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1.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Costello syndrome

While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease X-linked dominant 1

GJB1 disorders are typically characterized by peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy with or without fixed CNS abnormalities and/or acute, self-limited episodes of transient neurologic dysfunction (especially weakness and dysarthria). Peripheral neuropathy typically manifests in affected males between ages five and 25 years. Although both men and women are affected, manifestations tend to be less severe in women, some of whom may remain asymptomatic. Less commonly, initial manifestations in some affected individuals are stroke-like episodes (acute fulminant episodes of reversible CNS dysfunction). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 2, autosomal dominant

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98048
Concept ID:
C0410190
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-III-D

Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III) is a multisystem lysosomal storage disease characterized by progressive central nervous system degeneration manifest as severe intellectual disability (ID), developmental regression, and other neurologic manifestations including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), behavioral problems, and sleep disturbances. Disease onset is typically before age ten years. Disease course may be rapidly or slowly progressive; some individuals with an extremely attenuated disease course present in mid-to-late adulthood with early-onset dementia with or without a history of ID. Systemic manifestations can include musculoskeletal problems (joint stiffness, contractures, scoliosis, and hip dysplasia), hearing loss, respiratory tract and sinopulmonary infections, and cardiac disease (valvular thickening, defects in the cardiac conduction system). Neurologic decline is seen in all affected individuals; however, clinical severity varies within and among the four MPS III subtypes (defined by the enzyme involved) and even among members of the same family. Death usually occurs in the second or third decade of life secondary to neurologic regression or respiratory tract infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
88602
Concept ID:
C0086650
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Myofibrillar myopathy 3

Myofibrillar myopathy refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of muscular disorders characterized by a pathologic morphologic pattern of myofibrillar degradation and abnormal accumulation of proteins involved with the sarcomeric Z disc (summary by Foroud et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811509
Concept ID:
C3714934
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 1, X-linked

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and caused by mutations in the EMD gene, encoding emerin. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1720295
Concept ID:
C5243475
Disease or Syndrome
8.

X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is characterized by the clinical triad of: joint contractures that begin in early childhood; slowly progressive muscle weakness and wasting initially in a humero-peroneal distribution that later extends to the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles; and cardiac involvement that may manifest as palpitations, presyncope and syncope, poor exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure along with variable cardiac rhythm disturbances. Age of onset, severity, and progression of muscle and cardiac involvement demonstrate both inter- and intrafamilial variability. Clinical variability ranges from early onset with severe presentation in childhood to late onset with slow progression in adulthood. In general, joint contractures appear during the first two decades, followed by muscle weakness and wasting. Cardiac involvement usually occurs after the second decade and respiratory function may be impaired in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395525
Concept ID:
C2678055
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Abortive cerebellar ataxia

'Behr syndrome' is a clinical term that refers to the constellation of early-onset optic atrophy accompanied by neurologic features, including ataxia, pyramidal signs, spasticity, and mental retardation (Behr, 1909; Thomas et al., 1984). Patients with mutations in genes other than OPA1 can present with clinical features reminiscent of Behr syndrome. Mutations in one of these genes, OPA3 (606580), result in type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (MGCA3; 258501). Lerman-Sagie (1995) noted that the abnormal urinary pattern in MGCA3 may not be picked up by routine organic acid analysis, suggesting that early reports of Behr syndrome with normal metabolic features may actually have been 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66358
Concept ID:
C0221061
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B5

MDDGB5 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335764
Concept ID:
C1847759
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myopathy, myofibrillar, 9, with early respiratory failure

Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a slowly progressive myopathy that typically begins in the third to fifth decades of life. The usual presenting findings are gait disturbance relating to distal leg weakness or nocturnal respiratory symptoms due to respiratory muscle weakness. Weakness eventually generalizes and affects both proximal and distal muscles. Most affected individuals require walking aids within a few years of onset; some progress to wheelchair dependence and require nocturnal noninvasive ventilatory support about ten years after onset. The phenotype varies even among individuals within the same family: some remain ambulant until their 70s whereas others may require ventilator support in their 40s. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
350930
Concept ID:
C1863599
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 12B (cardiomyopathic type), autosomal recessive

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-12B is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and generalized skeletal myopathy resulting in exercise intolerance, and, in some patients, muscle weakness and atrophy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows ragged-red fibers, mtDNA depletion, and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria (summary by Echaniz-Laguna et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815773
Concept ID:
C3809443
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I

MDGDC5 is an autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy characterized by variable age at onset, normal cognition, and no structural brain changes (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type C, see MDDGC1 (609308). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
339580
Concept ID:
C1846672
Disease or Syndrome
14.

PHARC syndrome

Fiskerstrand type peripheral neuropathy is a slowly-progressive Refsum-like disorder associating signs of peripheral neuropathy with late-onset hearing loss, cataract and pigmentary retinopathy that become evident during the third decade of life. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
436373
Concept ID:
C2675204
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Congenital muscular dystrophy due to LMNA mutation

LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is a condition that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is part of a group of genetic conditions called congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.

In people with L-CMD, muscle weakness becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood and can worsen quickly. The most severely affected infants develop few motor skills, and they are never able to hold up their heads, roll over, or sit. Less severely affected children may learn to sit, stand, and walk before muscle weakness becomes apparent. First the neck muscles weaken, causing the head to fall forward (dropped-head syndrome). As other skeletal muscles become weaker, these children may ultimately lose the ability to sit, stand, and walk unassisted.

Other features of L-CMD often include spinal rigidity and abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis); joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement, particularly in the hips and legs; and an inward-turning foot. People with L-CMD also have an increased risk of heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias).

Over time, muscle weakness causes most infants and children with L-CMD to have trouble eating and breathing. The breathing problems result from restrictive respiratory insufficiency, which occurs when muscles in the chest are weakened and the ribcage becomes increasingly rigid. This problem can be life-threatening, and many affected children require support with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
413043
Concept ID:
C2750785
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B6

MDDGB6 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Longman et al., 2003). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373284
Concept ID:
C1837229
Disease or Syndrome
17.

X-linked scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy

A rare, genetic, muscular dystrophy disease characterized by the co-occurrence of late onset scapular and peroneal muscle weakness, principally manifesting with distal lower limb and proximal upper limb weakness and scapular winging. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
395530
Concept ID:
C2678061
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis

ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Myosclerosis

Collagen VI-related dystrophies (COL6-RDs) represent a continuum of overlapping clinical phenotypes with Bethlem muscular dystrophy at the milder end, Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) at the more severe end, and a phenotype in between UCMD and Bethlem muscular dystrophy, referred to as intermediate COL6-RD. Bethlem muscular dystrophy is characterized by a combination of proximal muscle weakness and joint contractures. Hypotonia and delayed motor milestones occur in early childhood; mild hypotonia and weakness may be present congenitally. By adulthood, there is evidence of proximal weakness and contractures of the elbows, Achilles tendons, and long finger flexors. The progression of weakness is slow, and more than two thirds of affected individuals older than age 50 years remain independently ambulatory indoors, while relying on supportive means for mobility outdoors. Respiratory involvement is not a consistent feature. UCMD is characterized by congenital weakness, hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, and striking hyperlaxity of distal joints. Decreased fetal movements are frequently reported. Some affected children acquire the ability to walk independently; however, progression of the disease results in a loss of ambulation by age ten to eleven years. Early and severe respiratory insufficiency occurs in all individuals, resulting in the need for nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the form of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) by age 11 years. Intermediate COL6-RD is characterized by independent ambulation past age 11 years and respiratory insufficiency that is later in onset than in UCMD and results in the need for NIV in the form of BiPAP by the late teens to early 20s. In contrast to individuals with Bethlem muscular dystrophy, those with intermediate COL6-RD typically do not achieve the ability to run, jump, or climb stairs without use of a railing. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338098
Concept ID:
C1850671
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2

SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
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