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Items: 7

1.

Familial Mediterranean fever

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is divided into two phenotypes: type 1 and type 2. FMF type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis and meningitis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication, if untreated. FMF type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of FMF in an otherwise asymptomatic individual. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
45811
Concept ID:
C0031069
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1

Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a group of conditions that have overlapping signs and symptoms and the same genetic cause. The group includes three conditions known as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome type 1 (FCAS1), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID). These conditions were once thought to be distinct disorders but are now considered to be part of the same condition spectrum. FCAS1 is the least severe form of CAPS, MWS is intermediate in severity, and NOMID is the most severe form.

The signs and symptoms of CAPS affect multiple body systems. Generally, CAPS are characterized by periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain. These episodes can be triggered by exposure to cold temperatures, fatigue, other stressors, or they may arise spontaneously. Episodes can last from a few hours to several days. These episodes typically begin in infancy or early childhood and persist throughout life.

While the CAPS spectrum shares similar signs and symptoms, the individual conditions tend to have distinct patterns of features. People with FCAS1 are particularly sensitive to the cold, and exposure to cold temperatures can trigger a painful or burning rash. The rash usually affects the torso and limbs but may spread to the rest of the body. In addition to fever and joint pain, other possible symptoms include muscle aches, chills, drowsiness, eye redness, headache, and nausea.

Individuals with MWS develop the typical periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain after cold exposure, although episodes may occur spontaneously or all the time. Additionally, they can develop progressive hearing loss in their teenage years. Other features of MWS include skin lesions or kidney damage from abnormal deposits of a protein called amyloid (amyloidosis).

In people with NOMID, the signs and symptoms of the condition are usually present from birth and persists throughout life. In addition to skin rash and fever, affected individuals may have joint inflammation, swelling, and joint deformities called contractures that may restrict movement. People with NOMID typically have headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment resulting from chronic meningitis, which is inflammation of the tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Other features of NOMID include eye problems, short stature, distinctive facial features, and kidney damage caused by amyloidosis. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1647324
Concept ID:
C4551895
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Vasculitis due to ADA2 deficiency

Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency (DADA2) is a complex systemic autoinflammatory disorder in which vasculopathy/vasculitis, dysregulated immune function, and/or hematologic abnormalities may predominate. Inflammatory features include intermittent fevers, rash (often livedo racemosa/reticularis), and musculoskeletal involvement (myalgia/arthralgia, arthritis, myositis). Vasculitis, which usually begins before age ten years, may manifest as early-onset ischemic (lacunar) and/or hemorrhagic strokes, or as cutaneous or systemic polyarteritis nodosa. Hypertension and hepatosplenomegaly are often found. More severe involvement may lead to progressive central neurologic deficits (dysarthria, ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, cognitive impairment) or to ischemic injury to the kidney, intestine, and/or digits. Dysregulation of immune function can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity of varying severity; lymphadenopathy may be present and some affected individuals have had lymphoproliferative disease. Hematologic disorders may begin early in life or in late adulthood, and can include lymphopenia, neutropenia, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, or pancytopenia. Of note, both interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (e.g., in age of onset, frequency and severity of manifestations) can be observed; also, individuals with biallelic ADA2 pathogenic variants may remain asymptomatic until adulthood or may never develop clinical manifestations of DADA2. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854497
Concept ID:
C3887654
Disease or Syndrome
4.

IL21-related infantile inflammatory bowel disease

A rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by infancy onset of severe inflammatory bowel disease with life-threatening diarrhea and failure to thrive, oral aphthous ulcers, and recurrent severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections with finger clubbing. Laboratory examination reveals increased IgE and decreased IgG levels, as well as reduced numbers of circulating CD19+ B-cells including IgM+ naive and class-switched IgG memory B-cells, with a concomitant increase in transitional B-cells, while T-cell numbers and function are normal. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1799211
Concept ID:
C5567788
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Crohn disease

A chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea which may be bloody, vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside of the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration. Crohn's disease is thought to be an autoimmune disease, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract, causing inflammation. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
3664
Concept ID:
C0010346
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Immunodeficiency 102

Immunodeficiency-102 (IMD102) is an X-linked recessive immunologic disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent sinopulmonary, mucosal, and other infections in early childhood, usually accompanied by refractory autoimmune cytopenias. Affected individuals have bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, as well as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and decreased NK cells. Laboratory studies show defective T-cell proliferation and function, likely due to signaling abnormalities. The disorder may also manifest as a hyperinflammatory state with immune dysregulation (Delmonte et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1812534
Concept ID:
C5676886
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Aphthous stomatitis

Oral aphthous ulcers typically present as painful, sharply circumscribed fibrin-covered mucosal defects with a hyperemic border. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
20959
Concept ID:
C0038363
Disease or Syndrome
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