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1.

Acrocephalosyndactyly type I

Apert syndrome is characterized by the presence of multisuture craniosynostosis, midface retrusion, and syndactyly of the hands with fusion of the second through fourth nails. Almost all affected individuals have coronal craniosynostosis, and a majority also have involvement of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. The midface in Apert syndrome is underdeveloped as well as retruded; a subset of affected individuals have cleft palate. The hand in Apert syndrome always includes fusion of the middle three digits; the thumb and fifth finger are sometimes also involved. Feeding issues, dental abnormalities, hearing loss, hyperhidrosis, and progressive synostosis of multiple bones (skull, hands, feet, carpus, tarsus, and cervical vertebrae) are also common. Multilevel airway obstruction may be present and can be due to narrowing of the nasal passages, tongue-based airway obstruction, and/or tracheal anomalies. Nonprogressive ventriculomegaly is present in a majority of individuals, with a small subset having true hydrocephalus. Most individuals with Apert syndrome have normal intelligence or mild intellectual disability; moderate-to-severe intellectual disability has been reported in some individuals. A minority of affected individuals have structural cardiac abnormalities, true gastrointestinal malformations, and anomalies of the genitourinary tract. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7858
Concept ID:
C0001193
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Costello syndrome

While the majority of individuals with Costello syndrome share characteristic findings affecting multiple organ systems, the phenotypic spectrum is wide, ranging from a milder or attenuated phenotype to a severe phenotype with early lethal complications. Costello syndrome is typically characterized by failure to thrive in infancy as a result of severe postnatal feeding difficulties; short stature; developmental delay or intellectual disability; coarse facial features (full lips, large mouth, full nasal tip); curly or sparse, fine hair; loose, soft skin with deep palmar and plantar creases; papillomata of the face and perianal region; diffuse hypotonia and joint laxity with ulnar deviation of the wrists and fingers; tight Achilles tendons; and cardiac involvement including: cardiac hypertrophy (usually typical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), congenital heart defect (usually valvar pulmonic stenosis), and arrhythmia (usually supraventricular tachycardia, especially chaotic atrial rhythm/multifocal atrial tachycardia or ectopic atrial tachycardia). Relative or absolute macrocephaly is typical, and postnatal cerebellar overgrowth can result in the development of a Chiari I malformation with associated anomalies including hydrocephalus or syringomyelia. Individuals with Costello syndrome have an approximately 15% lifetime risk for malignant tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma in young children and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in adolescents and young adults. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
108454
Concept ID:
C0587248
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Renal coloboma syndrome

PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: delayed motor and cognitive milestones and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability; craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; distinctive craniofacial features; and musculoskeletal findings including olichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures, pes planus, foot malposition, and C1-C2 spine malformation. Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, secundum atrial septal defect, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, and myopia are also characteristic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Noonan syndrome 3

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349931
Concept ID:
C1860991
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 14B

PBD14B is an autosomal recessive peroxisome biogenesis disorder characterized clinically by mild intellectual disability, congenital cataracts, progressive hearing loss, and polyneuropathy (Ebberink et al., 2012), all of which had been observed in patients with mild peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (e.g., Kelley et al., 1986; Poll-The et al., 1987). Additionally, recurrent migraine-like episodes following mental stress or physical exertion, not a common feature in peroxisome disorders, was reported. Thoms and Gartner (2012) classified the disorder described by Ebberink et al. (2012) in their patient as a mild 'Zellweger syndrome (214100) spectrum' (ZSS) disorder. See PBD1B (601539) for a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of less severe phenotypes on the Zellweger syndrome spectrum. See PBD9B (614879) for another atypical peroxisome biogenesis disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766969
Concept ID:
C3554055
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Lateral meningocele syndrome

NOTCH3-related lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is characterized by multiple lateral spinal meningoceles (protrusions of the arachnoid and dura through spinal foramina), distinctive facial features, joint hyperextensibility, hypotonia, and skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital anomalies. Neurologic sequelæ of the meningoceles depend on size and location and can include neurogenic bladder, paresthesia, back pain, and/or paraparesis. Other neurologic findings can include Chiari I malformation, syringomyelia, and rarely, hydrocephalus. Additional findings of LMS include developmental delay, mixed or conductive hearing loss, and cleft palate. Skeletal abnormalities may include scoliosis, vertebral fusion, scalloping of vertebrae, and wormian bones. Infants may demonstrate feeding difficulties with poor weight gain. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342070
Concept ID:
C1851710
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS) is an overgrowth / intellectual disability syndrome characterized by length/height and/or head circumference =2 SD above the mean for age and sex, obesity / increased weight, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to severe, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, behavioral/psychiatric issues, kyphoscoliosis, and seizures. Individuals with TBRS have subtle dysmorphic features, including a round face with coarse features, thick horizontal low-set eyebrows, narrow (as measured vertically) palpebral fissures, and prominent upper central incisors. The facial gestalt is most easily recognizable in the teenage years. TBRS may be associated with an increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. There are less clear associations with aortic root dilatation and increased risk of other hematologic and solid tumors. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
862982
Concept ID:
C4014545
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Gordon syndrome

DA3, or Gordon syndrome, is distinguished from other distal arthrogryposes by short stature and cleft palate (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). There are 2 syndromes with features overlapping those of DA3 that are also caused by heterozygous mutation in PIEZO2: distal arthrogryposis type 5 (DA5; 108145) and Marden-Walker syndrome (MWKS; 248700), which are distinguished by the presence of ocular abnormalities and mental retardation, respectively. McMillin et al. (2014) suggested that the 3 disorders may represent variable expressivity of the same condition. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66314
Concept ID:
C0220666
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Ayme-Gripp syndrome

Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Chiari type I malformation

Arnold-Chiari type I malformation refers to a relatively mild degree of herniation of the posteroinferior region of the cerebellum (the cerebellar tonsils) into the cervical canal with little or no displacement of the fourth ventricle. It is characterized by one or both pointed (not rounded) cerebellar tonsils that project 5 mm below the foramen magnum, measured by a line drawn from the basion to the opisthion (McRae Line) [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
196689
Concept ID:
C0750929
Congenital Abnormality
14.

Hamartoma of hypothalamus

Pallister-Hall-like syndrome (PHLS) is a pleiotropic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by phenotypic variability. Patients exhibit postaxial polydactyly as well as hypothalamic hamartoma, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and craniofacial dysmorphisms. Hirschsprung disease has also been observed (Rubino et al., 2018; Le et al., 2020). Pallister-Hall syndrome (146510) is an autosomal dominant disorder with features overlapping those of PHLS, caused by mutation in the GLI3 gene (165240). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
137970
Concept ID:
C0342418
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
15.

Lambdoidal craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4) includes lambdoid, sagittal, metopic, coronal, and multisuture forms. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
322167
Concept ID:
C1833340
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 10

Common variable immunodeficiency-10 (CVID10) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency characterized by childhood-onset of recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of memory and marginal zone B cells. Some patients may develop autoimmune features and have circulating autoantibodies. An unusual feature is central adrenal insufficiency (summary by Chen et al., 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816321
Concept ID:
C3809991
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2

An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Meier-Gorlin syndrome 7

Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CDC45 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
934705
Concept ID:
C4310738
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Fanconi anemia complementation group R

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
924579
Concept ID:
C4284093
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 7

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
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