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1.

Acute intermittent porphyria

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant disorder, occurs in heterozygotes for an HMBS pathogenic variant that causes reduced activity of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. AIP is considered "overt" in a heterozygote who was previously or is currently symptomatic; AIP is considered "latent" in a heterozygote who has never had symptoms, and typically has been identified during molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members. Note that GeneReviews does not use the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal dominant pathogenic variant; GeneReviews reserves the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder and thus is not expected to ever develop manifestations of the disorder. Overt AIP is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia. Acute attacks, which may be provoked by certain drugs, alcoholic beverages, endocrine factors, calorie restriction, stress, and infections, usually resolve within two weeks. Most individuals with AIP have one or a few attacks; about 3%-8% (mainly women) have recurrent attacks (defined as >3 attacks/year) that may persist for years. Other long-term complications are chronic renal failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hypertension. Attacks, which are very rare before puberty, are more common in women than men. Latent AIP. While all individuals heterozygous for an HMBS pathogenic variant that predisposes to AIP are at risk of developing overt AIP, most have latent AIP and never have symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
56452
Concept ID:
C0162565
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary coproporphyria

Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) is an acute (hepatic) porphyria in which the acute symptoms are neurovisceral and occur in discrete episodes. Attacks typically start in the abdomen with low-grade pain that slowly increases over a period of days (not hours) with nausea progressing to vomiting. In some individuals, the pain is predominantly in the back or extremities. When an acute attack is untreated, a motor neuropathy may develop over a period of days or a few weeks. The neuropathy first appears as weakness proximally in the arms and legs, then progresses distally to involve the hands and feet. Some individuals experience respiratory insufficiency due to loss of innervation of the diaphragm and muscles of respiration. Acute attacks are associated commonly with use of certain medications, caloric deprivation, and changes in female reproductive hormones. About 20% of those with an acute attack also experience photosensitivity associated with bullae and skin fragility. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
57931
Concept ID:
C0162531
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Acute episodes of neuropathic symptoms

MedGen UID:
401350
Concept ID:
C1867971
Finding
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