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Items: 1 to 20 of 152

1.

Marfan syndrome

FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Mucolipidosis type II

GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly

Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) appears to comprise a broad phenotypic spectrum. Classic CCA is characterized by arachnodactyly; flexion contractures of multiple joints including elbows, knees, hips, ankles, and/or fingers; kyphoscoliosis (usually progressive); a marfanoid habitus (a long and slender build, dolichostenomelia, pectus deformity, muscular hypoplasia, highly arched palate); and abnormal "crumpled" ears. At the mildest end, parents who are diagnosed retrospectively upon evaluation of their more severely affected child may show a lean body build, mild arachnodactyly, mild contractures without impairment, and minor ear abnormalities. At the most severe end is "severe CCA with cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies," a rare phenotype in infants with pronounced features of CCA (severe crumpling of the ears, arachnodactyly, contractures, congenital scoliosis, and/or hypotonia) and severe cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal anomalies. Phenotypic expression can vary within and between families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
67391
Concept ID:
C0220668
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382398
Concept ID:
C2674574
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1646567
Concept ID:
C4551955
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Weaver syndrome

EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Myhre syndrome

Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome

SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy

Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, and pigmentary skin changes. The lipodystrophy is characterized by a marked acral loss of fatty tissue with normal or increased fatty tissue in the neck and trunk. Some patients may show progeroid features. Metabolic complications can arise due to insulin resistance and diabetes (Young et al., 1971; Simha and Garg, 2002; summary by Garavelli et al., 2009). See also MAD type B (MADB; 608612), which is caused by mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene (606480). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1757618
Concept ID:
C5399785
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: delayed motor and cognitive milestones and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability; craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; distinctive craniofacial features; and musculoskeletal findings including olichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures, pes planus, foot malposition, and C1-C2 spine malformation. Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, secundum atrial septal defect, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, and myopia are also characteristic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Arthrogryposis, distal, type 1A

Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder characterized by joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement in the hands and feet. The term "arthrogryposis" comes from the Greek words for joint (arthro-) and crooked or hooked (gryposis). The characteristic features of this condition include permanently bent fingers and toes (camptodactyly), overlapping fingers, and a hand deformity in which all of the fingers are angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation). Clubfoot, which is an inward- and upward-turning foot, is also commonly seen with distal arthrogryposis type 1. The specific hand and foot abnormalities vary among affected individuals. However, this condition typically does not cause any signs and symptoms affecting other parts of the body. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
113099
Concept ID:
C0220662
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
16.

Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462437
Concept ID:
C3151087
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome

The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Microphthalmia, syndromic 1

Microphthalmia-ankyloblepharon-intellectual disability syndrome is characterized by microphthalmia, ankyloblepharon and intellectual deficit. It has been described in seven male patients from two generations of a Northern Ireland family. The causative gene is localized to the Xq27-q28 region. The syndrome is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
162898
Concept ID:
C0796016
Congenital Abnormality
19.

Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Renpenning syndrome

Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
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