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1.

GRN-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration with Tdp43 inclusions

The spectrum of GRN frontotemporal dementia (GRN-FTD) includes the behavioral variant (bvFTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA; further subcategorized as progressive nonfluent aphasia [PNFA] and semantic dementia [SD]), and movement disorders with extrapyramidal features such as parkinsonism and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). A broad range of clinical features both within and between families is observed. The age of onset ranges from 35 to 87 years. Behavioral disturbances are the most common early feature, followed by progressive aphasia. Impairment in executive function manifests as loss of judgment and insight. In early stages, PPA often manifests as deficits in naming, word finding, or word comprehension. In late stages, affected individuals often become mute and lose their ability to communicate. Early findings of parkinsonism include rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia (slowing or absence of movements), limb dystonia, apraxia (loss of ability to carry out learned purposeful movements), and disequilibrium. Late motor findings may include myoclonus, dysarthria, and dysphagia. Most affected individuals eventually lose the ability to walk. Disease duration is three to 12 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
375285
Concept ID:
C1843792
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1

C9orf72 frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9orf72-FTD/ALS) is characterized most often by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and upper and lower motor neuron disease (MND); however, atypical presentations also occur. Age at onset is usually between 50 and 64 years (range: 20-91 years) irrespective of the presenting manifestations, which may be pure FTD, pure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or a combination of the two phenotypes. The clinical presentation is highly heterogeneous and may differ between and within families, causing an unpredictable pattern and age of onset of clinical manifestations. The presence of MND correlates with an earlier age of onset and a worse overall prognosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854771
Concept ID:
C3888102
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Alzheimer disease 3

Alzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.

Individuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).

As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.

Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.

Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 2

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) falls within the category of migraine with aura. In migraine with aura (including FHM) the neurologic symptoms of aura are unequivocally localizable to the cerebral cortex or brain stem and include visual disturbance (most common), sensory loss (e.g., numbness or paresthesias of the face or an extremity), and dysphasia (difficulty with speech). FHM must include motor involvement, such as hemiparesis (weakness of an extremity). Hemiparesis occurs with at least one other symptom during FHM aura. Neurologic deficits with FHM attacks can be prolonged for hours to days and may outlast the associated migrainous headache. FHM is often earlier in onset than typical migraine, frequently beginning in the first or second decade; the frequency of attacks tends to decrease with age. Approximately 40%-50% of families with CACNA1A-FHM have cerebellar signs ranging from nystagmus to progressive, usually late-onset mild ataxia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355962
Concept ID:
C1865322
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is characterized by ataxia, dementia, and involuntary movements, including chorea and dystonia. Psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal signs, and rigidity are common. The age of onset ranges from three to 55 years. Individuals with full-penetrance alleles develop neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms by age 50 years. Ataxia and psychiatric abnormalities are frequently the initial findings, followed by involuntary movement, parkinsonism, dementia, and pyramidal signs. Brain MRI shows variable atrophy of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. The clinical features correlate with the length of the polyglutamine expansion but are not absolutely predictive of the clinical course. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337637
Concept ID:
C1846707
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Alzheimer disease 4

Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.

As the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.

Individuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).

Memory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.

Alzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
376072
Concept ID:
C1847200
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome

Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4886
Concept ID:
C0017495
Disease or Syndrome
8.

X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome

The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations

Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small-vessel disease that affects highly vascularized tissues including the retina, brain, liver, and kidneys. Age of onset is often between 35 and 50 years. The most common presenting finding is decreased visual acuity and/or visual field defects. Neurologic manifestations may include hemiparesis, facial weakness, aphasia, and hemianopsia. Migraines and seizures are less frequently described. Renal manifestations may include mild-to-moderate increase in serum creatinine and mild proteinuria; progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is uncommon. Hepatic manifestations frequently include mildly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Less common findings include psychiatric disorders, hypertension, mild-to-moderate anemia, and Raynaud phenomenon. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1

Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) is characterized by fractures (resulting from radiologically demonstrable polycystic osseous lesions), frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia beginning in the fourth decade. The clinical course of PLOSL can be divided into four stages: 1. The latent stage is characterized by normal early development. 2. The osseous stage (3rd decade of life) is characterized by pain and tenderness, mostly in ankles and feet, usually following strain or injury. Fractures are typically diagnosed several years later, most commonly in the bones of the extremities. 3. In the early neurologic stage (4th decade of life), a change of personality begins to develop insidiously. Affected individuals show a frontal lobe syndrome (loss of judgment, euphoria, loss of social inhibitions, disturbance of concentration, and lack of insight, libido, and motor persistence) leading to serious social problems. 4. The late neurologic stage is characterized by progressive dementia and loss of mobility. Death usually occurs before age 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648386
Concept ID:
C4721893
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Rett syndrome, congenital variant

The congenital variant of Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with features of classic Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), but earlier onset in the first months of life. Classic Rett syndrome shows later onset and is caused by mutation in the MECP2 gene (300005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462055
Concept ID:
C3150705
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in childhood, but may show later onset, even in adulthood. Affected individuals have motor disability, with ataxia, apraxia, dystonia, and dysarthria, associated with necrotic lesions throughout the brain. Most patients also have cognitive impairment and axonal neuropathy and become severely disabled later in life (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2011). The disorder may present clinically as spinocerebellar ataxia or Leigh syndrome, or with psychiatric disturbances (Morino et al., 2014; Atwal, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767519
Concept ID:
C3554605
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids 1

CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is characterized by executive dysfunction, memory decline, personality changes, motor impairments, and seizures. A frontal lobe syndrome (e.g., loss of judgment, lack of social inhibitors, lack of insight, and motor persistence) usually appears early in the disease course. The mean age of onset is usually in the fourth decade. Affected individuals eventually become bedridden with spasticity and rigidity. The disease course ranges from two to 30 or more years (mean: 8 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1794139
Concept ID:
C5561929
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Hedera type

The Hedera type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSH) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy and progressive neurologic decline with abnormal movements, spasticity, and seizures. Brain imaging shows volume loss of cortical white and gray matter, thin corpus callosum, and myelination defects, consistent with a neurodegenerative process. Only males are affected (summary by Hirose et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
337257
Concept ID:
C1845543
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 2b

The Lafora type of progressive myoclonic epilepsy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insidious onset of progressive neurodegeneration between 8 and 18 years of age. Initial features can include headache, difficulties in school work, myoclonic jerks, generalized seizures, and often visual hallucination. The myoclonus, seizures, and hallucinations gradually worsen and become intractable. This is accompanied by progressive cognitive decline, resulting in dementia. About 10 years after onset, affected individuals are in near-continuous myoclonus with absence seizures, frequent generalized seizures, and profound dementia or a vegetative state. Histologic studies of multiple tissues, including brain, muscle, liver, and heart show intracellular Lafora bodies, which are dense accumulations of malformed and insoluble glycogen molecules, termed polyglucosans (review by Ramachandran et al., 2009). There is a slower progression of disease and later age at death in Lafora disease-2 than in Lafora disease-1 (MELF1, EPM2A; 254780); see Genotype/Phenotype Correlations. Myoclonic epilepsy of Lafora-1 is caused by mutation in the EPM2A gene (608072), which encodes laforin, on chromosome 6q24. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340621
Concept ID:
C1850764
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, with ovarian failure

Progressive leukoencephalopathy with ovarian failure is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of motor and cognitive skills, usually with onset in young adulthood. Some patients may have a history of delayed motor development or learning difficulties in early childhood. Neurologic decline is severe, usually resulting in gait difficulties, ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline and dementia. Most patients lose speech and become wheelchair-bound or bedridden. Brain MRI shows progressive white matter signal abnormalities in the deep white matter. Affected females develop premature ovarian failure (summary by Dallabona et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863025
Concept ID:
C4014588
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Mast syndrome

Mast syndrome (MASTS) is an autosomal recessive complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia in which progressive spastic paraparesis is associated in more advanced cases with cognitive decline, dementia, and other neurologic abnormalities. Symptom onset usually occurs in adulthood, and the disorder is progressive with variable severity. Brain imaging shows thinning of the corpus callosum. The disorder occurs with high frequency in the Old Order Amish (summary by Simpson et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343325
Concept ID:
C1855346
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Short stature, microcephaly, and endocrine dysfunction

In patients with SSMED, short stature and microcephaly are apparent at birth, and there is progressive postnatal growth failure. Endocrine dysfunction, including hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, multinodular goiter, and diabetes mellitus, is present in affected adults. Progressive ataxia has been reported in some patients, with onset ranging from the second to fifth decade of life. In addition, a few patients have developed tumors, suggesting that there may be a predisposition to tumorigenesis. In contrast to syndromes involving defects in other components of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) complex (see, e.g., 606593), no clinically overt immunodeficiency has been observed in SSMED, although laboratory analysis has revealed lymphopenia or borderline leukopenia in some patients (Murray et al., 2015; Bee et al., 2015; de Bruin et al., 2015; Guo et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
895448
Concept ID:
C4225288
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Wieacker-Wolff syndrome

Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 2

Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy-2 (PLOSL2), or Nasu-Hakola disease, is a recessively inherited presenile frontal dementia with leukoencephalopathy and basal ganglia calcification. In most cases the disorder first manifests in early adulthood as pain and swelling in ankles and feet, followed by bone fractures. Neurologic symptoms manifest in the fourth decade of life as a frontal lobe syndrome with loss of judgment, euphoria, and disinhibition. Progressive decline in other cognitive domains begins to develop at about the same time. The disorder culminates in a profound dementia and death by age 50 years (summary by Klunemann et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy, see 221770. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648374
Concept ID:
C4748657
Disease or Syndrome
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