U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Sparse hair

MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Synonym: Scanty hair
SNOMED CT: Sparse hair (1162675003)
 
HPO: HP:0008070

Definition

Reduced density of hairs. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990).
Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome
MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen.
Menkes kinky-hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
44030
Concept ID:
C0022716
Disease or Syndrome
Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by generalized copper deficiency. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes.
Langer-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
6009
Concept ID:
C0023003
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, McKusick type
MedGen UID:
67398
Concept ID:
C0220748
Congenital Abnormality
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Weaver syndrome
MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Lysinuric protein intolerance
MedGen UID:
75704
Concept ID:
C0268647
Disease or Syndrome
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) typically presents after an infant is weaned from breast milk or formula; variable findings include recurrent vomiting and episodes of diarrhea, episodes of stupor and coma after a protein-rich meal, poor feeding, aversion to protein-rich food, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and muscular hypotonia. Over time, findings include: poor growth, osteoporosis, involvement of the lungs (progressive interstitial changes, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and of the kidneys (progressive glomerular and proximal tubular disease), hematologic abnormalities (normochromic or hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, erythroblastophagocytosis in the bone marrow aspirate), and a clinical presentation resembling the hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophagic activation syndrome. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis can also be seen.
Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts.
Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome
MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
Virtually all individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) have the endocrine findings of hypogonadism (evident at puberty) and progressive childhood-onset hair thinning that often progresses to alopecia totalis in adulthood. More than half of individuals have the neurologic findings of progressive extrapyramidal movements (dystonic spasms with dystonic posturing with dysarthria and dysphagia), moderate bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss, and mild intellectual disability. To date, more than 40 families (including 33 with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis) with a total of 88 affected individuals have been reported in the literature.
Follicular atrophoderma and basal cell epitheliomata
MedGen UID:
87539
Concept ID:
C0346104
Neoplastic Process
Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome (BDCS) is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by a triad of congenital hypotrichosis, follicular atrophoderma affecting the dorsa of the hands and feet, the face, and extensor surfaces of the elbows or knees, and the development of basal cell neoplasms, including basal cell nevi and basal cell carcinomas from the second decade onward (Yung and Newton-Bishop, 2005). Rombo syndrome (180730) has similar features, but shows autosomal dominant inheritance.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Wrinkly skin syndrome
MedGen UID:
98030
Concept ID:
C0406587
Disease or Syndrome
ATP6V0A2-related cutis laxa is characterized by generalized cutis laxa, findings associated with generalized connective tissue disorder, developmental delays, and a variety of neurologic findings including abnormality on brain MRI. At birth, hypotonia, overfolded skin, and distinctive facial features are present and enlarged fontanelles are often observed. During childhood, the characteristic facial features and thick or coarse hair may become quite pronounced. The skin findings decrease with age, although easy bruising and Ehlers-Danlos-like scars have been described in some. In most (not all) affected individuals, cortical and cerebellar malformations are observed on brain MRI. Nearly all affected individuals have developmental delays, seizures, and neurologic regression.
Woolly hair-hypotrichosis-everted lower lip-outstanding ears syndrome
MedGen UID:
98033
Concept ID:
C0406718
Congenital Abnormality
GAPO syndrome
MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) and Bayram et al. (2014) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of the disorder.
Trichodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
96068
Concept ID:
C0406724
Disease or Syndrome
A rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by the association of sparse, fine, dry, slow growing hair with variable dental abnormalities including oligodontia, peg-shaped incisors, and shell teeth. Mild intellectual disability, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features have also been reported.
Hypoplastic enamel-onycholysis-hypohidrosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
140809
Concept ID:
C0406735
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia involving the teeth and nails. Although a few reported cases have sparse or fine hair, almost all affected individuals have normal hair, sweat glands, and ability to tolerate heat. Affected individuals have a variable number and variable types of congenitally missing permanent and/or primary teeth, which frequently results in lip eversion due to loss of occlusion in the vertical dimension. Nails are generally thin, slow-growing, brittle, and spoon-shaped (koilonychia). Toenails are usually more severely affected than fingernails. The nail defects are alleviated with age and may not be easily detectable during adulthood (summary by Jumlongras et al., 2001).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Lenz-Majewski hyperostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
98483
Concept ID:
C0432269
Congenital Abnormality
Lenz-Majewski hyperostotic dwarfism is a rare condition characterized by intellectual disability, sclerosing bone dysplasia, distinct craniofacial and dental anomalies, loose skin, and distal limb anomalies, particularly brachydactyly and symphalangism. Patients have multiple radiographic abnormalities due to progressive generalized hyperostosis that affects the cranium, vertebrae, and diaphyses of tubular bones, leading to severe growth retardation (summary by Sousa et al., 2014).
Beaded hair
MedGen UID:
108185
Concept ID:
C0546966
Congenital Abnormality
Individuals with monilethrix have normal hair at birth, but within the first few months of life develop fragile, brittle hair that tends to fracture and produce varying degrees of dystrophic alopecia. In the mildest forms, only the occipital regions of the scalp are involved; however, in severe forms the eyebrows, eyelashes, and secondary sexual hair may also be involved. Follicular hyperkeratosis with predilection for the scalp, nape of neck, and extensor surfaces of the upper arm and thighs is also a characteristic finding in these patients. Light microscopic examination is diagnostic and reveals elliptical nodes of normal thickness and intermittent constrictions (internodes) at which the hair easily breaks. There may be spontaneous improvement with time, especially during puberty and pregnancy, but the condition never resolves completely (summary by Zlotogorski et al., 2006). An autosomal recessive form of monilethrix-like congenital hypotrichosis (see 607903) is caused by mutation in the DSG4 gene (607892). The clinical picture of autosomal recessive monilethrix is more severe than the dominant form, with more extensive alopecia of the scalp, body, and limbs, and a papular rash involving the extremities and periumbilical region (Zlotogorski et al., 2006). The term monilethrix derives from the Latin word for necklace and the Greek for hair (Schweizer, 2006).
Costello syndrome
MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults.
Cockayne syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Cockayne syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia).
Filippi syndrome
MedGen UID:
163197
Concept ID:
C0795940
Disease or Syndrome
Filippi syndrome is characterized by short stature, microcephaly, syndactyly, intellectual disability, and facial dysmorphism consisting of bulging forehead, broad and prominent nasal bridge, and diminished alar flare. Common features include cryptorchidism, speech impairment, and clinodactyly of the fifth finger, Some patients exhibit visual disturbances, polydactyly, seizures, and/or ectodermal abnormalities, such as nail hypoplasia, long eyelashes, hirsutism, and microdontia (summary by Hussain et al., 2014).
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Sabinas brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
163238
Concept ID:
C0796271
Disease or Syndrome
The principal features of Sabinas brittle hair syndrome, a form of nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy (TTDN; see 234050), include congenital hypotrichosis, mild to moderate onychodysplasia, varying mental retardation, and sterility. Ocular dysplasias are sometimes present and dentition is normal (Howell et al., 1980).
Oculodentodigital dysplasia
MedGen UID:
167236
Concept ID:
C0812437
Congenital Abnormality
Oculodentodigital syndrome is characterized by a typical facial appearance and variable involvement of the eyes, dentition, and fingers. Characteristic facial features include a narrow, pinched nose with hypoplastic alae nasi, prominent columella and thin anteverted nares together with a narrow nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds giving the impression of hypertelorism. The teeth are usually small and carious. Typical eye findings include microphthalmia and microcornea. The characteristic digital malformation is complete syndactyly of the fourth and fifth fingers (syndactyly type III) but the third finger may be involved and associated camptodactyly is a common finding (summary by Judisch et al., 1979). Neurologic abnormalities are sometimes associated (Gutmann et al., 1991), and lymphedema has been reported in some patients with ODDD (Brice et al., 2013). See review by De Bock et al. (2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculodentodigital Syndrome An autosomal recessive form of ODDD (257850) is also caused by mutation in the GJA1 gene, but the majority of cases are autosomal dominant.
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
220887
Concept ID:
C1274795
Congenital Abnormality
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by onset in infancy of a panepithelial defect involving the oral, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal, cervical, perineal, urethral, and bladder mucosa. Patients develop cataracts, blindness, nonscarring alopecia, perineal psoriasiform lesions, and follicular keratoses (Witkop et al., 1982). Although 1 family was reported to have progressive severe interstitial lung disease (Witkop et al., 1979), this feature has not been reported in other families and is not considered a criterion for diagnosis. However, the clinical triad of nonscarring alopecia, well-demarcated fiery red mucosa, and psoriasiform perineal involvement has been consistently observed (review by Boralevi et al., 2005).
Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
266149
Concept ID:
C1275081
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
224809
Concept ID:
C1275089
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KIDAR) is characterized by neonatal-onset ichthyotic erythroderma and profound sensorineural deafness, with failure to thrive and developmental delay in childhood. Severe corneal scarring with vision loss has been observed in adulthood. Low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin levels have been reported in some patients (Alsaif et al., 2019; Boyden et al., 2019). An autosomal dominant form of KID syndrome (KIDAD; 148210) is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (121011) on chromosome 13q12. Mutation in the AP1S1 gene (603531) causes a disorder with overlapping features (MEDNIK; 609313).
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay / intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills.
Trichothiodystrophy 4, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
272036
Concept ID:
C1313961
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). Sabinas brittle hair syndrome (211390) is another form of nonphotosensitive TTD. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see 601675.
Revesz syndrome
MedGen UID:
231230
Concept ID:
C1327916
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia punctata
MedGen UID:
303176
Concept ID:
C1442935
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant form of chondrodysplasia punctata.
Orofaciodigital syndrome I
MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals).
Focal facial dermal dysplasia type III
MedGen UID:
315643
Concept ID:
C1744559
Disease or Syndrome
The focal dermal dysplasias (FFDDs) are a group of related developmental defects characterized by bitemporal or preauricular skin lesions resembling aplasia cutis congenita. FFFD3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bitemporal skin lesions with variable facial findings, including thin and puckered periorbital skin, distichiasis and/or absent eyelashes, upslanting palpebral fissures, a flat nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, large lips, and redundant facial skin (summary by Slavotinek et al., 2013). FFDD2 (614973) is characterized by the same facial features as FFDD3, but the inheritance is autosomal dominant. For a classification and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FFDD, see FFDD1 (136500).
Rapp-Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
315656
Concept ID:
C1785148
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular degeneration (HJMD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by sparse and short hair from birth followed by progressive macular degeneration leading to blindness.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 11
MedGen UID:
332073
Concept ID:
C1835851
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome
MedGen UID:
332131
Concept ID:
C1836123
Disease or Syndrome
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (GOSHS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features. Most patients also have Hirschsprung disease and/or gyral abnormalities of the brain, consistent with defects in migration of neural crest cells and neurons. Other features, such as megalocornea or urogenital anomalies, may also be present. Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome has some resemblance to Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS; 235730) but is genetically distinct (summary by Drevillon et al., 2013).
Hypotrichosis 7
MedGen UID:
322969
Concept ID:
C1836672
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a condition that affects hair growth. People with this condition have sparse hair (hypotrichosis) on the scalp beginning in infancy. This hair is usually coarse, dry, and tightly curled (often described as woolly hair). Scalp hair may also be lighter in color than expected and is fragile and easily broken. Affected individuals often cannot grow hair longer than a few inches. The eyebrows, eyelashes, and other body hair may be sparse as well. Over time, the hair problems can remain stable or progress to complete scalp hair loss (alopecia) and a decrease in body hair.\n\nRarely, people with autosomal recessive hypotrichosis have skin problems affecting areas with sparse hair, such as redness (erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair growth, they may also develop bumps called hyperkeratotic follicular papules that develop around hair follicles, which are specialized structures in the skin where hair growth occurs.
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
332940
Concept ID:
C1837756
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy (MADB) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies such as mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal anomalies such as progressive osteolysis of the terminal phalanges and clavicles, and skin changes such as mottled hyperpigmentation and atrophy. The lipodystrophy is characterized by generalized loss of subcutaneous fat involving the face, trunk, and extremities. Some patients have a progeroid appearance. Metabolic complications associated with insulin resistance have been reported (Schrander-Stumpel et al., 1992; summary by Simha et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description of lipodystrophy associated with mandibuloacral dysplasia, see MADA (248370).
SCARF syndrome
MedGen UID:
326461
Concept ID:
C1839321
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of skeletal abnormalities, cutis laxa, craniostenosis, ambiguous genitalia, psychomotor retardation and facial abnormalities. So far, it has been described in two males (maternal first cousins). The mode of inheritance was suggested to be X-linked recessive.
8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Hypotrichosis 6
MedGen UID:
335812
Concept ID:
C1842839
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-6 (HYPT6) is a localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis characterized by fragile hairs that break easily, leaving short, sparse scalp hairs. The disorder affects the trunk and extremities as well as the scalp, and the eyebrows and eyelashes may also be involved, whereas beard, pubic, and axillary hairs are largely spared. In addition, patients can develop hyperkeratotic follicular papules, erythema, and pruritus in affected areas. In some patients with congenital hypotrichosis, monilethrix-like hairs showing elliptical nodes have been observed (summary by Schaffer et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Localized Hypotrichosis LAH2 (HYPT7; 604379) is caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) on chromosome 3q27, and LAH3 (HYPT8; 278150) is caused by mutation in the LPAR6 (P2RY5) gene (609239) on chromosome 13q14.12-q14.2. See also hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles (613102), which is caused by mutation in the DSC3 gene (600271).
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia
MedGen UID:
334671
Concept ID:
C1843042
Disease or Syndrome
Craniolenticulosutural dysplasia is characterized by facial dysmorphism, late-closing fontanels, cataract, and skeletal defects (summary by Boyadjiev et al., 2011).
Neonatal ichthyosis-sclerosing cholangitis syndrome
MedGen UID:
334382
Concept ID:
C1843355
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare complex ichthyosis syndrome with characteristics of scalp hypotrichosis, scarring alopecia, ichthyosis and sclerosing cholangitis. The ichthyosis presents with diffuse white scales sparing the skin folds and is accompanied by scalp hypotrichosis, cicatricial alopecia, and sparse eyelashes/eyebrows. Additional manifestations may include oligodontia, hypodontia and enamel dysplasia. All patients present with neonatal sclerosing cholangitis with jaundice and pruritus, hepatomegaly and biochemical cholestasis. Caused by a mutation in the CLDN1 gene on chromosome 3q28 coding for the tight junction protein claudin-1. Autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
FG syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
375687
Concept ID:
C1845567
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency 1
MedGen UID:
375787
Concept ID:
C1846008
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency-1 (EDAID1) is an X-linked recessive disorder that characteristically affects only males. Affected individuals have onset of recurrent severe infections due to immunodeficiency in early infancy or in the first years of life. There is increased susceptibility to bacterial, pneumococcal, mycobacterial, and fungal infections. Laboratory studies usually show dysgammaglobulinemia with low IgG subsets and normal or increased IgA and IgM, consistent with impaired 'class-switching' of B cells, although immunologic abnormalities may be subtle compared to the clinical picture, and B- and T-cell numbers are usually normal. There is a poor antibody response to polysaccharide vaccinations, particularly pneumococcus; response to other vaccinations is variable. Patients also have features of ectodermal dysplasia, including conical incisors, hypo/anhidrosis, and thin skin or hair. Severely affected individuals may also show lymphedema, osteopetrosis, and, rarely, hematologic abnormalities. The phenotype is highly variable, likely due to different hypomorphic mutations, and may be fatal in childhood. Intravenous immunoglobulins and prophylactic antibiotics are used as treatment; some patients may benefit from bone marrow transplantation. Although only males tend to be affected with immunodeficiency, many patients inherit a mutation from a mother who has mild features of IP or conical teeth (summary by Doffinger et al., 2001, Orange et al., 2004, Roberts et al., 2010, Heller et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ectodermal Dysplasia and Immune Deficiency Also see EDAID2 (612132), caused by mutation in the NFKBIA gene (164008).
CHIME syndrome
MedGen UID:
341214
Concept ID:
C1848392
Disease or Syndrome
CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder clinically characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, and ear anomalies (CHIME). Other clinical features include distinctive facial features, abnormal growth, genitourinary abnormalities, seizures, and feeding difficulties (summary by Ng et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Trichomegaly-retina pigmentary degeneration-dwarfism syndrome
MedGen UID:
338532
Concept ID:
C1848745
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome
MedGen UID:
376472
Concept ID:
C1848912
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome is characterized by slow hair growth, scaphocephaly with prominent forehead, bitemporal depression, absence of primary teeth, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage with sacral dimple (summary by Aldemir et al., 2013).
Ectodermal dysplasia-blindness syndrome
MedGen UID:
340297
Concept ID:
C1849332
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, severe visual impairment due to ocular malformations (microphthalmos and microcornea with sclerocornea), short stature, hypotrichosis, dental anomalies, and dysmorphic facial features (such as a narrow nasal bridge with marked distal flaring and low-set, protruding ears). There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.
Retinitis pigmentosa-intellectual disability-deafness-hypogenitalism syndrome
MedGen UID:
340317
Concept ID:
C1849401
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndromic retinitis pigmentosa characterized by pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus with hyperinsulinism, acanthosis nigricans, secondary cataracts, neurogenic deafness, short stature mild hypogonadism in males and polycystic ovaries with oligomenorrhea in females. Inheritance is thought to be autosomal recessive. It can be distinguished from Alstrom syndrome (see this term) by the presence of intellectual disability and the absence of renal insufficiency. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1993.
Osteopenia-intellectual disability-sparse hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
337979
Concept ID:
C1850140
Disease or Syndrome
A rare syndrome described in two sisters of Mennonite descent, with characteristics of sparse hair, osteopenia, intellectual disability, minor facial abnormalities, joint laxity and hypotonia. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3.
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
342799
Concept ID:
C1853102
Disease or Syndrome
Any COFS syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERCC2 gene.
Intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, joint contractures, and facial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
342889
Concept ID:
C1853480
Disease or Syndrome
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Leukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
383698
Concept ID:
C1855504
Disease or Syndrome
Leukomelanoderma-infantilism-intellectual disability-hypodontia-hypotrichosis syndrome is a rare ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by congenital generalized melanoleukoderma, hypodontia and hypotrichosis associated with infantilism, intellectual disability and growth delay. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1961.
Oculocerebrofacial syndrome, Kaufman type
MedGen UID:
343403
Concept ID:
C1855663
Disease or Syndrome
Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome (KOS) is characterized by developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, and distinctive craniofacial features. Most affected children have prenatal-onset microcephaly, hypotonia, and growth deficiency. Feeding issues, ocular abnormalities, hearing impairment, and respiratory tract abnormalities are common. Ocular abnormalities can include structural abnormalities (microcornea or microphthalmia, coloboma, optic nerve hypoplasia), refractive errors (myopia ± astigmatism, hyperopia), strabismus, and entropion. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss have been reported as well as mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss of variable severity. Breathing problems can lead to prolonged hospitalization after birth in more than half of individuals. Less common findings include ectodermal abnormalities, cardiac manifestations, urogenital abnormalities, seizures, and skeletal abnormalities.
Hair defect with photosensitivity and intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
383868
Concept ID:
C1856241
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with the association of stubby, coarse, sparse and fragile hair, eyebrows and eyelashes with photosensitivity and nonprogressive intellectual deficit, without a demonstrable metabolic aberration. It has been described in three sisters born to consanguineous parents.
SchC6pf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome
MedGen UID:
347366
Concept ID:
C1857069
Disease or Syndrome
Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome (SSPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of multiple eyelid cysts, hypodontia, hypotrichosis, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and onychodystrophy (summary by Mallaiah and Dickinson, 2001).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex due to plakophilin deficiency
MedGen UID:
388032
Concept ID:
C1858302
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by widespread skin fragility, alopecia, nail dystrophy, and focal keratoderma with painful fissures. Hypohidrosis and cheilitis are sometimes present (summary by Ersoy-Evans et al., 2006).
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
Atrichia with papular lesions
MedGen UID:
395299
Concept ID:
C1859592
Disease or Syndrome
Atricia with papular lesions (APL) is characterized by hair loss soon after birth and the development, years later, of a diffuse papular rash over the entire skin surface. The papular rash distinguishes it from alopecia universalis (203655) (summary by Sprecher et al., 1999).
Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
395439
Concept ID:
C1860224
Disease or Syndrome
Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a congenital ectodermal dysplasia characterized by absent eyelids, macrostomia, microtia, redundant skin, sparse hair, dysmorphic nose and ears, variable abnormalities of the nipples, genitalia, fingers, and hands, largely normal intellectual and motor development, and poor growth (summary by Marchegiani et al., 2015).
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type III
MedGen UID:
349899
Concept ID:
C1860823
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. Craniofacial features include sparse, slowly growing scalp hair, laterally sparse eyebrows, a bulbous tip of the nose, protruding ears, long flat philtrum, and thin upper vermillion border. The most typical radiographic findings in TRPS are cone-shaped epiphyses, predominantly at the middle phalanges. Hip malformations such as coxa plana, coxa magna, or coxa vara are present in over 70% of patients. In older patients, the hip abnormalities resemble degenerative arthrosis. TRPS3 differs from TRPS1 by the presence of severe brachydactyly, due to short metacarpals, and severe short stature (summary by Ludecke et al., 2001).
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
About half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nTrichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome
MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013).
Craniofacial dysplasia - osteopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
370148
Concept ID:
C1970027
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including brachycephaly, prominent forehead, sparse lateral eyebrows, severe hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, protruding ears, broad nasal bridge, pointed nasal tip, flat philtrum, anteverted nostrils, large mouth, thin upper vermilion border, highly arched palate and mild micrognathia) associated with osteopenia leading to repeated long bone fractures, severe myopia, mild to moderate sensorineural or mixed hearing loss, enamel hypoplasia, sloping shoulders and mild intellectual disability. There is evidence the disease can be caused by homozygous mutation in the IRX5 gene on chromosome 16q11.2.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 5
MedGen UID:
370849
Concept ID:
C1970199
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NSUN2 gene.
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
MedGen UID:
370358
Concept ID:
C1970827
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (PRS) superactivity comprises two phenotypes, both characterized by hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria. The mild phenotype (~75% of affected males) with onset in the second or third decade of life is typically limited to these biochemical findings, whereas the severe phenotype (~25% of affected males) with onset in the first decade of life has in addition to these biochemical findings variable combinations of developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, and ataxia. In the mild phenotype, uric acid crystalluria or a urinary stone is commonly the first clinical finding, followed later by gouty arthritis if serum urate concentration is not controlled.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS.
Ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency 2
MedGen UID:
394295
Concept ID:
C2677481
Disease or Syndrome
EDAID2 is characterized by variable features of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., hypo/anhidrosis, sparse hair, tooth anomalies) and various immunologic and infectious phenotypes of differing severity (summary by Boisson et al., 2017). Some patients may also have neutrophilia and autoinflammatory disease, such as liver disease (Tan et al., 2020). Mutations in the NFKBIA gene result in functional impairment of NFKB (see 164011), a master transcription factor required for normal activation of immune responses. Interruption of NFKB signaling results in decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and certain interferons, rendering patients susceptible to infection (McDonald et al., 2007). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ectodermal dysplasia and immune deficiency, see 300291.
Oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
412708
Concept ID:
C2749477
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive form of oculodentodigital dysplasia.
Noonan syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
413028
Concept ID:
C2750732
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
Hereditary hypotrichosis with recurrent skin vesicles
MedGen UID:
442697
Concept ID:
C2751292
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles (HYPTSV) is characterized by sparse to absent scalp hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, and body hair, as well as recurrent vesicles of scalp and skin. Some patients also exhibit trauma-induced blistering, and anomalies of dental enamel and of nails may be observed (Ayub et al., 2009; Onoufriadis et al., 2020).
RIN2 syndrome
MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11.
Odontotrichomelic syndrome
MedGen UID:
443944
Concept ID:
C2930960
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by intellectual disability, growth delay, absence deformities of upper and lower limbs, hypotrichosis, hypoplastic nails, abnormal dentition, abnormal auricles, hypoplastic nipples, thyroid enlargement, and abnormalities of tyrosine and/or tryptophane metabolism. Hypogonadism and cleft lip have also been reported. No new cases have been confirmed since 1970.
MGAT2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443956
Concept ID:
C2931008
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. These glycoconjugates play critical roles in metabolism, cell recognition and adhesion, cell migration, protease resistance, host defense, and antigenicity, among others. CDGs are divided into 2 main groups: type I CDGs (see, e.g., CDG1A, 212065) comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein, whereas type II CDGs refer to defects in the trimming and processing of the protein-bound glycans either late in the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi compartments. The biochemical changes of CDGs are most readily observed in serum transferrin (TF; 190000), and the diagnosis is usually made by isoelectric focusing of this glycoprotein (reviews by Marquardt and Denecke, 2003; Grunewald et al., 2002). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation Type II Multiple forms of CDG type II have been identified; see CDG2B (606056) through CDG2Z (620201), and CDG2AA (620454) to CDG2BB (620546).
Hawkinsinuria
MedGen UID:
419319
Concept ID:
C2931042
Disease or Syndrome
Hawkinsinuria (HWKS) is an autosomal dominant inborn error of metabolism. Metabolic acidosis and tyrosinemia are transient, and symptoms improve within the first year of life. Patients continue to excrete the hawkinsin metabolite in their urine throughout life (Danks et al., 1975; Tomoeda et al., 2000).
Tetraamelia with ectodermal dysplasia and lacrimal duct abnormalities
MedGen UID:
444003
Concept ID:
C2931214
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and genital anomaly
MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia-2 (FND2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable degrees of alopecia, skull defects, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge with notched alae nasi, and abnormal central nervous system findings (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2014).
CBL-related disorder
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Ectodermal dysplasia-cutaneous syndactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
462159
Concept ID:
C3150809
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 7 with or without polydactyly
MedGen UID:
481422
Concept ID:
C3279792
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
481437
Concept ID:
C3279807
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
481470
Concept ID:
C3279840
Disease or Syndrome
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients may be asymptomatic, whereas others show global developmental delay, nonspecific dysmorphic features, and delayed myelination on brain imaging. Laboratory studies typically show increased urinary 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid, although additional metabolic abnormalities may also be observed (summary by Marcadier et al., 2013).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
481473
Concept ID:
C3279843
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth and variable phenotypic manifestations, such as facial dysmorphism and congenital heart defects, associated with mosaic aneuploidies resulting from defects in cell division (summary by Snape et al., 2011). See also MVA1 (257300), caused by mutation in the BUB1B gene (602860) on chromosome 15q15.
PYCR1-related de Barsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
482429
Concept ID:
C3280799
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, also known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an aged appearance with distinctive facial features, sparse hair, ophthalmologic abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and cutis laxa (summary by Lin et al., 2011). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of de Barsy syndrome, see 219150. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219200.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
482919
Concept ID:
C3281289
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Ectodermal dysplasia 11B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
761671
Concept ID:
C3539920
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Ectodermal dysplasia 11A, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
762105
Concept ID:
C3541517
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature-onychodysplasia-facial dysmorphism-hypotrichosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
762199
Concept ID:
C3542022
Disease or Syndrome
SOFT syndrome is characterized by severely short long bones, peculiar facies associated with paucity of hair, and nail anomalies. Growth retardation is evident on prenatal ultrasound as early as the second trimester of pregnancy, and affected individuals reach a final stature consistent with a height age of 6 years to 8 years. Relative macrocephaly is present during early childhood but head circumference is markedly low by adulthood. Psychomotor development is normal. Facial dysmorphism includes a long, triangular face with prominent nose and small ears, and affected individuals have an unusual high-pitched voice. Clinodactyly, brachydactyly, and hypoplastic distal phalanges and fingernails are present in association with postpubertal sparse and short hair. Typical skeletal findings include short and thick long bones with mild irregular metaphyseal changes, short femoral necks, and hypoplastic pelvis and sacrum. All long bones of the hand are short, with major delay of carpal ossification and cone-shaped epiphyses. Vertebral body ossification is also delayed (summary by Sarig et al., 2012).
Ectodermal dysplasia 6, hair/nail type
MedGen UID:
767025
Concept ID:
C3554111
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type is a rare congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy without nonectodermal or other ectodermal manifestations.
Ectodermal dysplasia 9, hair/nail type
MedGen UID:
767041
Concept ID:
C3554127
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type is a rare congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy without nonectodermal or other ectodermal manifestations. Hypotrichosis usually occurs after birth with varying degrees of severity, ranging from mild hair loss to complete atrichia, including the loss of scalp hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, axillary hair, and pubic hair. Nail dystrophy affects all 20 digits by causing short fragile nails or spoon nails (koilonychia) (summary by Lin et al., 2012).
Hypotrichosis 11
MedGen UID:
767323
Concept ID:
C3554409
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-11 (HYPT11) is a form of isolated alopecia characterized by diffuse and progressive loss of hair starting in childhood. Affected individuals typically present with sparse to absent scalp hair, and may have brittle or absent eyebrows and eyelashes as well as sparse body hair, without hair shaft anomalies (summary by Pan et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389).
Severe intellectual disability-poor language-strabismus-grimacing face-long fingers syndrome
MedGen UID:
767362
Concept ID:
C3554448
Disease or Syndrome
GAND syndrome is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, with motor delay and moderate to severely impaired intellectual development. Most patients have poor speech acquisition, especially expressive language development, and may manifest signs of speech apraxia. Affected individuals have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, as well as common dysmorphic features, such as macrocephaly, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, deep-set eyes, posteriorly rotated ears, and elongated wide nose with prominent nasal tip. More variable features may include seizures, cardiac abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (summary by Shieh et al., 2020).
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
815335
Concept ID:
C3809005
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815337
Concept ID:
C3809007
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 2
MedGen UID:
815540
Concept ID:
C3809210
Disease or Syndrome
The features of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 2 (EDSSPD2) include an aged appearance, developmental delay, short stature, craniofacial disproportion, generalized osteopenia, defective wound healing, hypermobile joints, hypotonic muscles, and loose but elastic skin (Okajima et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070.
Severe dermatitis-multiple allergies-metabolic wasting syndrome
MedGen UID:
816049
Concept ID:
C3809719
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic epidermal disorder with characteristics of congenital erythroderma with severe psoriasiform dermatitis, ichthyosis, severe palmoplantar keratoderma, yellow keratosis on the hands and feet, elevated immunoglobulin E, multiple food allergies, and metabolic wasting. Other variable features may include hypotrichosis, nail dystrophy, recurrent infections, mild global developmental delay, eosinophilia, nystagmus, growth impairment and cardiac defects.
Ectodermal dysplasia 10B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
854356
Concept ID:
C3887494
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Ectodermal dysplasia 10A, hypohidrotic/hair/nail type, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
854747
Concept ID:
C3888065
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Hypotrichosis 13
MedGen UID:
863053
Concept ID:
C4014616
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypotrichosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT71 gene.
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy
MedGen UID:
863159
Concept ID:
C4014722
Disease or Syndrome
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy is an autoinflammatory vasculopathy causing severe skin lesions, particularly affecting the face, ears, nose, and digits, and resulting in ulceration, eschar formation, necrosis, and, in some cases, amputation. Many patients have interstitial lung disease. Tissue biopsy and laboratory findings show a hyperinflammatory state, with evidence of increased beta-interferon (IFNB1; 147640) signaling (summary by Liu et al., 2014).
Progeroid features-hepatocellular carcinoma predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
863898
Concept ID:
C4015461
Disease or Syndrome
Ruijs et al. (2003) reported a Moroccan boy with a chromosomal breakage who died of hepatocellular carcinoma at age 17 years. The boy was noted to have growth retardation at age 3 years; at age 7 he was found to have thoracic kyphosis, frontal bossing, and a delayed bone age of approximately 3 years. He underwent surgery for severe bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts at age 14. Examination at age 15 showed short stature and low weight, with premature graying of scalp hair, small frontotemporal diameter, small deep-set eyes, bulbous nose with high nasal bridge, small upper lip, and micrognathia. In addition, he had thoracic kyphoscoliosis, sloping shoulders, mild pectus excavatum, moderate bilateral contractures of both elbows, bilateral clinodactyly, and pes planus. At age 17, he developed abdominal pain, and ultrasonography revealed a liver mass; biopsy confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma. Because of the advanced stage, no treatment was possible, and he died 2 months later. Although his parents were not known to be consanguineous, they originated from the same small Moroccan village. Lessel et al. (2014) studied 2 brothers from a nonconsanguineous Australian family of European ancestry who exhibited low body weight, micrognathia, triangular face, muscular atrophy, lipodystrophy, bilateral simian creases, delayed bone age, and mild joint restrictions in the fingers and elbows. In addition, both brothers developed early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, at ages 16 and 14 years, respectively. The older brother died at age 18 from complications of acute fulminant hepatic failure. Analysis of patient tumor biopsies showed strong focal accumulations of cancer biomarkers as well as a high proliferative index compared to healthy liver or to cells from idiopathic hepatocellular carcinoma.
Even-plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
904613
Concept ID:
C4225180
Disease or Syndrome
EVEN-plus syndrome (EVPLS) is characterized by prenatal-onset short stature, vertebral and epiphyseal changes, microtia, midface hypoplasia with flat nose and triangular nares, cardiac malformations, and other findings including anal atresia, hypodontia, and aplasia cutis. The features overlap those reported in patients with CODAS syndrome (600373; Royer-Bertrand et al., 2015).
Severe intellectual disability-corpus callosum agenesis-facial dysmorphism-cerebellar ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
902346
Concept ID:
C4225193
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of congenital microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, hypertonia at birth lessening with age, ataxia and specific dysmorphic facial features including hirsutism, low anterior hairline and bitemporal narrowing arched thick and medially sparse eyebrows, long eyelashes, lateral upper eyelids swelling and a skin fold partially covering the inferior eyelids, low-set posteriorly rotated protruding ears, anteverted nares and a full lower lip. Brain imaging shows partial to almost complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and variable degrees of cerebellar hypoplasia. Caused by homozygous mutation in the FRMD4A gene on chromosome 10p13.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-2 (MSSGM2) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, and short stature. Patients develop diabetes in the second or third decade of life, and hypothyroidism and delayed puberty have also been reported (Abdulkarim et al., 2015; Kernohan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism, see MSSGM1 (616033).
Wooly hair, autosomal recessive 3
MedGen UID:
902275
Concept ID:
C4225214
Disease or Syndrome
Any wooly hair in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT25 gene.
Seizures-scoliosis-macrocephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
909039
Concept ID:
C4225248
Disease or Syndrome
Seizures, scoliosis, and macrocephaly/microcephaly syndrome (SSMS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, impaired intellectual development, behavioral problems, poor or absent speech, seizures, dysmorphic facial features with macro- or microcephaly, and skeletal abnormalities, including scoliosis and delayed bone age. Other features may include hypotonia, gastrointestinal problems, and exostoses (summary by Gentile et al., 2019).
Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction
MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015).
Congenital cataract-microcephaly-nevus flammeus simplex-severe intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
897292
Concept ID:
C4225323
Disease or Syndrome
Basel-Vanagaite-Smirin-Yosef syndrome is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development resulting in mental retardation, as well as variable eye, brain, cardiac, and palatal abnormalities (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6
MedGen UID:
905452
Concept ID:
C4225356
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic 33
MedGen UID:
895979
Concept ID:
C4225418
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-33 (MRXS33) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (summary by O'Rawe et al., 2015).
Trichothiodystrophy 5, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
899675
Concept ID:
C4225420
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy-5 (TTD5) is an X-linked disorder characterized by sparse and brittle hair, facial dysmorphism, global developmental delays, growth deficiency, hypogonadism, and structural brain abnormalities (summary by Mendelsohn et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675).
Autosomal dominant palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia
MedGen UID:
930338
Concept ID:
C4304669
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia-1 (PPKCA1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe hyperkeratosis and congenital alopecia. Nail changes occur in some patients (summary by Castori et al., 2010). Also see PPKCA2 (212360), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital alopecia and progressive hyperkeratosis resulting in sclerodactyly, severe contractures and tapering of the digits, and pseudoainhum formation.
Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck.
Tooth agenesis, selective, 8
MedGen UID:
934697
Concept ID:
C4310730
Disease or Syndrome
Any tooth agenesis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the WNT10B gene.
Bone marrow failure syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
934711
Concept ID:
C4310744
Disease or Syndrome
Bone marrow failure syndrome-3 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of pancytopenia in early childhood. Patients may have additional variable nonspecific somatic abnormalities, including poor growth, microcephaly, and skin anomalies (summary by Tummala et al., 2016). BMFS3 has a distinct phenotype and may include features that overlap with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS1; 260400), such as pancreatic insufficiency and short stature, and with dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., DKCA1, 127550), such as dental and hair abnormalities and shortened telomeres. In addition, some patients may have joint and skeletal abnormalities, impaired development, and retinal dysplasia (summary by D'Amours et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of BMFS, see BMFS1 (614675).
Chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome, distal
MedGen UID:
935015
Concept ID:
C4311048
Disease or Syndrome
Distal chromosome 19q13.11 deletion syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor overall growth, slender habitus, microcephaly, delayed development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, and feeding difficulties. Additional features include dysmorphic facies, signs of ectodermal dysplasia, hand and foot anomalies, and genitourinary anomalies, particularly in males (summary by Chowdhury et al., 2014).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Anauxetic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
1384439
Concept ID:
C4479357
Disease or Syndrome
Anauxetic dysplasia is a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by severe short stature of prenatal onset, very short adult height (less than 1 meter), hypodontia, midface hypoplasia, and mild intellectual disability. Vertebrae are ovoid with concave dorsal surfaces in the lumbar region and show delayed bone maturation. Femoral heads and necks are hypoplastic, as are the iliac bodies. Long bones show irregular mineralization of the metaphyses. The first and fifth metacarpals are short and wide with small, late-ossifying epiphyses and bullet-shaped middle phalanges (summary by Barraza-Garcia et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of anauxetic dysplasia, see ANXD1 (607095).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 54
MedGen UID:
1614787
Concept ID:
C4540484
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 1
MedGen UID:
1635401
Concept ID:
C4551630
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
1645250
Concept ID:
C4551974
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Hypotrichosis 1
MedGen UID:
1644234
Concept ID:
C4551976
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex (HHS) is a rare form of nonsyndromic hereditary hypotrichosis without characteristic hair shaft anomalies. Affected individuals typically show normal hair at birth, but hair loss and thinning of the hair shaft start during early childhood and progress with age. HHS can be largely divided into 2 forms: the scalp-limited form (e.g., 146520) and the generalized form, such as HYPT1, in which all body hair is affected. HHS is characterized by progressive hair follicle miniaturization, which is a typical feature of androgenetic alopecia (see 109200). HHS can be inherited either as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait (e.g., HYPT8, 278150) (summary by Shimomura et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nonsyndromic Hypotrichosis See also HYPT2 (146520), caused by mutation in the CDSN gene (602593) on chromosome 6p21; HYPT3 (613981), caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT4 (146550), caused by mutation in the HRURF gene (619257) on chromosome 8p21; HYPT5 (612841), caused by mutation in the EPS8L3 gene (614989) on chromosome 1p13; HYPT6 (607903), caused by mutation in the DSG4 gene (607892) on chromosome 18q12; HYPT7 (604379), caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) on chromosome 3q27; HYPT8 (278150), caused by mutation in the LPAR6 gene (609239) on chromosome 13q14; HYPT9 (614237), mapped to chromosome 10q11.23-q22.3; HYPT10 (614238), mapped to chromosome 7p22.3-p21.3; HYPT11 (615059), caused by mutation in the SNRPE gene (128260) on chromosome 1q32; HYPT12 (615885), caused by mutation in the RPL21 gene (603636) on chromosome 13q12; HYPT13 (615896), caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT14 (618275), caused by mutation in the LSS gene (600909) on chromosome 21q22; and HYPT15 (620177), caused by mutation in the C3ORF52 gene (611956) on chromosome 3q13.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.
Blepharocheilodontic syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1632198
Concept ID:
C4551988
Disease or Syndrome
The blepharocheilodontic syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by lower eyelid ectropion, upper eyelid distichiasis, euryblepharon, bilateral cleft lip and palate, and conical teeth. An additional rare manifestation is imperforate anus (summary by Weaver et al., 2010).
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts 1
MedGen UID:
1636142
Concept ID:
C4552029
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Jaberi-Elahi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647359
Concept ID:
C4693848
Disease or Syndrome
JABELS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability with additional variable features. Patients have onset of symptoms in infancy, but the severity is highly variable. Some patients have social interaction and learn to walk but have an ataxic gait and abnormal movements, such as tremor or dystonia, whereas others do not achieve any motor control and are unable to speak. Additional features may include retinal anomalies, visual impairment, microcephaly, abnormal foot or hand posturing, and kyphoscoliosis; some patients have dysmorphic facial features or seizures. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2016 and Bertoli-Avella et al., 2018).
Angioma serpiginosum, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1648301
Concept ID:
C4721404
Disease or Syndrome
Angioma serpiginosum (AS) is a rare benign congenital skin disorder characterized by nonpurpuric red punctate lesions seen histologically as capillary ectasias in the superficial papillary dermis. The lesions often follow Blaschko lines and are most commonly found in females (90%) (Blinkenberg et al., 2007). See 106050 for additional phenotypic information and possible autosomal dominant inheritance or cutaneous somatic mosaicism (Chen et al., 2006; Blinkenberg et al., 2007).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 42, early-onset, severe, with neurodevelopmental deficits
MedGen UID:
1648308
Concept ID:
C4748120
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 33
MedGen UID:
1648420
Concept ID:
C4748840
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis 14
MedGen UID:
1648477
Concept ID:
C4748930
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-14 (HYPT14) is characterized by sparse to absent lanugo-like scalp hair, sparse and brittle eyebrows, and sparse eyelashes and body hair (Romano et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389).
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Ectodermal dysplasia 15, hypohidrotic/hair type
MedGen UID:
1680605
Concept ID:
C5193145
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-15 (ECTD15) is characterized by hypotrichosis that develops in early childhood and absence of sweating except with extreme exercise. Skin is dry from birth and eczematous lesions may develop in adulthood. Other features include blepharitis and photophobia (van den Bogaard et al., 2019).
Shukla-Vernon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1674076
Concept ID:
C5193146
Disease or Syndrome
Shukla-Vernon syndrome (SHUVER) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Dysmorphic features are common and may include tall forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, and tapering fingers. Some patients may have seizures and/or cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Carrier mothers may have mild manifestations, including learning disabilities (summary by Shukla et al., 2019).
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
1684753
Concept ID:
C5203410
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1684764
Concept ID:
C5231433
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Osteogenesis imperfecta, type 20
MedGen UID:
1684751
Concept ID:
C5231439
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta type XX (OI20) is a progressive deforming bone disorder characterized by osteopenia, skeletal deformity, and both healed and new fractures on radiography. Several patients have died due to respiratory failure (Moosa et al., 2019).
Heyn-Sproul-Jackson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684743
Concept ID:
C5231475
Disease or Syndrome
Heyn-Sproul-Jackson syndrome (HESJAS) is characterized by microcephalic dwarfism and global developmental delay (Heyn et al., 2019).
ALDH18A1-related de Barsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720006
Concept ID:
C5234852
Disease or Syndrome
De Barsy syndrome, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III (ARCL3), is characterized by cutis laxa, a progeria-like appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (summary by Kivuva et al., 2008). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see 219100. Genetic Heterogeneity of de Barsy Syndrome Also see ARCL3B (614438), caused by mutation in the PYCR1 gene (179035) on chromosome 17q25.
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
FG syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
IFAP syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1763502
Concept ID:
C5436607
Disease or Syndrome
Follicular ichthyosis, atrichia, and photophobia syndrome-2 (IFAP2) is characterized by ichthyosis follicularis or follicular hyperkeratosis, sparse to no body hair, and photophobia with corneal lesions. Ultrastructural hair analysis shows trichorrhexis nodosa (Wang et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IFAP syndrome, see IFAP1 (308205).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1741713
Concept ID:
C5436867
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome (MDPS) is an autosomal recessive severe laminopathy-like disorder characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension (Elouej et al., 2020).
Olmsted syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778121
Concept ID:
C5542829
Disease or Syndrome
Olmsted syndrome-1 (OLMS1) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by bilateral mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) and periorificial keratotic plaques with severe pruritus of lesions. Diffuse alopecia, constriction of digits, and onychodystrophy have also been reported. Infections and squamous cell carcinomas can arise on the keratotic areas (summary by Lin et al., 2012). The digital constriction ('pseudoainhum') may progress to autoamputation of fingers and toes (Olmsted, 1927). Genetic Heterogeneity of Olmsted Syndrome Olmsted syndrome-2 (OLMS2; 619208) is caused by mutation in the PERP gene (609301) on chromosome 6q23. An X-linked form of Olmsted syndrome (OLMSX; 300918) is caused by mutation in the MBTPS2 gene (300294) on chromosome Xp22.
Joubert syndrome 37
MedGen UID:
1786742
Concept ID:
C5543064
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome-37 (JBTS37) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterized classically by a distinctive hindbrain malformation affecting the midbrain and cerebellum, recognizable as the 'molar tooth sign' on brain imaging. Affected individuals have hypotonia, ataxia, and variably impaired intellectual development. Additional variable features, such as postaxial polydactyly, liver or kidney anomalies, retinal dystrophy, and coloboma, may also occur. In severe cases, affected fetuses with these malformations may be terminated (summary by Latour et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Olmsted syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1779902
Concept ID:
C5543096
Disease or Syndrome
Olmsted syndrome-2 (OLMS2) is characterized by mutilating hyperkeratotic skin lesions, primarily on the palms and soles, but also extending onto dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet and distal extremities. The lesions are progressive, becoming thicker with verrucous fissures on the palms and soles over time. In addition, affected individuals exhibit perioral hyperkeratosis, and may have lesions around other orifices as well, such as the nostrils, perineum, and anus. Most patients also have hyperkeratotic nails and light-colored woolly hair (Duchatelet et al., 2019). Some patients may experience flexion contractures of the digits due to the severity of the keratoderma, and intractable pruritus and alopecia universalis have been observed (Dai et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Olmsted disease, see OLMS1 (614594).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 65
MedGen UID:
1787923
Concept ID:
C5543371
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-65 (MRD65) is characterized by delayed motor and speech acquisition, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may be normal or may show abnormalities, including cerebellar hypoplasia, poor development of the corpus callosum, dysmorphic hippocampus, and polymicrogyria. Feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and seizures may also be observed (Duncan et al., 2020).
Trichothiodystrophy 8, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
1794267
Concept ID:
C5562057
Disease or Syndrome
Nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy-8 (TTD8) is characterized by brittle hair and nails and scaly skin, accompanied by failure to thrive, microcephaly, and neuromotor developmental delay. Hair analysis shows low sulfur content, and skin fibroblasts demonstrate normal DNA repair efficiency after UV irradiation (Botta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675).
Trichothiodystrophy 9, nonphotosensitive
MedGen UID:
1794268
Concept ID:
C5562058
Disease or Syndrome
Nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy-9 (TTD9) is characterized by brittle hair and nails and scaly skin, accompanied by failure to thrive, microcephaly, and neuromotor developmental delay. Hair analysis shows low sulfur content, and skin fibroblasts demonstrate normal DNA repair efficiency after UV irradiation (Botta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675).
Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1803541
Concept ID:
C5676888
Disease or Syndrome
Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and other skeletal anomalies, episodic hyperthermia, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties usually resulting in early death (Dagoneau et al., 2004). See also 'classic' Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1; 255800), a phenotypically similar but genetically distinct disorder caused by mutation in the HSPG2 gene (142461) on chromosome 1p36. Genetic Heterogeneity of Stuve-Wiedemann Syndrome Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome-2 (STWS2; 619751) is caused by mutation in the IL6ST gene (600694) on chromosome 5q11.
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720).
Noonan syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
1807988
Concept ID:
C5676916
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-14 (NS14) is a recessive developmental disorder within the RASopathy clinical spectrum. Patients exhibit developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and short stature, as well as distinctive dysmorphic features including bitemporal narrowing, hypertelorism, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, prominent nasal bridge, low posterior hairline with a short webbed neck, and pectus excavatum (Motta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Noonan syndrome, see NS1 (163950).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 66
MedGen UID:
1812470
Concept ID:
C5677000
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-66 (MRD66) is characterized by global developmental delay with mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and mild speech delay. The phenotype and severity are highly variable. Some patients have behavioral problems or autism spectrum disorder, and about 50% have variable types of seizures. Additional features may include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, tall or short stature, and mild skeletal anomalies (Rahimi et al., 2022).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 68
MedGen UID:
1802176
Concept ID:
C5677008
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-68 (MRD68) is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, microcephaly, poor growth, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Cif et al., 2020).
Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome
MedGen UID:
1804193
Concept ID:
C5677020
Disease or Syndrome
Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome (NCFD) is characterized by severe developmental delay, variable brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and a distinctive type of synpolydactyly with a supernumerary hypoplastic digit between the fourth and fifth digits of the hands and/or feet. Other features include eye abnormalities, hearing impairment, and electroencephalogram anomalies (summary by Horn et al., 2021).
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Braddock-carey syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1823961
Concept ID:
C5774188
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome (BRDCS) is characterized by Pierre-Robin sequence, persistent congenital thrombocytopenia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe developmental delay, microcephaly, high forehead, sparse curly hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, telecanthus, inverted U-shaped upper vermilion, enamel hypoplasia, large posteriorly rotated ears, clinodactyly, and camptodactyly (Braddock et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey Syndrome BRDCS2 (619981) is caused by mutation in the KIF15 gene (617569) on chromosome 3p21.
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 25
MedGen UID:
1823964
Concept ID:
C5774191
Disease or Syndrome
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect-25 (GPIBD25) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, brain anomalies, hypotonia, and contractures (Salian et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech delay and variable ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1823967
Concept ID:
C5774194
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech delay and variable ocular anomalies (NEDSOA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor speech acquisition apparent from infancy. Most affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features with notable ocular anomalies, including exotropia, strabismus, hypo- or hypertropia, and refraction problems. Additional features may include febrile seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, and behavioral abnormalities. Brain imaging is usually normal, but abnormalities of the corpus callosum have been reported (Broly et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823970
Concept ID:
C5774197
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities (NEDSSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy, axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and early-onset seizures of various types and severity. Affected individuals have delayed walking or are unable to walk and show impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Brain imaging may show developmental defects of the operculum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (Calame et al., 2021).
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1823971
Concept ID:
C5774198
Disease or Syndrome
Primordial dwarfism-immunodeficiency-lipodystrophy syndrome (PDIL) is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth restriction, with extreme microcephaly, short stature, and absence of subcutaneous fat. There is also significant hematologic/immune dysfunction, with hypo- or agammaglobulinemia, as well as lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia, and most affected individuals succumb to infection in early childhood (Parry et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-pelger-huet anomaly
MedGen UID:
1824005
Concept ID:
C5774232
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (NEDFLPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities and may have variable findings on brain imaging, such as thin corpus callosum. Laboratory studies show nuclear lobulation defects in a subset of neutrophils, indicating a pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (see 169400) and suggesting defects in the integrity of the nuclear envelope, where TMEM147 localizes (Thomas et al., 2022).
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Hitzert MM, van der Crabben SN, Baldewsingh G, van Amstel HKP, van den Wijngaard A, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Zijlmans CWR
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Dec 19;14(1):294. doi: 10.1186/s13023-019-1269-0. PMID: 31856865Free PMC Article
Vij A, Bergfeld WF
Clin Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;33(6):613-21. Epub 2015 Sep 12 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2015.09.004. PMID: 26686013
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Almashaqbeh SS, Aljammal DS, Alharahsheh HM, Alqudah SF, Alkrimeen RA
Med Arch 2022 Aug;76(4):301-304. doi: 10.5455/medarh.2022.76.301-304. PMID: 36313953Free PMC Article
Martin-Giacalone BA, Rideau TT, Scheurer ME, Lupo PJ, Wang LL
Cancer Genet 2022 Apr;262-263:107-110. Epub 2022 Feb 9 doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2022.02.001. PMID: 35219053
Akiyama M
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Sep;35(9):1788-1796. Epub 2021 Jun 4 doi: 10.1111/jdv.17350. PMID: 33988877
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058
von Bernuth H, Puel A, Ku CL, Yang K, Bustamante J, Chang HH, Picard C, Casanova JL
Clin Infect Dis 2005 Nov 15;41 Suppl 7:S436-9. doi: 10.1086/431994. PMID: 16237643

Diagnosis

Averdunk L, Huetzen MA, Moreno-Andrés D, Kalb R, McKee S, Hsieh TC, Seibt A, Schouwink M, Lalani S, Faqeih EA, Brunet T, Boor P, Neveling K, Hoischen A, Hildebrandt B, Graf E, Lu L, Jin W, Schaper J, Omer JA, Demaret T, Fleischer N, Schindler D, Krawitz P, Mayatepek E, Wieczorek D, Wang LL, Antonin W, Jachimowicz RD, von Felbert V, Distelmaier F
Genet Med 2023 Jul;25(7):100836. Epub 2023 Mar 31 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100836. PMID: 37013901
Trippella G, Lionetti P, Naldini S, Peluso F, Monica MD, Stagi S
Ital J Pediatr 2018 Nov 20;44(1):138. doi: 10.1186/s13052-018-0580-z. PMID: 30458885Free PMC Article
Doshi DC, Limdi PK, Parekh NV, Gohil NR
Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Mar;64(3):227-30. doi: 10.4103/0301-4738.180191. PMID: 27146935Free PMC Article
Vij A, Bergfeld WF
Clin Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;33(6):613-21. Epub 2015 Sep 12 doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2015.09.004. PMID: 26686013
Sousa SB, Hennekam RC; Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome International Consortium
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):302-14. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31409. PMID: 25169058

Therapy

von Schuckmann LA, Hughes MC, Green AC, van der Pols JC
Arch Dermatol Res 2016 Nov;308(9):617-624. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s00403-016-1680-5. PMID: 27590883
Aeby A, Sznajer Y, Cavé H, Rebuffat E, Van Coster R, Rigal O, Van Bogaert P
J Inherit Metab Dis 2007 Oct;30(5):827. Epub 2007 Aug 20 doi: 10.1007/s10545-007-0612-0. PMID: 17703371
Campos VB, Dierickx CC, Farinelli WA, Lin TY, Manuskiatti W, Anderson RR
J Am Acad Dermatol 2000 Sep;43(3):442-7. doi: 10.1067/mjd.2000.107239. PMID: 10954655
Campos VB, Dierickx CC, Farinelli WA, Lin TY, Manuskiatti W, Anderson RR
Lasers Surg Med 2000;26(2):177-85. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-9101(2000)26:2<177::aid-lsm8>3.0.co;2-j. PMID: 10685090
Solomons NW, Torun B
Pediatr Ann 1982 Dec;11(12):991-1002. doi: 10.3928/0090-4481-19821201-07. PMID: 6818512

Prognosis

Feng B, Li X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Gu S, Yao RE, Li Z, Gao S, Chang G, Li Q, Li N, Fu L, Wang J, Wang X
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Sep 11;18(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02878-0. PMID: 37697378Free PMC Article
Al-Tamimi B, Abela S, Jeremiah HG, Evans RD
Int J Paediatr Dent 2017 Nov;27(6):583-587. Epub 2017 Jun 21 doi: 10.1111/ipd.12309. PMID: 28635076
von Schuckmann LA, Hughes MC, Green AC, van der Pols JC
Arch Dermatol Res 2016 Nov;308(9):617-624. Epub 2016 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s00403-016-1680-5. PMID: 27590883
Robotta P, Schafer E
Quintessence Int 2011 Apr;42(4):331-8. PMID: 21516279
Riyaz A, Riyaz N, Jayakrishnan MP, Mohamed Shiras PT, Ajith Kumar VT, Ajith BS
Indian J Pediatr 2007 Sep;74(9):862-3. doi: 10.1007/s12098-007-0155-2. PMID: 17901676

Clinical prediction guides

Feng B, Li X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Gu S, Yao RE, Li Z, Gao S, Chang G, Li Q, Li N, Fu L, Wang J, Wang X
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2023 Sep 11;18(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02878-0. PMID: 37697378Free PMC Article
Choi K, Park SH, Park SY, Yoon SK
Stem Cell Res Ther 2022 May 26;13(1):211. doi: 10.1186/s13287-022-02898-w. PMID: 35619120Free PMC Article
Walczak-Sztulpa J, Wawrocka A, Swiader-Lesniak A, Socha M, Jamsheer A, Drozdz D, Latos-Bielenska A, Zachwieja K
Birth Defects Res 2018 Mar 1;110(4):376-381. Epub 2017 Nov 14 doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1151. PMID: 29134781
Kantaputra P, Kaewgahya M, Jotikasthira D, Kantaputra W
Am J Med Genet A 2014 Apr;164A(4):1041-8. Epub 2014 Jan 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36388. PMID: 24458874
Jones KB, Goodwin AF, Landan M, Seidel K, Tran DK, Hogue J, Chavez M, Fete M, Yu W, Hussein T, Johnson R, Huttner K, Jheon AH, Klein OD
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Jul;161A(7):1585-93. Epub 2013 May 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35959. PMID: 23687000Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...