Ng et al., 2013; Kodera et al., 2013). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Retinitis pigmentosa 67
MedGen UID:
816284
Concept ID:
C3809954
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to a group of hereditary retinal conditions in which degeneration of rod photoreceptors, responsible for vision under dark conditions, is more pronounced than that of cone photoreceptors, which mediate daylight vision. Individuals with RP typically experience night blindness at first, followed by progressive and unstoppable visual impairment in daytime conditions as well. Their visual fields become reduced gradually and sight is lost from the midperiphery to the periphery, then from the midperiphery to the center, resulting eventually in complete or near-complete blindness if left untreated. Most patients show intraretinal pigment in a bone-spicule configuration around the fundus periphery as well as retinal arteriolar attenuation, elevated final dark-adapted thresholds, and reduced and delayed electroretinograms. Autosomal recessive RP is the most common form of hereditary retinal degeneration in humans (summary by Nishiguchi et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 11 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
816530
Concept ID:
C3810200
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Retinitis pigmentosa 68
MedGen UID:
816710
Concept ID:
C3810380
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC7A14 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 24
MedGen UID:
854690
Concept ID:
C3887982
Disease or Syndrome
A retinitis pigmentosa that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region Xq26-q27.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 16
MedGen UID:
855172
Concept ID:
C3889474
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-16 (BBS16) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, renal disease, and cognitive impairment. Although polydactyly is considered a primary feature of BBS overall, it has not been reported in any BBS16 patient (Billingsley et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
856141
Concept ID:
C3892039
Disease or Syndrome
BBS5 is a ciliopathy associated with severe and early-onset retinal dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, obesity, renal dysfunction, hypogonadism, and learning difficulties (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2015). Patients described by Young et al. (1999) and Moore et al. (2005) with mutations in the BBS5 gene did not have polydactyly. The contribution of BBS5 mutations to all cases of BBS has been estimated at 2% (Li et al., 2004) and 0.40% (Zaghloul and Katsanis, 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 69
MedGen UID:
862749
Concept ID:
C4014312
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), also designated rod-cone dystrophy, is characterized by initial night blindness due to rod dysfunction, with subsequent progressive constriction of visual fields, abnormal color vision, and eventual loss of central vision due to cone photoreceptor involvement (summary by El Shamieh et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 70
MedGen UID:
863118
Concept ID:
C4014681
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PRPF4 gene.
Congenital sideroblastic anemia-B-cell immunodeficiency-periodic fever-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
863609
Concept ID:
C4015172
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013).
Retinitis pigmentosa-juvenile cataract-short stature-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
863679
Concept ID:
C4015242
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic rod-cone dystrophy disorder with characteristics of psychomotor developmental delay from early childhood, intellectual disability, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism (e.g. upslanted palpebral fissures, hypoplastic alae nasi, malar hypoplasia, attached earlobes), excessive dental spacing and malocclusion, juvenile cataract and ophthalmologic findings of atypical retinitis pigmentosa (i.e. salt-and-pepper retinopathy, attenuated retinal arterioles, generalised rod-cone dysfunction, mottled macula, peripapillary sparing of retinal pigment epithelium).
Senior-Loken syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
899086
Concept ID:
C4225263
Disease or Syndrome
Senior-Loken syndrome-9 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset nephronophthisis and pigmentary retinopathy. Additional more variable features can include liver defects, skeletal anomalies, and obesity (summary by Bizet et al., 2015). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Senior-Loken syndrome, see 266900.
Retinitis pigmentosa 74
MedGen UID:
906896
Concept ID:
C4225281
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BBS2 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 73
MedGen UID:
907690
Concept ID:
C4225287
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HGSNAT gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 72
MedGen UID:
895867
Concept ID:
C4225315
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ZNF408 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 71
MedGen UID:
897209
Concept ID:
C4225342
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the IFT172 gene.
Congenital stationary night blindness 1G
MedGen UID:
906532
Concept ID:
C4225345
Disease or Syndrome
A congenital stationary night blindness characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance that has material basis in homozygous mutation in the GNAT1 gene on chromosome 3p21.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Senior-Loken syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
905171
Concept ID:
C4225376
Disease or Syndrome
Any Senior-Loken syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the WDR19 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 77
MedGen UID:
934593
Concept ID:
C4310626
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the REEP6 gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 48
MedGen UID:
934604
Concept ID:
C4310637
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-48 (DEE48) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and absent speech; poor, if any, motor development; and onset of seizures usually in the first year of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals have poor eye contact and may develop microcephaly and abnormal movements (summary by Assoum et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934674
Concept ID:
C4310707
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-20 (BBS20), a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with ciliary dysfunction, is characterized by rod-cone dystrophy, postaxial polydactyly, truncal obesity, renal anomalies, and learning disability, as well as hypogonadism in males and genital abnormalities in females (Saida et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Patterned macular dystrophy 3
MedGen UID:
934680
Concept ID:
C4310713
Disease or Syndrome
Patterned macular dystrophy-3 (MDPT3), also called Martinique crinkled retinal pigment epitheliopathy, appears in the fourth or fifth decade of life and is characterized by a 'dry desert land' pattern of the fundus, involving the posterior pole initially and progressing from the temporal fovea to the periphery of the retina. Polypoid choroidal vasculopathy, choroidal neovascularization, or atrophic fibrous macular scarring can cause reduced visual acuity after age 50. Late-stage MDPT3 consists of a retinitis pigmentosa (RP; see 268000)-like phenotype due to death of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor cells. The dry desert land pattern observed on fundus examination corresponds to an irregular thickness of the Bruch membrane and the RPE, with a scalloped elevation ('crinkling') of the RPE observed on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Full-field electroretinography may be normal at preclinical and early stages of the dystrophy, but later cone and rod responses are severely reduced, consistent with progressive photoreceptor cell dysfunction and death at the final state (summary by Meunier et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of patterned macular dystrophy, see MDPT1 (169150).
PERCHING syndrome
MedGen UID:
934709
Concept ID:
C4310742
Disease or Syndrome
PERCHING syndrome is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by global developmental delay, dysmorphic facial features, feeding and respiratory difficulties with poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, and joint contractures. The features are variable, even within families, and may also include retinitis pigmentosa, cardiac or genitourinary anomalies, and abnormal sweating. Each letter of the PERCHING acronym represents 2 important phenotypic elements: Postural and Palatal abnormalities; Exophthalmos and Enteral-tube dependency/feeding issues; Respiratory distress and Retinitis pigmentosa; Contractures and Camptodactyly; Hypertelorism and Hirsutism; Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)/growth failure and Intellectual disability/developmental delay; Nevus flammeus and Neurologic malformations; and facial Gestalt/grimacing and Genitourinary abnormalities (Jeffries et al., 2019). Death in infancy or early childhood often occurs, although survival to the third decade has been reported. Some of the features, such as contractures, dysmorphic craniofacial features, and severe feeding difficulties, are reminiscent of Bohring-Opitz syndrome (605039) (summary by Kanthi et al., 2019 and Buers et al., 2020).
Retinitis pigmentosa 75
MedGen UID:
934726
Concept ID:
C4310759
Disease or Syndrome
Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the AGBL5 gene.
Bardet-biedl syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 51
MedGen UID:
1372686
Concept ID:
C4479208
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-51 (DEE51) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures and hypotonia in the first days or weeks of life. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development and may show abnormal movements. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy, cerebellar atrophy, and delayed myelination. Laboratory studies showed increased lactate, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Ait-El-Mkadem et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Auditory neuropathy-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1623572
Concept ID:
C4521678
Disease or Syndrome
ANOA is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of visual and hearing impairment in the first or second decades (summary by Paul et al., 2017).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1616382
Concept ID:
C4539839
Disease or Syndrome
MVA3 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from errors in chromosome segregation. Most affected individuals develop early-onset Wilms tumor and show either aneuploidy or premature chromatid separation in cells. Some patients may have additional developmental features, such as microcephaly, growth retardation, or developmental delay (summary by Yost et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MVA, see MVA1 (257300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, mitochondrial, with abnormal movements and lactic acidosis, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1619876
Concept ID:
C4540192
Disease or Syndrome
NEMMLAS is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and abnormal motor function, including hypotonia, dystonia, ataxia, and spasticity. Patient tissues may show deficiencies in one or more of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes, but this is not a constant finding (summary by Wortmann et al., 2017).
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia 1
MedGen UID:
1639219
Concept ID:
C4551990
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with biallelic APOB-related familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (APOB-FHBL) may present from infancy through to adulthood with a range of clinical symptoms including deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins and gastrointestinal and neurologic dysfunction. Affected individuals typically have plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apo B levels below the fifth centile for age and sex. Acanthocytosis, elevated liver enzymes, and hyperbilirubinemia may also be found. The most common clinical findings are hepatomegaly, steatorrhea, and failure to thrive / growth deficiency. In the absence of treatment, affected individuals can develop atypical pigmentation of the retina; progressive loss of deep tendon reflexes, vibratory sense, and proprioception; muscle pain or weakness; dysarthria; ataxia; tremors; and steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and rarely, cirrhosis of the liver. Individuals with a heterozygous, typically truncating pathogenic variant in APOB are usually asymptomatic with mild liver dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. However, about 5%-10% of individuals with heterozygous APOB-FHBL develop relatively more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis requiring medical attention and occasionally progressing to cirrhosis, albeit very rarely.
Renal hypomagnesemia 5 with ocular involvement
MedGen UID:
1648449
Concept ID:
C4721891
Disease or Syndrome
HOMG5 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe renal magnesium wasting, progressive renal failure, nephrocalcinosis, and severe visual impairment (Konrad et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Yamaguti et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal hypomagnesemia, see 602014.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 12
MedGen UID:
1648278
Concept ID:
C4746984
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa with or without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1658130
Concept ID:
C4747737
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-82 with or without situs inversus (RP82) is an autosomal recessive form of retinal degeneration characterized by initial loss of rod photoreceptors, resulting in impaired night vision followed by progressive visual-field constriction as both rod and cone photoreceptors die. Some affected individuals have situs inversus (Davidson et al., 2013; Audo et al., 2017).
Joubert syndrome 35
MedGen UID:
1648453
Concept ID:
C4748442
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-35 (JBTS35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brain malformations that result in developmental delay, oculomotor apraxia, and hypotonia. Some patients have renal and retinal involvement (Alkanderi et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Retinitis pigmentosa 83
MedGen UID:
1648404
Concept ID:
C4748536
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-83 (RP83) is characterized by onset of night blindness in the first decade of life, with decreased central vision in the second decade of life in association with retinal degeneration. The retinal dystrophy is associated with cataract, and macular edema has also been reported in some patients (Holtan et al., 2019).
Retinitis pigmentosa 84
MedGen UID:
1648352
Concept ID:
C4748725
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 26
MedGen UID:
1648283
Concept ID:
C4748809
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa 85
MedGen UID:
1682947
Concept ID:
C5193041
Disease or Syndrome
Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy
MedGen UID:
1679397
Concept ID:
C5193085
Disease or Syndrome
Myoectodermal gonadal dysgenesis syndrome (MEGD) is characterized by 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, or 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facies, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay. Dysmorphic facial features along with muscular habitus are the hallmarks of the syndrome. Abnormal hair patterning with frontal upsweep and additional whorls, eyebrow abnormalities comprising broad, arched, and sparse or thick eyebrows, underdeveloped alae nasi, smooth philtrum, and low-set ears with overfolded helices facilitate a gestalt diagnosis. (Guran et al., 2019; Altunoglu et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684774
Concept ID:
C5231404
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies (NEDVIBA) is characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, variable visual defects, including retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy, hypotonia or hypertonia, and variable structural brain abnormalities. Other nonspecific features may be found (summary by Okur et al., 2019).
Retinal dystrophy with leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
1715138
Concept ID:
C5394315
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal dystrophy and leukodystrophy (RDLKD) is a peroxisomal enzyme deficiency caused by impaired very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) metabolism. Patients exhibit ataxia and spastic paraparesis as well as developmental delay, and may show facial dysmorphism (Ferdinandusse et al., 2017).
Retinitis pigmentosa 89
MedGen UID:
1710499
Concept ID:
C5394552
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-89 (RP89) is characterized by classic features of RP as well as features of ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly and renal and hepatic disease. Onset of symptoms is within the first decade of life (Cogne et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of RP, see 268000.
Microcornea, rod-cone dystrophy, cataract, and posterior staphyloma 1
MedGen UID:
1755099
Concept ID:
C5436769
Disease or Syndrome
Microcornea, rod-cone dystrophy, cataract, and posterior staphyloma-1 (MRCS1) is characterized by poor visual acuity in early childhood. Congenital cataract and microcornea are followed by rod-cone dystrophy, with later development of posterior staphyloma (Cai et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Microcornea, Rod-Cone Dystrophy, Cataract, and Posterior Staphyloma MRCS2 (see 193220) is caused by mutation in the BEST1 gene (607854) on chromosome 11q12; 1 such family has been reported.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 22
MedGen UID:
1794146
Concept ID:
C5561936
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-22 (BBS22) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy described in a single patient and characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and intellectual disability (Lindstrand et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Retinitis pigmentosa 93
MedGen UID:
1810905
Concept ID:
C5676970
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-93 (RP93) is characterized by mild to moderate rod-cone dystrophy with onset in the second or third decade of life. Patients have constricted visual fields with macular sparing and show mildly reduced visual acuity with mild to high myopia (Mejecase et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Retinitis pigmentosa 96
MedGen UID:
1824076
Concept ID:
C5774303
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-96 (RP96) is characterized by difficulty with night vision and progressive visual field constriction beginning as early as the third decade of life, but most patients retain good visual acuity into the seventh decade. Funduscopy shows the typical features of RP, including bone-spicule pigmentation, attenuation of retinal vasculature, optic disc pallor, and cystic macular edema. Unlike patients with biallelic mutations in the SAG gene, they do not show the golden sheen of the fundus that is typical of Oguchi disease (Sullivan et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000.
Usher syndrome type 3A
MedGen UID:
1830415
Concept ID:
C5779850
Disease or Syndrome
Any Usher syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CLRN1 gene.
Retinitis pigmentosa 97
MedGen UID:
1841215
Concept ID:
C5830579
Disease or Syndrome
Retinitis pigmentosa-97 (RP97) is characterized by onset of night blindness and visual field defects in the first decade of life, with later onset of reduced visual acuity (Kong et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of RP, see 268000.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wang Y, Huang L, Sun L, Li S, Zhang Z, Zhang T, Lai Y, Ding X
Exp Eye Res 2022 Dec;225:109277. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2022.109277. PMID: 36206858
Gawęcki M
Lasers Med Sci 2020 Oct;35(8):1663-1670. Epub 2020 May 20 doi: 10.1007/s10103-020-03036-9. PMID: 32435907
Sun W, Zhang Q
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2019;161:1-27. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2018.10.002. PMID: 30711023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Roshandel D, Heath Jeffery RC, Charng J, Sampson DM, McLenachan S, Mackey DA, Chen FK
Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Dec 1;10(14):11. doi: 10.1167/tvst.10.14.11. PMID: 34904999Free PMC Article
Nassisi M, Smirnov VM, Solis Hernandez C, Mohand-Saïd S, Condroyer C, Antonio A, Kühlewein L, Kempf M, Kohl S, Wissinger B, Nasser F, Ragi SD, Wang NK, Sparrow JR, Greenstein VC, Michalakis S, Mahroo OA, Ba-Abbad R, Michaelides M, Webster AR, Degli Esposti S, Saffren B, Capasso J, Levin A, Hauswirth WW, Dhaenens CM, Defoort-Dhellemmes S, Tsang SH, Zrenner E, Sahel JA, Petersen-Jones SM, Zeitz C, Audo I
Hum Mutat 2021 Jun;42(6):641-666. Epub 2021 May 16 doi: 10.1002/humu.24205. PMID: 33847019Free PMC Article
Meunier I, Bocquet B, Charif M, Dhaenens CM, Manes G, Amati-Bonneau P, Roubertie A, Zanlonghi X, Lenaers G
Retina 2021 Aug 1;41(8):1771-1779. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003054. PMID: 33315831Free PMC Article
Tsang SH, Aycinena ARP, Sharma T
Adv Exp Med Biol 2018;1085:167-170. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95046-4_32. PMID: 30578505
Verbakel SK, van Huet RAC, Boon CJF, den Hollander AI, Collin RWJ, Klaver CCW, Hoyng CB, Roepman R, Klevering BJ
Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Sep;66:157-186. Epub 2018 Mar 27 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.005. PMID: 29597005

Diagnosis

De Zaeytijd J, Van Cauwenbergh C, De Bruyne M, Van Heetvelde M, De Baere E, Coppieters F, Leroy BP
Retina 2021 Jun 1;41(6):1346-1355. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003028. PMID: 34001834
Meunier I, Bocquet B, Charif M, Dhaenens CM, Manes G, Amati-Bonneau P, Roubertie A, Zanlonghi X, Lenaers G
Retina 2021 Aug 1;41(8):1771-1779. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003054. PMID: 33315831Free PMC Article
Zampaglione E, Kinde B, Place EM, Navarro-Gomez D, Maher M, Jamshidi F, Nassiri S, Mazzone JA, Finn C, Schlegel D, Comander J, Pierce EA, Bujakowska KM
Genet Med 2020 Jun;22(6):1079-1087. Epub 2020 Feb 10 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-0759-8. PMID: 32037395Free PMC Article
Verbakel SK, van Huet RAC, Boon CJF, den Hollander AI, Collin RWJ, Klaver CCW, Hoyng CB, Roepman R, Klevering BJ
Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Sep;66:157-186. Epub 2018 Mar 27 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2018.03.005. PMID: 29597005
Hamel C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Oct 11;1:40. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-40. PMID: 17032466Free PMC Article

Therapy

Kwa FAA, Bui BV, Thompson BR, Ayton LN
Drug Discov Today 2023 Sep;28(9):103718. Epub 2023 Jul 17 doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2023.103718. PMID: 37467881
Britten-Jones AC, Jin R, Gocuk SA, Cichello E, O'Hare F, Hickey DG, Edwards TL, Ayton LN
Genet Med 2022 Mar;24(3):521-534. Epub 2021 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2021.10.013. PMID: 34906485
Wood LJ, Jolly JK, Andrews CD, Wilson IR, Hickey D, Cehajic-Kapetanovic J, Maclaren RE
Clin Exp Optom 2021 Jan;104(1):90-94. doi: 10.1111/cxo.13087. PMID: 32372497
Hassall MM, McClements ME, Barnard AR, Patricio MÍ, Aslam SA, Maclaren RE
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 22;21(17) doi: 10.3390/ijms21176055. PMID: 32842706Free PMC Article
Sahel JA, Marazova K, Audo I
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014 Oct 16;5(2):a017111. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017111. PMID: 25324231Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Georgiou M, Robson AG, Jovanovic K, Guimarães TAC, Ali N, Pontikos N, Uwaydat SH, Mahroo OA, Cheetham ME, Webster AR, Hardcastle AJ, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Apr;130(4):413-422. Epub 2022 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.11.015. PMID: 36423731Free PMC Article
Malechka VV, Cukras CA, Chew EY, Sergeev YV, Blain D, Jeffrey BG, Ullah E, Hufnagel RB, Brooks BP, Huryn LA, Zein WM
Genes (Basel) 2022 May 22;13(5) doi: 10.3390/genes13050925. PMID: 35627310Free PMC Article
De Zaeytijd J, Van Cauwenbergh C, De Bruyne M, Van Heetvelde M, De Baere E, Coppieters F, Leroy BP
Retina 2021 Jun 1;41(6):1346-1355. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000003028. PMID: 34001834
Zampaglione E, Kinde B, Place EM, Navarro-Gomez D, Maher M, Jamshidi F, Nassiri S, Mazzone JA, Finn C, Schlegel D, Comander J, Pierce EA, Bujakowska KM
Genet Med 2020 Jun;22(6):1079-1087. Epub 2020 Feb 10 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-0759-8. PMID: 32037395Free PMC Article
Hamel C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Oct 11;1:40. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-40. PMID: 17032466Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Sanjurjo-Soriano C, Jimenez-Medina C, Erkilic N, Cappellino L, Lefevre A, Nagel-Wolfrum K, Wolfrum U, Van Wijk E, Roux AF, Meunier I, Kalatzis V
HGG Adv 2023 Oct 12;4(4):100229. Epub 2023 Aug 7 doi: 10.1016/j.xhgg.2023.100229. PMID: 37654703Free PMC Article
Georgiou M, Robson AG, Jovanovic K, Guimarães TAC, Ali N, Pontikos N, Uwaydat SH, Mahroo OA, Cheetham ME, Webster AR, Hardcastle AJ, Michaelides M
Ophthalmology 2023 Apr;130(4):413-422. Epub 2022 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.11.015. PMID: 36423731Free PMC Article
Malechka VV, Cukras CA, Chew EY, Sergeev YV, Blain D, Jeffrey BG, Ullah E, Hufnagel RB, Brooks BP, Huryn LA, Zein WM
Genes (Basel) 2022 May 22;13(5) doi: 10.3390/genes13050925. PMID: 35627310Free PMC Article
Roberts L, Julius S, Dawlat S, Yildiz S, Rebello G, Meldau S, Pillay K, Esterhuizen A, Vorster A, Benefeld G, da Rocha J, Beighton P, Sellars SL, Thandrayen K, Pettifor JM, Ramesar RS
Hum Mutat 2020 Nov;41(11):1871-1876. Epub 2020 Sep 9 doi: 10.1002/humu.24094. PMID: 32827185
Zampaglione E, Kinde B, Place EM, Navarro-Gomez D, Maher M, Jamshidi F, Nassiri S, Mazzone JA, Finn C, Schlegel D, Comander J, Pierce EA, Bujakowska KM
Genet Med 2020 Jun;22(6):1079-1087. Epub 2020 Feb 10 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-0759-8. PMID: 32037395Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Daher A, Banjak M, Noureldine J, Nehme J, El Shamieh S
BMC Ophthalmol 2024 Apr 15;24(1):167. doi: 10.1186/s12886-024-03419-4. PMID: 38622537Free PMC Article
Britten-Jones AC, Jin R, Gocuk SA, Cichello E, O'Hare F, Hickey DG, Edwards TL, Ayton LN
Genet Med 2022 Mar;24(3):521-534. Epub 2021 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2021.10.013. PMID: 34906485
Jaffal L, Joumaa H, Mrad Z, Zeitz C, Audo I, El Shamieh S
Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Jun;29(6):897-910. Epub 2020 Nov 13 doi: 10.1038/s41431-020-00754-0. PMID: 33188265Free PMC Article

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