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Thyroid hormone resistance, generalized, autosomal recessive(GRTHR)

MedGen UID:
483749
Concept ID:
C3489796
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: GRTHR; REFETOFF SYNDROME
 
Gene (location): THRB (3p24.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010131
OMIM®: 274300

Definition

A rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder usually caused by mutations in the THRB gene. It is characterized by a defective physiological resistance to thyroid hormones, resulting in the elevation of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the serum. [from MONDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Fatigue
MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation.
Increased body weight
MedGen UID:
12145
Concept ID:
C0043094
Finding
Abnormally increased body weight.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Epiphyseal stippling
MedGen UID:
349104
Concept ID:
C1859126
Finding
The presence of abnormal punctate (speckled, dot-like) calcifications in one or more epiphyses.
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity
MedGen UID:
1392952
Concept ID:
C4476743
Laboratory or Test Result
The presence of autoantibodies (immunoglobulins) in the serum that react against thyroid peroxidase.
Anti-thyroglobulin antibody positivity
MedGen UID:
1670955
Concept ID:
C4732836
Finding
The presence of autoantibodies (immunoglobulins) in the serum that react to thyroglobulin.
Anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody positivity
MedGen UID:
1814349
Concept ID:
C5676780
Finding
The presence of autoantibodies (immunoglobulins) in the serum that react against thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
8350
Concept ID:
C0011849
Disease or Syndrome
A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
MedGen UID:
41523
Concept ID:
C0011860
Disease or Syndrome
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is distinct from maturity-onset diabetes of the young (see 606391) in that it is polygenic, characterized by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions with onset in adulthood, usually at age 40 to 60 but occasionally in adolescence if a person is obese. The pedigrees are rarely multigenerational. The penetrance is variable, possibly 10 to 40% (Fajans et al., 2001). Persons with type 2 diabetes usually have an obese body habitus and manifestations of the so-called metabolic syndrome (see 605552), which is characterized by diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility to T2D1 (601283) is conferred by variation in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10; 605286) on chromosome 2q37. The T2D2 locus (601407) on chromosome 12q was found in a Finnish population. The T2D3 locus (603694) maps to chromosome 20. The T2D4 locus (608036) maps to chromosome 5q34-q35. Susceptibility to T2D5 (616087) is conferred by variation in the TBC1D4 gene (612465) on chromosome 13q22. A mutation has been observed in hepatocyte nuclear factor-4-alpha (HNF4A; 600281.0004) in a French family with NIDDM of late onset. Mutations in the NEUROD1 gene (601724) on chromosome 2q32 were found to cause type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2 families. Mutation in the GLUT2 glucose transporter was associated with NIDDM in 1 patient (138160.0001). Mutation in the MAPK8IP1 gene, which encodes the islet-brain-1 protein, was found in a family with type 2 diabetes in individuals in 4 successive generations (604641.0001). Polymorphism in the KCNJ11 gene (600937.0014) confers susceptibility. In French white families, Vionnet et al. (2000) found evidence for a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes on 3q27-qter. They confirmed the diabetes susceptibility locus on 1q21-q24 reported by Elbein et al. (1999) in whites and by Hanson et al. (1998) in Pima Indians. A mutation in the GPD2 gene (138430.0001) on chromosome 2q24.1, encoding mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, was found in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in his glucose-intolerant half sister. Mutations in the PAX4 gene (167413) have been identified in patients with type 2 diabetes. Triggs-Raine et al. (2002) stated that in the Oji-Cree, a gly319-to-ser change in HNF1-alpha (142410.0008) behaves as a susceptibility allele for type 2 diabetes. Mutation in the HNF1B gene (189907.0007) was found in 2 Japanese patients with typical late-onset type 2 diabetes. Mutations in the IRS1 gene (147545) have been found in patients with type 2 diabetes. A missense mutation in the AKT2 gene (164731.0001) caused autosomal dominant type 2 diabetes in 1 family. A (single-nucleotide polymorphism) SNP in the 3-prime untranslated region of the resistin gene (605565.0001) was associated with susceptibility to diabetes and to insulin resistance-related hypertension in Chinese subjects. Susceptibility to insulin resistance has been associated with polymorphism in the TCF1 (142410.0011), PPP1R3A (600917.0001), PTPN1 (176885.0001), ENPP1 (173335.0006), IRS1 (147545.0002), and EPHX2 (132811.0001) genes. The K121Q polymorphism of ENPP1 (173335.0006) is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes; a haplotype defined by 3 SNPs of this gene, including K121Q, is associated with obesity, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes. A SNP in the promoter region of the hepatic lipase gene (151670.0004) predicts conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. Variants of transcription factor 7-like-2 (TCF7L2; 602228.0001), located on 10q, have also been found to confer risk of type 2 diabetes. A common sequence variant, rs10811661, on chromosome 9p21 near the CDKN2A (600160) and CDKN2B (600431) genes has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Variation in the PPARG gene (601487) has been associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. A promoter polymorphism in the IL6 gene (147620) is associated with susceptibility to NIDDM. Variation in the KCNJ15 gene (602106) has been associated with T2DM in lean Asians. Variation in the SLC30A8 gene (611145) has been associated with susceptibility to T2D. Variation in the HMGA1 gene (600701.0001) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Mutation in the MTNR1B gene (600804) is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Protection Against Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Protein-truncating variants in the SLC30A8 (611145) have been associated with a reduced risk for T2D.
Goiter
MedGen UID:
42270
Concept ID:
C0018021
Disease or Syndrome
An enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Compensated hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
473011
Concept ID:
C0271790
Disease or Syndrome
Condition associated with a raised serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4).
Elevated circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration
MedGen UID:
108325
Concept ID:
C0586553
Finding
Increased concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood circulation.
Increased circulating T4 concentration
MedGen UID:
1619052
Concept ID:
C4531079
Finding
An elevation above the normal concentration of thyroxine in the blood. Thyroxine (also known as T4) is the main hormone secreted by the thyroid gland into the blood. It can be converted into the active form triiodothyronine (also known as T3).
Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone
MedGen UID:
1654700
Concept ID:
C4722330
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced sensitivity of end organs to thyroid hormone characterized by elevated serum levels of free thyroid hormone with nonsuppressed thyroid stimulating hormone.
Increased circulating free T4 concentration
MedGen UID:
1771990
Concept ID:
C5421591
Finding
An elevated concentration of free thyroxine (fT4) in the blood circulation.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.

Recent clinical studies

Therapy

Jackowski T, Petriczko E, Horodnicka-Józwa A, Walczak M
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2017;23(4):209-214. doi: 10.18544/PEDM-23.04.0095. PMID: 29574474

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