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1.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency are caused by impairment of mitochondrial TFP. TFP has three enzymatic activities – long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. In individuals with LCHAD deficiency, there is isolated deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, while deficiency of all three enzymes occurs in individuals with TFP deficiency. Individuals with TFP deficiency can present with a severe-to-mild phenotype, while individuals with LCHAD deficiency typically present with a severe-to-intermediate phenotype. Neonates with the severe phenotype present within a few days of birth with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, encephalopathy, and often cardiomyopathy. The intermediate phenotype is characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia precipitated by infection or fasting in infancy. The mild (late-onset) phenotype is characterized by myopathy and/or neuropathy. Long-term complications include peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370665
Concept ID:
C1969443
Disease or Syndrome
3.

ALG1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) comprise a group of multisystem diseases with mostly severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there are defects that affect biosynthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the cytosol or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as defects involving the transfer of oligosaccharides onto nascent glycoproteins. Type II CDG comprises all defects of further trimming and elongation of N-linked oligosaccharides in the ER and Golgi (Schwarz et al., 2004). CDG1K is a type I CDG characterized by predominant neurologic involvement. Survival ranges from the second day of life to adulthood. The liver is affected in a minority of patients and shows hepatomegaly, edema, ascites, cholestatic jaundice, portal hypertension, and Budd-Chiari syndrome (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419308
Concept ID:
C2931005
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 1

Autosomal recessive lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) is the most severe, neonatally lethal, form of arthrogryposis (see 108120), a disorder characterized by congenital nonprogressive joint contractures. The contractures can involve the upper or lower limbs and/or the vertebral column, leading to various degrees of flexion or extension limitations evident at birth (summary by Markus et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Lethal Congenital Contracture Syndrome See also lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2; 607598), caused by mutation in the ERBB3 gene (190151); LCCS3 (611369), caused by mutation in the PIP5K1C gene (606102); LCCS4 (614915), caused by mutation in the MYBPC1 gene (160794); LCCS5 (615368), caused by mutation in the DNM2 gene (602378); LCCS6 (616248), caused by mutation in the ZBTB42 gene (613915); LCCS7 (616286), caused by mutation in the CNTNAP1 gene (602346); LCCS8 (616287), caused by mutation in the ADCY6 gene (600294); LCCS9 (616503), caused by mutation in the ADGRG6 gene (612243); LCCS10 (617022), caused by mutation in the NEK9 gene (609798); and LCCS11 (617194), caused by mutation in the GLDN gene (608603). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
344338
Concept ID:
C1854664
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Abnormality of the amniotic fluid

Abnormality of the amniotic fluid, which is the fluid contained in the amniotic sac surrounding the developing fetus. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
488828
Concept ID:
C0266781
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