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1.

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome

Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive, early childhood-onset disorder characterized by ichthyosis, impaired intellectual development, spastic paraparesis, macular dystrophy, and leukoencephalopathy. It is caused by deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (summary by Lossos et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
11443
Concept ID:
C0037231
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Cockayne syndrome type 2

Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155487
Concept ID:
C0751038
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis

The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
320444
Concept ID:
C1834821
Disease or Syndrome
5.

3-Oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase deficiency

Pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias is a form of male pseudohermaphroditism in which 46,XY males show ambiguous genitalia at birth, including perineal hypospadias and a blind perineal pouch, and develop masculinization at puberty. The name of the disorder stems from the finding of a blind-ending perineal opening resembling a vagina and a severely hypospadiac penis with the urethra opening onto the perineum. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75667
Concept ID:
C0268297
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 2

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854762
Concept ID:
C3888093
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Keratosis palmoplantaris striata 2

PPKS2 is characterized by linear hyperkeratosis of the palms, which is particularly evident in affected individuals who perform manual labor. Hyperkeratosis of the soles primarily involves pressure points, and diffuse background palmoplantar thickening may also be present. (Armstrong et al., 1999; Whittock et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the striate form of palmoplantar keratoderma, see PPKS1 (148700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343725
Concept ID:
C1852127
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome

Trichodentoosseous syndrome (TDO) is an autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance characterized by abnormalities involving hair, teeth, and bone (summary by Nguyen et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78555
Concept ID:
C0265333
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hairy nose tip

MedGen UID:
333893
Concept ID:
C1841695
Finding
10.

Geroderma osteodysplastica

Geroderma osteodysplasticum (GO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin wrinkling limited to the dorsa of hands and feet and to the abdomen, bowed long bones, and osteopenia with frequent fractures. There is a distinctive facial appearance with droopy skin at the cheeks, maxillary hypoplasia, and large ears. Adult patients appear prematurely aged (summary by Rajab et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98149
Concept ID:
C0432255
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis

A rare clinical variant of epidermolytic ichthyosis, with manifestations of blistering phenotype at birth and the development from early infancy of annular polycyclic erythematous scales on the trunk and extremities. It has been reported in less than 10 families. The disease is caused by mutations in the KRT1 (12q11-q13) and KRT10 (17q21-q23) genes, encoding keratins 1 and 10 respectively. These mutations impair keratin filament formation and weaken the structural stability of the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Transmission is autosomal dominant. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
334410
Concept ID:
C1843463
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hypopigmentation-punctate palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome

Cole disease is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital or early-onset punctate keratoderma associated with irregularly shaped hypopigmented macules, which are typically found over the arms and legs but not the trunk or acral regions. Skin biopsies of palmoplantar lesions show nonspecific changes including hyperorthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis. Hypopigmented areas of skin, however, reveal a reduction in melanin content in keratinocytes but not in melanocytes, as well as hyperkeratosis and a normal number of melanocytes. Ultrastructurally, melanocytes show a disproportionately large number of melanosomes in the cytoplasm and dendrites, whereas keratinocytes show a paucity of these organelles, suggestive of impaired melanosome transfer (summary by Eytan et al., 2013). Some patients also exhibit calcinosis cutis or early-onset calcific tendinopathy (Eytan et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816111
Concept ID:
C3809781
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Loricrin keratoderma

Variant Vohwinkel syndrome is a rare genodermatosis characterized by hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, with a honeycomb appearance; constricting bands encircling the digits of the hands and feet, which frequently lead to autoamputation of the fifth digits; starfish-shaped, salmon-colored hyperkeratotic lesions, or knuckle pads, on the dorsal surface of the hands; and ichthyosiform dermatosis. The pathognomonic histologic finding is markedly thickened stratum corneum, hypergranulosis, and particularly, hyperkeratosis with round nuclei retained in the stratum corneum. Unlike classic Vohwinkel syndrome, hearing loss is not a feature (summary by Maestrini et al., 1996). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
395099
Concept ID:
C1858805
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Tooth agenesis, selective, 3

Any tooth agenesis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PAX9 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
410035
Concept ID:
C1970291
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Peeling skin syndrome type A

Peeling skin syndrome-3 (PSS3) is characterized by asymptomatic lifelong and continuous shedding of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. Symptoms start during the second half of the first decade of life and consist of generalized white scaling occurring over the upper and lower extremities (Cabral et al. (2012)). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of peeling skin syndrome, see PSS1 (270300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
864166
Concept ID:
C4015729
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Keratosis palmoplantaris striata 3

Any striate palmoplantar keratoderma in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
418996
Concept ID:
C2931123
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia

A rare intestinal disease characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals which cause lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen. Clinical manifestations include edema related to hypoalbuminemia (protein-losing gastro-enteropathy), asthenia, moderate diarrhea, lymphedema, serous effusion and failure to thrive in children. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
444009
Concept ID:
C2931241
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 5

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva-5 (EKVP5) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by progressive development of symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and nail thickening (Shah et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1626376
Concept ID:
C4540331
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Isolated anhidrosis with normal sweat glands

Isolated anhidrosis with normal sweat glands (ANHD) is characterized by absence of perspiration and subsequent heat intolerance with normal morphology and number of sweat glands. Teeth, hair, nails, and skin are normal (Klar et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1800259
Concept ID:
C5568836
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 6

EKVP6 is characterized by erythematous hyperkeratotic plaques that develop within the first year of life, beginning on distal extremities and progressing to involve the face, wrists, and ankles, with sparing of volar surfaces. Intrafamilial variation in severity has been observed, and most affected individuals experience slowly progressive spontaneous remission after puberty (Wang et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EKVP, see EKVP1 (133200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1681026
Concept ID:
C5193144
Disease or Syndrome
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