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1.

Fragile X syndrome

FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8912
Concept ID:
C0016667
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Tuberous sclerosis 1

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
344288
Concept ID:
C1854465
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autism

Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
7.

Tuberous sclerosis 2

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, confetti skin lesions, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, fibrous cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability / developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM], multifocal micronodular pneumonocyte hyperplasia). Central nervous system tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
348170
Concept ID:
C1860707
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 3

The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
335161
Concept ID:
C1845336
Finding
9.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

Dihyropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPYDD) shows large phenotypic variability, ranging from no symptoms to a convulsive disorder with motor and mental retardation in homozygous patients. In addition, homozygous and heterozygous mutation carriers can develop severe toxicity after the administration of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), which is also catabolized by the DPYD enzyme. This is an example of a pharmacogenetic disorder (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999). Since there is no correlation between genotype and phenotype in DPD deficiency, it appears that the deficiency is a necessary, but not sufficient, prerequisite for the development of clinical abnormalities (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999; Enns et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
409522
Concept ID:
C1959620
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Timothy syndrome

The first identified CACNA1C-related disorder, referred to as Timothy syndrome, consists of the combination of prolonged QT interval, autism, and cardiovascular malformation with syndactyly of the fingers and toes. Infrequent findings also include developmental and speech delay, seizures, and recurrent infections. With increased availability of molecular genetic testing, a wider spectrum of pathogenic variants and clinical findings associated with CACNA1C-related disorders has been recognized. Because CACNA1C is associated with calcium channel function, all individuals with a pathogenic variant in this gene are at risk for cardiac arrhythmia of a specific type. The clinical manifestations of a CACNA1C-related disorder include three phenotypes: Timothy syndrome with or without syndactyly. QT prolongation (QTc >480 ms) and arrhythmias in the absence of other syndromic features. Short QT syndrome (QTc <350 ms) or Brugada syndrome with short QT interval. These three phenotypes can be separated into two broad categories on the basis of the functional consequences of the pathogenic variants in CACNA1C: QT prolongation with or without a Timothy syndrome-associated phenotype associated with pathogenic variants inducing a gain of function at the cellular level (i.e., increased calcium current). Short QT interval with or without Brugada syndrome EKG pattern associated with pathogenic variants causing loss of function (i.e., reduced calcium current). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
331395
Concept ID:
C1832916
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Myhre syndrome

Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset hypotonia, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, expressive language deficit, and mild ataxia. Epilepsy is present in about half of affected individuals and is more common in adults. Hyperkinetic behavior, aggression, self-injurious behaviors, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances have been reported in nearly half of all affected individuals, more commonly in those who are older. Basal ganglia signs including choreoathetosis, dystonia, and myoclonus have been reported in a few individuals with earlier-onset, more severe disease. Involvement beyond the central nervous system has not been described. Individuals with SSADH deficiency typically have 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria present on urine organic acid analysis. Head MRI reveals T2 hyperintensities in multiple regions, involving the globus pallidi, cerebellar dentate nuclei, subthalamic nuclei, subcortical white matter, and brain stem, as well as cerebral and sometimes cerebellar atrophy. EEG findings include background slowing and spike discharges that are usually generalized. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
124340
Concept ID:
C0268631
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency

The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436367
Concept ID:
C2675179
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Phelan-McDermid syndrome

Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
15.

5p partial monosomy syndrome

Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc (CDG2C) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe psychomotor retardation, mild dysmorphism, and impaired neutrophil motility. It is a member of a group of disorders with a defect in the processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs), see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). Frydman (1996) contended that the neutrophil defect in CDG2C, which has been referred to as 'leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II' (LAD2), is a manifestation of the disorder and that there are no cases of 'primary' LAD II. Etzioni and Harlan (1999) provided a comprehensive review of both leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1 (LAD1; 116920) and LAD2. While the functional neutrophil studies are similar in the 2 LADs, the clinical course is milder in LAD2. Furthermore, patients with LAD2 present other abnormal features, such as growth and mental retardation, which are related to the primary defect in fucose metabolism. Delayed separation of the umbilical cord occurs in LAD1. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LAD, see 116920. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96022
Concept ID:
C0398739
Disease or Syndrome
17.

X-linked intellectual disability with marfanoid habitus

MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167096
Concept ID:
C0796022
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Wolfram-like syndrome

Autosomal dominant Wolfram-like syndrome (WFSL) is characterized by the clinical triad of congenital progressive hearing impairment, diabetes mellitus, and optic atrophy. The hearing impairment, which is usually diagnosed in the first decade of life, is relatively constant and alters mainly low- and middle-frequency ranges (summary by Valero et al., 2008). Wolfram syndrome (WFS1; 222300) is an autosomal recessive allelic disorder characterized by optic atrophy, diabetes mellitus, hearing loss, and diabetes insipidus, and is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the WFS1 gene. An autosomal dominant syndrome involving optic atrophy with or without deafness, ophthalmoplegia, myopathy, ataxia, and neuropathy (125250), is caused by heterozygous mutation in the OPA1 gene (605290). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481988
Concept ID:
C3280358
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome

Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS) is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features, with or without additional congenital anomalies. The facial features include thick eyebrows with lateral flare, vertically narrow and downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, long eyelashes, wide nasal bridge, broad nasal tip, thin vermilion of the upper lip, and thick scalp hair. About 60% of affected individuals have hypertrichosis cubiti ("hairy elbows"), which was once thought to be pathognomic for the syndrome, with a majority having hypertrichosis of other body parts. Other clinical features include feeding difficulties, prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, epilepsy, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, hand anomalies (such as brachydactyly and clinodactyly), hypotonia, vertebral anomalies (especially fusion anomalies of the cervical spine), renal and uterine anomalies, immune dysfunction, brain malformations, and dental anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340266
Concept ID:
C1854630
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Macrocephaly-autism syndrome

Macrocephaly/autism syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased head circumference, abnormal facial features, and delayed psychomotor development resulting in autistic behavior or mental retardation (Herman et al., 2007). Some patients may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder with recurrent infections associated with variably abnormal T- and B-cell function (Tsujita et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
381416
Concept ID:
C1854416
Disease or Syndrome
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