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1.

Hypotrichosis 8

Hypotrichosis simplex refers to a group of hereditary isolated alopecias characterized by diffuse and progressive hair loss, usually beginning in early childhood (Pasternack et al., 2008). Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis (LAH) is characterized by fragile hairs that break easily, leaving short, sparse scalp hairs. The disorder affects the trunk and extremities as well as the scalp, and the eyebrows and eyelashes may also be involved, whereas beard, pubic, and axillary hairs are largely spared. In addition, patients can develop hyperkeratotic follicular papules, erythema, and pruritus in affected areas (summary by Schaffer et al., 2006). Woolly hair (WH) refers to a group of hair shaft disorders that are characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Compared to normal curly hair that is observed in some populations, WH grows slowly and stops growing after a few inches. Under light microscopy, WH shows some structural anomalies, including trichorrhexis nodosa and tapered ends (summary by Petukhova et al., 2009). Several families have been reported in which some affected individuals exhibit features of hypotrichosis and others have woolly scalp hair (Khan et al., 2011). Woolly hair is also a feature of several syndromes, such as Naxos disease (601214) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (115150) (Petukhova et al., 2009), or the palmoplantar keratoderma and cardiomyopathy syndrome (601214) (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypotrichosis and Woolly Hair For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of localized hypotrichosis, see LAH1 (HYPT6; 607903). Another form of autosomal recessive woolly hair with or without hypotrichosis (ARWH2; 604379) is caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) and is allelic to autosomal recessive localized hypotrichosis (LAH2). ARWH3 (616760) is caused by mutation in the KRT25 gene (616646) on chromosome 17q21. An autosomal dominant form of woolly hair with hypotrichosis (HYPT13; 615896) is caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13. Another autosomal dominant form of woolly hair (ADWH; 194300) with normal hair density is caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13, and is allelic to an autosomal dominant form of hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp (HYPT3; 613981) as well as an ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type (ECTD7; 614929). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481100
Concept ID:
C3279470
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hypotrichosis 7

Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a condition that affects hair growth. People with this condition have sparse hair (hypotrichosis) on the scalp beginning in infancy. This hair is usually coarse, dry, and tightly curled (often described as woolly hair). Scalp hair may also be lighter in color than expected and is fragile and easily broken. Affected individuals often cannot grow hair longer than a few inches. The eyebrows, eyelashes, and other body hair may be sparse as well. Over time, the hair problems can remain stable or progress to complete scalp hair loss (alopecia) and a decrease in body hair.

Rarely, people with autosomal recessive hypotrichosis have skin problems affecting areas with sparse hair, such as redness (erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair growth, they may also develop bumps called hyperkeratotic follicular papules that develop around hair follicles, which are specialized structures in the skin where hair growth occurs. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
322969
Concept ID:
C1836672
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Keratosis pilaris atrophicans

Keratosis pilaris atrophicans (KPA) represents a group of rare genodermatoses characterized by perifollicular keratosis and inflammation that progresses to atrophy and scarring of the facial skin. Keratosis pilaris of extensor surfaces of limbs is a common associated finding. Affected individuals may present with features that overlap between 3 subtypes, keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei (KPAF), keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD), and atrophoderma vermiculata (AVA; see 209700) (summary by Klar et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75520
Concept ID:
C0263428
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome is a rare, genetic skin disease characterized by multiple milium-like, comedone-like lesions and skin-colored to hyperpigmented, 1 to 2 mm-sized papules, associated with hypotrichosis and palmar/plantar pits. Lesions are usually first noticed on cheeks or neck and gradually increase in size and number to involve the scalp, face, ears, shoulders, chest, axillas, and upper arms. In severe cases, lower back, lower arms, and back of the legs can be involved. Mild hypohidrosis has also been reported. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
343009
Concept ID:
C1853919
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Comedo

A clogged cutaneous sebaceous follicle, which is a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
67447
Concept ID:
C0221228
Disease or Syndrome
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