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1.

Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome

ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 1

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 1

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163210
Concept ID:
C0796070
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
318592
Concept ID:
C1720862
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Fraser syndrome 1

Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Deficiency of steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of corticosteroid biosynthesis resulting in androgen excess, virilization, and hypertension. The defect causes decreased synthesis of cortisol and corticosterone in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland, resulting in accumulation of the precursors 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone; the latter is a potent salt-retaining mineralocorticoid that leads to arterial hypertension (White et al., 1991). CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for approximately 5 to 8% of all CAH cases; approximately 90% of cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (201910) (White et al., 1991). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82783
Concept ID:
C0268292
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2

Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is usually diagnosed at birth or soon thereafter. Because of the absence of functional adipocytes, lipid is stored in other tissues, including muscle and liver. Affected individuals develop insulin resistance and approximately 25%-35% develop diabetes mellitus between ages 15 and 20 years. Hepatomegaly secondary to hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur in all affected individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reported in 20%-25% of affected individuals and is a significant cause of morbidity from cardiac failure and early mortality. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
318593
Concept ID:
C1720863
Congenital Abnormality
9.

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome

Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
10.

46,XX sex reversal 1

Nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are characterized by: the presence of a 46,XX karyotype; external genitalia ranging from typical male to ambiguous; two testicles; azoospermia; absence of müllerian structures; and absence of other syndromic features, such as congenital anomalies outside of the genitourinary system, learning disorders / cognitive impairment, or behavioral issues. Approximately 85% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present after puberty with normal pubic hair and normal penile size but small testes, gynecomastia, and sterility resulting from azoospermia. Approximately 15% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present at birth with ambiguous genitalia. Gender role and gender identity are reported as male. If untreated, males with 46,XX testicular DSD experience the consequences of testosterone deficiency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
411324
Concept ID:
C2748895
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
11.

Genitopatellar syndrome

KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Leprechaunism syndrome

INSR-related severe syndromic insulin resistance comprises a phenotypic spectrum that is a continuum from the severe phenotype Donohue syndrome (DS) (also known as leprechaunism) to the milder phenotype Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS). DS at the severe end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia with associated fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia), severe prenatal growth restriction and postnatal growth failure, hypotonia and developmental delay, characteristic facies, and organomegaly involving heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and ovaries. Death usually occurs before age one year. RMS at the milder end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance that, although not as severe as that of DS, is nonetheless accompanied by fluctuations in blood glucose levels, diabetic ketoacidosis, and – in the second decade – microvascular complications. Findings can range from severe growth delay and intellectual disability to normal growth and development. Facial features can be milder than those of DS. Complications of longstanding hyperglycemia are the most common cause of death. While death usually occurs in the second decade, some affected individuals live longer. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82708
Concept ID:
C0265344
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Bent bone dysplasia syndrome 1

Bent bone dysplasia syndrome-1 (BBDS1) is a perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by poor mineralization of the calvarium, craniosynostosis, dysmorphic facial features, prenatal teeth, hypoplastic pubis and clavicles, osteopenia, and bent long bones (Merrill et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bent Bone Dysplasia Syndrome BBDS2 (620076) is caused by mutation in the LAMA5 gene (601033) on chromosome 20q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
482877
Concept ID:
C3281247
Disease or Syndrome
15.

46,XY sex reversal 3

MedGen UID:
483746
Concept ID:
C3489793
Congenital Abnormality
16.

Seckel syndrome 1

Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic 'bird-headed' facial appearance (Shanske et al., 1997). Genetic Heterogeneity of Seckel Syndrome Other forms of Seckel syndrome include SCKL2 (606744), caused by mutation in the RBBP8 gene (604124) on chromosome 18q11; SCKL4 (613676), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on chromosome 13q12; SCKL5 (613823), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on chromosome 15q21; SCKL6 (614728), caused by mutation in the CEP63 gene (614724) on chromosome 3q22; SCKL7 (614851), caused by mutation in the NIN gene (608684) on chromosome 14q22; SCKL8 (615807), caused by mutation in the DNA2 gene (601810) on chromosome 10q21; SCKL9 (616777), caused by mutation in the TRAIP gene (605958) on chromosome 3p21; SCKL10 (617253), caused by mutation in the NSMCE2 gene (617246) on chromosome 8q24; and SCKL11 (620767), caused by mutation in the CEP295 gene (617728) on chromosome 11q21. The report of a Seckel syndrome locus on chromosome 14q, designated SCKL3, by Kilinc et al. (2003) was found to be in error; see History section. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1637056
Concept ID:
C4551474
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 5A (Zellweger)

The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 5 (CG5, equivalent to CG10 and CGF) have mutations in the PEX2 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766854
Concept ID:
C3553940
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 2A (Zellweger)

The peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 2 (CG2) have mutations in the PEX5 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
763187
Concept ID:
C3550273
Disease or Syndrome
19.

46,XY sex reversal 6

MedGen UID:
462414
Concept ID:
C3151064
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome

INSR-related severe syndromic insulin resistance comprises a phenotypic spectrum that is a continuum from the severe phenotype Donohue syndrome (DS) (also known as leprechaunism) to the milder phenotype Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS). DS at the severe end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia with associated fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia), severe prenatal growth restriction and postnatal growth failure, hypotonia and developmental delay, characteristic facies, and organomegaly involving heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, and ovaries. Death usually occurs before age one year. RMS at the milder end of the spectrum is characterized by severe insulin resistance that, although not as severe as that of DS, is nonetheless accompanied by fluctuations in blood glucose levels, diabetic ketoacidosis, and – in the second decade – microvascular complications. Findings can range from severe growth delay and intellectual disability to normal growth and development. Facial features can be milder than those of DS. Complications of longstanding hyperglycemia are the most common cause of death. While death usually occurs in the second decade, some affected individuals live longer. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78783
Concept ID:
C0271695
Disease or Syndrome
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