U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 252

1.

Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 12

MedGen UID:
766773
Concept ID:
C3553859
Finding
2.

Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 8

Any generalized epilepsy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CASR gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
414549
Concept ID:
C2752062
Finding
3.

Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 7

MedGen UID:
442800
Concept ID:
C2751729
Finding
4.

Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Deficiency of very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD), which catalyzes the initial step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids with a chain length of 14 to 20 carbons, is associated with three phenotypes. The severe early-onset cardiac and multiorgan failure form typically presents in the first months of life with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, pericardial effusion, and arrhythmias, as well as hypotonia, hepatomegaly, and intermittent hypoglycemia. The hepatic or hypoketotic hypoglycemic form typically presents during early childhood with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, but without cardiomyopathy. The later-onset episodic myopathic form presents with intermittent rhabdomyolysis provoked by exercise, muscle cramps and/or pain, and/or exercise intolerance. Hypoglycemia typically is not present at the time of symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854382
Concept ID:
C3887523
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Unverricht-Lundborg syndrome

Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 1(EPM1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset from age six to 15 years, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. Some years after the onset, ataxia, incoordination, intentional tremor, and dysarthria develop. Individuals with EPM1 are cognitively mostly within the normal range, but show emotional lability and depression. The epileptic seizures are usually well controlled by anti-seizure medication, but the myoclonic jerks are progressive, action activated, and treatment resistant, and can be severely disabling. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155923
Concept ID:
C0751785
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Sandhoff disease

Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 14

MedGen UID:
903934
Concept ID:
C4225245
Finding
9.

Spongy degeneration of central nervous system

Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy

SCN1A seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end. Phenotypes with intractable seizures including Dravet syndrome are often associated with cognitive decline. Less commonly observed phenotypes include myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, epilepsy with focal seizures, and vaccine-related encephalopathy and seizures. The phenotype of SCN1A seizure disorders can vary even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148243
Concept ID:
C0751122
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Deficiency of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
154356
Concept ID:
C0574080
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Alpha thalassemia-X-linked intellectual disability syndrome

Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337145
Concept ID:
C1845055
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 9

For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, see 600669. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy; see 254770 for a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of JME. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413424
Concept ID:
C2750887
Finding
14.

Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy – ALDH7A1 (PDE-ALDH7A1) is characterized by seizures not well controlled with anti-seizure medication that are responsive clinically and electrographically to large daily supplements of pyridoxine (vitamin B6). This is true across a phenotypic spectrum that ranges from classic to atypical PDE-ALDH7A1. Intellectual disability is common, particularly in classic PDE-ALDH7A1. Classic PDE-ALDH7A1. Untreated seizures begin within the first weeks to months of life. Dramatic presentations of prolonged seizures and recurrent episodes of status epilepticus are typical; recurrent self-limited events including partial seizures, generalized seizures, atonic seizures, myoclonic events, and infantile spasms also occur. Electrographic seizures can occur without clinical correlates. Atypical PDE-ALDH7A1. Findings in untreated individuals can include late-onset seizures beginning between late infancy and age three years, seizures that initially respond to anti-seizure medication and then become intractable, seizures during early life that do not respond to pyridoxine but are subsequently controlled with pyridoxine several months later, and prolonged seizure-free intervals (=5 months) that occur after discontinuation of pyridoxine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340341
Concept ID:
C1849508
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Migraine, familial hemiplegic, 2

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) falls within the category of migraine with aura. In migraine with aura (including FHM) the neurologic symptoms of aura are unequivocally localizable to the cerebral cortex or brain stem and include visual disturbance (most common), sensory loss (e.g., numbness or paresthesias of the face or an extremity), and dysphasia (difficulty with speech). FHM must include motor involvement, such as hemiparesis (weakness of an extremity). Hemiparesis occurs with at least one other symptom during FHM aura. Neurologic deficits with FHM attacks can be prolonged for hours to days and may outlast the associated migrainous headache. FHM is often earlier in onset than typical migraine, frequently beginning in the first or second decade; the frequency of attacks tends to decrease with age. Approximately 40%-50% of families with CACNA1A-FHM have cerebellar signs ranging from nystagmus to progressive, usually late-onset mild ataxia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355962
Concept ID:
C1865322
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Seizures, benign familial neonatal, 1

KCNQ2-related disorders represent a continuum of overlapping neonatal epileptic phenotypes ranging from self-limited familial neonatal epilepsy (SLFNE) at the mild end to neonatal-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (NEO-DEE) at the severe end. Additional, less common phenotypes consisting of neonatal encephalopathy with non-epileptic myoclonus, infantile or childhood-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), and isolated intellectual disability (ID) without epilepsy have also been described. KCNQ2-SLFNE is characterized by seizures that start in otherwise healthy infants between two and eight days after term birth and spontaneously disappear between the first and the sixth to 12th month of life. There is always a seizure-free interval between birth and the onset of seizures. Seizures are characterized by sudden onset with prominent motor involvement, often accompanied by apnea and cyanosis; video EEG identifies seizures as focal onset with tonic stiffening of limb(s) and some migration during each seizure's evolution. About 30% of individuals with KCNQ2-SLFNE develop epileptic seizures later in life. KCNQ2-NEO-DEE is characterized by multiple daily seizures beginning in the first week of life that are mostly tonic, with associated focal motor and autonomic features. Seizures generally cease between ages nine months and four years. At onset, EEG shows a burst-suppression pattern or multifocal epileptiform activity; early brain MRI can show basal ganglia hyperdensities and later MRIs may show white matter or general volume loss. Moderate-to-profound developmental impairment is present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
460425
Concept ID:
C3149074
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Juvenile myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis AND stroke

MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a multisystem disorder with protean manifestations. The vast majority of affected individuals develop signs and symptoms of MELAS between ages two and 40 years. Common clinical manifestations include stroke-like episodes, encephalopathy with seizures and/or dementia, muscle weakness and exercise intolerance, normal early psychomotor development, recurrent headaches, recurrent vomiting, hearing impairment, peripheral neuropathy, learning disability, and short stature. During the stroke-like episodes neuroimaging shows increased T2-weighted signal areas that do not correspond to the classic vascular distribution (hence the term "stroke-like"). Lactic acidemia is very common and muscle biopsies typically show ragged red fibers. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
56485
Concept ID:
C0162671
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Landau-Kleffner syndrome

GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
79465
Concept ID:
C0282512
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Weaver syndrome

EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency is characterized by infantile-onset hypotonia, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, expressive language deficit, and mild ataxia. Epilepsy is present in about half of affected individuals and is more common in adults. Hyperkinetic behavior, aggression, self-injurious behaviors, hallucinations, and sleep disturbances have been reported in nearly half of all affected individuals, more commonly in those who are older. Basal ganglia signs including choreoathetosis, dystonia, and myoclonus have been reported in a few individuals with earlier-onset, more severe disease. Involvement beyond the central nervous system has not been described. Individuals with SSADH deficiency typically have 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria present on urine organic acid analysis. Head MRI reveals T2 hyperintensities in multiple regions, involving the globus pallidi, cerebellar dentate nuclei, subthalamic nuclei, subcortical white matter, and brain stem, as well as cerebral and sometimes cerebellar atrophy. EEG findings include background slowing and spike discharges that are usually generalized. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
124340
Concept ID:
C0268631
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...