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1.

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I

Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome

ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, McKusick type

The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
67398
Concept ID:
C0220748
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
4.

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome

Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Menkes kinky-hair syndrome

Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by generalized copper deficiency. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
44030
Concept ID:
C0022716
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Aspartylglucosaminuria

Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a severe autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that involves the central nervous system and causes skeletal abnormalities as well as connective tissue lesions. The most characteristic feature is progressive mental retardation. The disorder is caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glycosylasparaginase, which results in body fluid and tissue accumulation of a series of glycoasparagines, i.e., glycoconjugates with an aspartylglucosamine moiety at the reducing end. AGU belongs to the group of disorders commonly referred to as the Finnish disease heritage (summary by Mononen et al., 1993 and Arvio and Arvio, 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78649
Concept ID:
C0268225
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Smith-Magenis syndrome

Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive physical features (particularly coarse facial features that progress with age), developmental delay, cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, sleep disturbance, and childhood-onset abdominal obesity. Infants have feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, hyporeflexia, prolonged napping or need to be awakened for feeds, and generalized lethargy. The majority of individuals function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. The behavioral phenotype, including significant sleep disturbance, stereotypies, and maladaptive and self-injurious behaviors, is generally not recognized until age 18 months or older and continues to change until adulthood. Sensory issues are frequently noted; these may include avoidant behavior, as well as repetitive seeking of textures, sounds, and experiences. Toileting difficulties are common. Significant anxiety is common as are problems with executive functioning, including inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Maladaptive behaviors include frequent outbursts / temper tantrums, attention-seeking behaviors, opposition, aggression, and self-injurious behaviors including self-hitting, self-biting, skin picking, inserting foreign objects into body orifices (polyembolokoilamania), and yanking fingernails and/or toenails (onychotillomania). Among the stereotypic behaviors described, the spasmodic upper-body squeeze or "self-hug" seems to be highly associated with SMS. An underlying developmental asynchrony, specifically emotional maturity delayed beyond intellectual functioning, may also contribute to maladaptive behaviors in people with SMS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162881
Concept ID:
C0795864
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 1

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Muenke syndrome

Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome

Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs, and thrombocytopenia that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow's milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Craniofacial dysostosis

Crouzon syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by craniosynostosis causing secondary alterations of the facial bones and facial structure. Common features include hypertelorism, exophthalmos and external strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip, hypoplastic maxilla, and a relative mandibular prognathism (Reardon et al., 1994; Glaser et al., 2000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1162
Concept ID:
C0010273
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) appears to comprise a broad phenotypic spectrum. Classic CCA is characterized by arachnodactyly; flexion contractures of multiple joints including elbows, knees, hips, ankles, and/or fingers; kyphoscoliosis (usually progressive); a marfanoid habitus (a long and slender build, dolichostenomelia, pectus deformity, muscular hypoplasia, highly arched palate); and abnormal "crumpled" ears. At the mildest end, parents who are diagnosed retrospectively upon evaluation of their more severely affected child may show a lean body build, mild arachnodactyly, mild contractures without impairment, and minor ear abnormalities. At the most severe end is "severe CCA with cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies," a rare phenotype in infants with pronounced features of CCA (severe crumpling of the ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, congenital scoliosis, and/or hypotonia) and severe cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Phenotypic expression can vary within and between families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
67391
Concept ID:
C0220668
Congenital Abnormality
16.

Achondrogenesis type II

Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
17.

Baller-Gerold syndrome

Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Craniofrontonasal syndrome

Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Weill-Marchesani syndrome 1

Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1637058
Concept ID:
C4552002
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
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