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Items: 11

1.

NPHP3-related Meckel-like syndrome

This autosomal recessive disorder is designated Meckel syndrome type 7 (MKS7) based on the classic phenotypic triad of (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system abnormality, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, as defined by Meckel (1822), Salonen (1984), and Logan et al. (2011). According to these criteria, polydactyly is a variable feature. Herriot et al. (1991) and Al-Gazali et al. (1996) concluded that Dandy-Walker malformation can be the phenotypic manifestation of a central nervous system malformation in MKS. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
382217
Concept ID:
C2673885
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Fumarase deficiency

Fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency results in severe neonatal and early infantile encephalopathy that is characterized by poor feeding, failure to thrive, hypotonia, lethargy, and seizures. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, and widely spaced eyes. Many affected individuals are microcephalic. A spectrum of brain abnormalities are seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including cerebral atrophy, enlarged ventricles and generous extra-axial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces, delayed myelination for age, thinning of the corpus callosum, and an abnormally small brain stem. Brain malformations including bilateral polymicrogyria and absence of the corpus callosum can also be observed. Development is severely affected: most affected individuals are nonverbal and nonambulatory, and many die during early childhood. Less severely affected individuals with moderate cognitive impairment and long-term survival have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87458
Concept ID:
C0342770
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Neu-Laxova syndrome 1

Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Alveolar capillary dysplasia with pulmonary venous misalignment

Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is characterized histologically by failure of formation and ingrowth of alveolar capillaries that then do not make contact with alveolar epithelium, medial muscular thickening of small pulmonary arterioles with muscularization of the intraacinar arterioles, thickened alveolar walls, and anomalously situated pulmonary veins running alongside pulmonary arterioles and sharing the same adventitial sheath. Less common features include a reduced number of alveoli and a patchy distribution of the histopathologic changes. The disorder is associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and shows varying degrees of lability and severity (Boggs et al., 1994). Affected infants present with respiratory distress resulting from pulmonary hypertension in the early postnatal period, and the disease is uniformly fatal within the newborn period (Vassal et al., 1998). Additional features of ACDMPV include multiple congenital anomalies affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as disruption of the normal right-left asymmetry of intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs (Sen et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
755478
Concept ID:
C2960310
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects primarily females. Initially it was characterized by a typical triad of agenesis of the corpus callosum, central chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms. As more affected individuals have been ascertained, it has become clear that not all affected girls have all three features of the classic triad and that other neurologic and systemic defects are common, including other brain malformations, optic nerve abnormalities, other seizure types, intellectual disability of varying severity, and scoliosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61236
Concept ID:
C0175713
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis

Verloes et al. (1992) described a rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia (see FND1, 136760), designated acromelic frontonasal dysplasia (AFND), in which similar craniofacial anomalies are associated with variable central nervous system malformations and limb defects including tibial hypoplasia/aplasia, talipes equinovarus, and preaxial polydactyly of the feet. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350933
Concept ID:
C1863616
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7

Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 18 with polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1632904
Concept ID:
C4693420
Disease or Syndrome
9.

CHROMOSOME 1qter DELETION SYNDROME

MedGen UID:
382926
Concept ID:
C2676727
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Choroid plexus cyst

A cyst occurring within the choroid plexus within a cerebral ventricle. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
87376
Concept ID:
C0338597
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