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Cone/cone-rod dystrophy

MedGen UID:
896366
Concept ID:
C4085590
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Cone-rod degeneration; Cone-rod dystrophy; PRPH2-Related Cone-Rod Dystrophy; UNC119-Related Cone-Rod Dystrophy
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Gene (location): PRPH2 (6p21.1)
 
HPO: HP:0000548
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0015993
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS120970
Orphanet: ORPHA1872

Definition

The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).

There are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.

Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Alstrom syndrome
MedGen UID:
78675
Concept ID:
C0268425
Disease or Syndrome
Alström syndrome is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy, obesity, progressive bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, acute infantile-onset cardiomyopathy and/or adolescent- or adult-onset restrictive cardiomyopathy, insulin resistance / type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and chronic progressive kidney disease. Cone-rod dystrophy presents as progressive visual impairment, photophobia, and nystagmus usually starting between birth and age 15 months. Many individuals lose all perception of light by the end of the second decade, but a minority retain the ability to read large print into the third decade. Children usually have normal birth weight but develop truncal obesity during their first year. Sensorineural hearing loss presents in the first decade in as many as 70% of individuals and may progress to the severe or moderately severe range (40-70 db) by the end of the first to second decade. Insulin resistance is typically accompanied by the skin changes of acanthosis nigricans, and proceeds to T2DM in the majority by the third decade. Nearly all demonstrate hypertriglyceridemia. Other findings can include endocrine abnormalities (hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in males, and hyperandrogenism in females), urologic dysfunction / detrusor instability, progressive decrease in renal function, and hepatic disease (ranging from elevated transaminases to steatohepatitis/NAFLD). Approximately 20% of affected individuals have delay in early developmental milestones, most commonly in gross and fine motor skills. About 30% have a learning disability. Cognitive impairment (IQ <70) is very rare. Wide clinical variability is observed among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Megaloblastic anemia, thiamine-responsive, with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness
MedGen UID:
83338
Concept ID:
C0342287
Congenital Abnormality
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and diabetes mellitus. Onset of megaloblastic anemia occurs between infancy and adolescence. The anemia is corrected with thiamine treatment, but the red cells remain macrocytic and anemia can recur if treatment is withdrawn. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss often occurs early and can be detected in toddlers; hearing loss is irreversible and may not be prevented by thiamine treatment. The diabetes mellitus is non-type I in nature, with age of onset from infancy to adolescence. Thiamine treatment may reduce insulin requirement and delay onset of diabetes in some individuals.
Cone-rod dystrophy 9
MedGen UID:
244692
Concept ID:
C1423873
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.
Cone-rod dystrophy 5
MedGen UID:
322083
Concept ID:
C1832976
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy-5 (CORD5) is characterized by reduced visual acuity, photophobia, and defective color vision. Most patients experience onset of symptoms in early childhood, with progression to legal blindness by early adulthood, although some patients exhibit a milder phenotype, with onset in the fourth or fifth decade of life (Kohn et al., 2007; Reinis et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970.
Cone-rod dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
371596
Concept ID:
C1833564
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Cone-rod dystrophy 11
MedGen UID:
322767
Concept ID:
C1835865
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Cone dystrophy with supernormal rod response
MedGen UID:
332081
Concept ID:
C1835897
Disease or Syndrome
Cone dystrophy with supernormal rod responses (CDSRR) is characterized by onset in the first or second decade of life of very marked photophobia, myopia, reduced color vision along the red-green axis with relatively preserved tritan discrimination, and central scotomata with peripheral widespread sensitivity loss predominating in the superior visual field. Nyctalopia is a later feature of the disorder. There is often retinal pigment epithelium disturbance at the macula with a normal retinal periphery. Autofluorescence (AF) imaging shows either a perifoveal ring or a central macular area of relative increased AF (summary by Michaelides et al., 2005).
Peripheral cone dystrophy
MedGen UID:
323031
Concept ID:
C1836946
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia-cone-rod dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
324684
Concept ID:
C1837073
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (SMDCRD) is characterized by postnatal growth deficiency resulting in profound short stature, rhizomelia with bowing of the lower extremities, platyspondyly with anterior vertebral protrusions, progressive metaphyseal irregularity and cupping with shortened tubular bones, and early-onset progressive visual impairment associated with a pigmentary maculopathy and electroretinographic evidence of cone-rod dysfunction (summary by Hoover-Fong et al., 2014). Yamamoto et al. (2014) reviewed 16 reported cases of SMDCRD, noting that all affected individuals presented uniform skeletal findings, with rhizomelia and bowed lower limbs observed in the first year of life, whereas retinal dystrophy had a more variable age of onset. There was severe disproportionate short stature, with a final height of less than 100 cm; scoliosis was usually mild. Visual loss was progressive, with stabilization in adolescence.
X-linked cone-rod dystrophy 3
MedGen UID:
336932
Concept ID:
C1845407
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a retinal disorder with predominantly cone involvement. Rod impairment may occur at the same time as the cone impairment or appear later. Patients with CORD usually have reduced visual acuity, photophobia, and color vision defects (summary by Huang et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of X-linked cone-rod dystrophy, see 304020.
X-linked cone-rod dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
341161
Concept ID:
C1848139
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy 8
MedGen UID:
381360
Concept ID:
C1854180
Disease or Syndrome
A cone-rod dystrophy that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 1q12-q24.
Leber congenital amaurosis 4
MedGen UID:
346808
Concept ID:
C1858386
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting rod and cone photoreceptors simultaneously. The most severe cases are termed Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), whereas the less aggressive forms are usually considered juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (Gu et al., 1997). Various intermediate phenotypes between LCA and retinitis pigmentosa are known and are sometimes described as 'early-onset severe rod-cone dystrophy' or 'early-onset retinal degeneration' (Booij et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Leber congenital amaurosis, see LCA1 (204000); for retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000; for cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970.
Cone-rod dystrophy 3
MedGen UID:
349030
Concept ID:
C1858806
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy-3 (CORD3) is an autosomal recessive, clinically heterogeneous retinal disorder with typical findings of reduced visual acuity, impairment of the central visual field, color vision deficits, and fundoscopic evidence of maculopathy, with no or few midperipheral retinal pigment deposits. Cone degeneration appears early in life with a central involvement of the retina, followed by a degeneration of rods several years later (summary by Klevering et al., 2002 and Ducroq et al., 2002). Both cone and rod a- and b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes are reduced (Fishman et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cone-rod dystrophy, see 120970.
Cone-rod dystrophy 7
MedGen UID:
355026
Concept ID:
C1863634
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Retinal cone dystrophy 4
MedGen UID:
355308
Concept ID:
C1864849
Disease or Syndrome
Any cone dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CACNA2D4 gene.
Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
356065
Concept ID:
C1865695
Disease or Syndrome
Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMDAX) is characterized by postnatal growth failure, including rhizomelic short stature in early childhood that evolves into short trunk in late childhood, and thoracic hypoplasia that may cause mild to moderate respiratory problems in the neonatal period and later susceptibility to airway infection. Impaired visual acuity comes to medical attention in early life and vision rapidly deteriorates. Retinal changes are diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa or pigmentary retinal degeneration on funduscopic examination and as cone-rod dystrophy on electroretinogram. Radiologic hallmarks include short ribs with flared and cupped anterior ends, mild spondylar dysplasia, lacy iliac crests, and metaphyseal irregularities essentially confined to the proximal femora (summary by Suzuki et al., 2011).
Cone dystrophy 3
MedGen UID:
356104
Concept ID:
C1865869
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive cone dystrophy usually presents in childhood or early adult life, with many patients developing rod photoreceptor involvement in later life, thereby leading to considerable overlap between progressive cone dystrophy and cone-rod dystrophy. Both progressive cone dystrophy and cone-rod dystrophy have been associated with mutation in the GUCA1A gene (Michaelides et al., 2006). Intrafamilial variability in GUCA1A-associated macular disease ranges from mild photoreceptor degeneration to central areolar choroidal dystrophy (CACD), a form of retinal degeneration that primarily involves the macula and is characterized by a well-defined atrophic region of retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris in the latest stage (Chen et al., 2017).
Cone-rod dystrophy 6
MedGen UID:
400963
Concept ID:
C1866293
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Retinal cone dystrophy type 1
MedGen UID:
356747
Concept ID:
C1867326
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy 12
MedGen UID:
393334
Concept ID:
C2675210
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Oculoauricular syndrome
MedGen UID:
393758
Concept ID:
C2677500
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoauricular syndrome (OCACS) is characterized by complex ocular anomalies, including congenital cataract, anterior segment dysgenesis, iris coloboma, and early-onset retinal dystrophy, and dysplastic ears with abnormal external ear cartilage (summary by Gillespie et al., 2015).
Cone-rod dystrophy 13
MedGen UID:
413025
Concept ID:
C2750720
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Cone dystrophy 4
MedGen UID:
416518
Concept ID:
C2751308
Disease or Syndrome
Achromatopsia is characterized by reduced visual acuity, pendular nystagmus, increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), a small central scotoma, eccentric fixation, and reduced or complete loss of color discrimination. All individuals with achromatopsia (achromats) have impaired color discrimination along all three axes of color vision corresponding to the three cone classes: the protan or long-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (red), the deutan or middle-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (green), and the tritan or short-wavelength-sensitive cone axis (blue). Most individuals have complete achromatopsia, with total lack of function of all three types of cones. Rarely, individuals have incomplete achromatopsia, in which one or more cone types may be partially functioning. The manifestations are similar to those of individuals with complete achromatopsia, but generally less severe. Hyperopia is common in achromatopsia. Nystagmus develops during the first few weeks after birth followed by increased sensitivity to bright light. Best visual acuity varies with severity of the disease; it is 20/200 or less in complete achromatopsia and may be as high as 20/80 in incomplete achromatopsia. Visual acuity is usually stable over time; both nystagmus and sensitivity to bright light may improve slightly. Although the fundus is usually normal, macular changes (which may show early signs of progression) and vessel narrowing may be present in some affected individuals. Defects in the macula are visible on optical coherence tomography.
Cone-rod dystrophy 16
MedGen UID:
482675
Concept ID:
C3281045
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are clinically and genetically overlapping heterogeneous retinal dystrophies. RP is characterized initially by rod photoreceptor dysfunction, giving rise to night blindness, which is followed by progressive rod and cone photoreceptor dystrophy, resulting in midperipheral vision loss, tunnel vision, and sometimes blindness. In contrast to RP, CORD is characterized by a primary loss of cone photoreceptors and subsequent or simultaneous loss of rod photoreceptors. The disease in most cases becomes apparent during primary-school years, and symptoms include photoaversion, decrease in visual acuity with or without nystagmus, color vision defects, and decreased sensitivity of the central visual field. Because rods are also involved, night blindness and peripheral vision loss can occur. The diagnosis of CORD is mainly based on electroretinogram (ERG) recordings, in which cone responses are more severely reduced than, or equally as reduced as rod responses (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2012).
Cone-rod dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
483485
Concept ID:
C3489532
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy (CORD) characteristically leads to early impairment of vision. An initial loss of color vision and of visual acuity is followed by nyctalopia (night blindness) and loss of peripheral visual fields. In extreme cases, these progressive symptoms are accompanied by widespread, advancing retinal pigmentation and chorioretinal atrophy of the central and peripheral retina (Moore, 1992). In many families, perhaps a majority, central and peripheral chorioretinal atrophy is not found (Tzekov, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Cone-Rod Dystrophy There are several other autosomal forms of CORD for which the molecular basis is known. CORD3 (604116) is caused by mutation in the ABCA4 gene (601691) on chromosome 1p22. CORD5 (600977) is caused by mutation in the PITPNM3 gene (608921) on chromosome 17p13. CORD6 (601777) is caused by mutation in the GUCY2D gene (600179) on chromosome 17p13.1. CORD9 (612775) is caused by mutation in the ADAM9 gene (602713) on chromosome 8p11. CORD10 (610283) is caused by mutation in the SEMA4A gene (607292) on chromosome 1q22. CORD11 (610381) is caused by mutation in the RAXL1 gene (610362) on chromosome 19p13. CORD12 (612657) is caused by mutation in the PROM1 gene (604365) on chromosome 4p15. CORD13 (608194) is caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1 gene (605446) on chromosome 14q11. CORD14 (see 602093) is caused by mutation in the GUCA1A gene (600364) on chromosome 6p21. CORD15 (613660) is caused by mutation in the CDHR1 gene (609502) on chromosome 10q23. CORD16 (614500) is caused by mutation in the C8ORF37 gene (614477) on chromosome 8q22. CORD18 (615374) is caused by mutation in the RAB28 gene (612994) on chromosome 4p15. CORD19 (615860) is caused by mutation in the TTLL5 gene (612268) on chromosome 14q24. CORD20 (615973) is caused by mutation in the POC1B gene (614784) on chromosome 12q21. CORD21 (616502) is caused by mutation in the DRAM2 gene (613360) on chromosome 1p13. CORD22 (619531) is caused by mutation in the TLCD3B gene (615175) on chromosome 16p11. CORD23 (see 613428) is caused by mutation in the C2ORF71 gene (PCARE; 613425) on chromosome 2p23. CORD24 (620342) is caused by mutation in the UNC119 gene (604011) on chromosome 17q11. A diagnosis of CORD was made in an individual with a mutation in the AIPL1 gene (604392.0004) on chromosome 17p13.1, as well as in an individual with a mutation in the UNC119 gene (604011.0001) on chromosome 17q11.2. Other mapped loci for autosomal CORD include CORD1 (600624) on chromosome 18q21.1-q21.3; CORD7 (603649) on chromosome 6q14; CORD8 (605549) on chromosome 1q12-q24; and CORD17 (615163) on chromosome 10q26. For a discussion of X-linked forms of cone-rod dystrophy, see CORDX1 (304020).
Jalili syndrome
MedGen UID:
501210
Concept ID:
C3495589
Disease or Syndrome
Jalili syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder consisting of cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. Significant visual impairment with nystagmus and photophobia is present from infancy or early childhood and progresses with age. Enamel of primary and secondary dentitions is grossly abnormal and prone to rapid posteruptive failure, in part reflecting hypomineralization (summary by Parry et al., 2009).
Cone-rod dystrophy 17
MedGen UID:
767524
Concept ID:
C3554610
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
811538
Concept ID:
C3714980
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-17 (BBS17) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cognitive impairment, obesity, renal dysfunction, and hypogenitalism. Polydactyly, most often postaxial, is also a primary feature of BBS; in BBS17, mesoaxial polydactyly, with fused or Y-shaped metacarpals, is a distinct manifestation (Deffert et al., 2007; Schaefer et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Cone-rod dystrophy 18
MedGen UID:
815629
Concept ID:
C3809299
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Cone-rod dystrophy 19
MedGen UID:
862938
Concept ID:
C4014501
Disease or Syndrome
The first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nCone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.
Cone-rod dystrophy 20
MedGen UID:
863293
Concept ID:
C4014856
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy is a group of related eye disorders that causes vision loss, which becomes more severe over time. These disorders affect the retina, which is the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In people with cone-rod dystrophy, vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate.\n\nThere are more than 30 types of cone-rod dystrophy, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and their pattern of inheritance: autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked. Additionally, cone-rod dystrophy can occur alone without any other signs and symptoms or it can occur as part of a syndrome that affects multiple parts of the body.\n\nThe first signs and symptoms of cone-rod dystrophy, which often occur in childhood, are usually decreased sharpness of vision (visual acuity) and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia). These features are typically followed by impaired color vision (dyschromatopsia), blind spots (scotomas) in the center of the visual field, and partial side (peripheral) vision loss. Over time, affected individuals develop night blindness and a worsening of their peripheral vision, which can limit independent mobility. Decreasing visual acuity makes reading increasingly difficult and most affected individuals are legally blind by mid-adulthood. As the condition progresses, individuals may develop involuntary eye movements (nystagmus).
Bardet-biedl syndrome 21
MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Joubert syndrome 33
MedGen UID:
1615779
Concept ID:
C4540389
Disease or Syndrome
Joubert syndrome (JBTS) represents a classic ciliopathy characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, cognitive impairment, and a distinctive brain malformation, the 'molar tooth sign.' In addition, retinal dystrophy, cystic kidney disease, liver fibrosis, and polydactyly occur in a subset of patients (summary by Wheway et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Joubert syndrome, see JBTS1 (213300).
Retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache syndrome
MedGen UID:
1662266
Concept ID:
C4749914
Disease or Syndrome
Retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache syndrome (ROSAH) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which affected individuals present in childhood with reduced vision associated with papilledema and low-grade ocular inflammation. Progressive deterioration of visual acuity results in counting fingers to no light perception by the third decade of life. Patients also show anhidrosis, as well as splenomegaly and mild pancytopenia, and most experience headaches that may be migraine-like in nature (Williams et al., 2019).
Cone-rod dystrophy 24
MedGen UID:
1841082
Concept ID:
C5830446
Disease or Syndrome
Cone-rod dystrophy-24 (CORD24) is characterized by night blindness, defective color vision, and reduced visual acuity. Macular atrophy, macular pigmentation deposits, and drusen-like deposits in the macula have been observed. Age at onset varies widely, from the first to the sixth decades of live (Kobayashi et al., 2000; Huang et al., 2013; Zenteno et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CORD, see CORD2 (120970).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Wang Y, Huang L, Sun L, Li S, Zhang Z, Zhang T, Lai Y, Ding X
Exp Eye Res 2022 Dec;225:109277. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2022.109277. PMID: 36206858
Gawęcki M
Lasers Med Sci 2020 Oct;35(8):1663-1670. Epub 2020 May 20 doi: 10.1007/s10103-020-03036-9. PMID: 32435907
Sun W, Zhang Q
Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2019;161:1-27. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2018.10.002. PMID: 30711023

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kim DJ, Woo SJ, Joo K
Ophthalmic Res 2024;67(1):9-22. Epub 2023 Dec 13 doi: 10.1159/000535430. PMID: 38091967
Rodilla C, Martín-Merida I, Blanco-Kelly F, Trujillo-Tiebas MJ, Avila-Fernandez A, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Del Pozo-Valero M, Perea-Romero I, Swafiri ST, Zurita O, Villaverde C, López MÁ, Romero R, Iancu IF, Núñez-Moreno G, Jiménez-Rolando B, Martin-Gutierrez MP, Carreño E, Minguez P, García-Sandoval B, Ayuso C, Corton M
Am J Ophthalmol 2023 Oct;254:87-103. Epub 2023 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.05.015. PMID: 37327959
Hadalin V, Buscarino M, Sajovic J, Meglič A, Jarc-Vidmar M, Hawlina M, Volk M, Fakin A
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 14;24(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms24043840. PMID: 36835250Free PMC Article
Neubauer J, Hahn L, Birtel J, Boon CJF, Charbel Issa P, Fischer MD
Genes (Basel) 2022 Feb 8;13(2) doi: 10.3390/genes13020313. PMID: 35205358Free PMC Article
Birtel J, Eisenberger T, Gliem M, Müller PL, Herrmann P, Betz C, Zahnleiter D, Neuhaus C, Lenzner S, Holz FG, Mangold E, Bolz HJ, Charbel Issa P
Sci Rep 2018 Mar 19;8(1):4824. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22096-0. PMID: 29555955Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Rodilla C, Martín-Merida I, Blanco-Kelly F, Trujillo-Tiebas MJ, Avila-Fernandez A, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Del Pozo-Valero M, Perea-Romero I, Swafiri ST, Zurita O, Villaverde C, López MÁ, Romero R, Iancu IF, Núñez-Moreno G, Jiménez-Rolando B, Martin-Gutierrez MP, Carreño E, Minguez P, García-Sandoval B, Ayuso C, Corton M
Am J Ophthalmol 2023 Oct;254:87-103. Epub 2023 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.05.015. PMID: 37327959
Falsini B, Placidi G, De Siena E, Chiurazzi P, Minnella AM, Savastano MC, Ziccardi L, Parisi V, Iarossi G, Percio M, Piteková B, Marceddu G, Maltese PE, Bertelli M
Sci Rep 2022 Mar 8;12(1):3774. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-07618-1. PMID: 35260635Free PMC Article
Sharon D, Ben-Yosef T, Goldenberg-Cohen N, Pras E, Gradstein L, Soudry S, Mezer E, Zur D, Abbasi AH, Zeitz C, Cremers FPM, Khan MI, Levy J, Rotenstreich Y, Birk OS, Ehrenberg M, Leibu R, Newman H, Shomron N, Banin E, Perlman I
Hum Mutat 2020 Jan;41(1):140-149. Epub 2019 Sep 15 doi: 10.1002/humu.23903. PMID: 31456290
Birtel J, Eisenberger T, Gliem M, Müller PL, Herrmann P, Betz C, Zahnleiter D, Neuhaus C, Lenzner S, Holz FG, Mangold E, Bolz HJ, Charbel Issa P
Sci Rep 2018 Mar 19;8(1):4824. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22096-0. PMID: 29555955Free PMC Article
Oishi A, Oishi M, Ogino K, Morooka S, Yoshimura N
Adv Exp Med Biol 2016;854:307-13. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-17121-0_41. PMID: 26427426

Prognosis

Hadalin V, Buscarino M, Sajovic J, Meglič A, Jarc-Vidmar M, Hawlina M, Volk M, Fakin A
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 14;24(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms24043840. PMID: 36835250Free PMC Article
Hadalin V, Šuštar M, Volk M, Maver A, Sajovic J, Jarc-Vidmar M, Peterlin B, Hawlina M, Fakin A
Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;12(4) doi: 10.3390/genes12040499. PMID: 33805381Free PMC Article
Talib M, van Schooneveld MJ, Van Cauwenbergh C, Wijnholds J, Ten Brink JB, Florijn RJ, Schalij-Delfos NE, Dagnelie G, van Genderen MM, De Baere E, Meester-Smoor MA, De Zaeytijd J, Cremers FPM, van den Born LI, Thiadens AA, Hoyng CB, Klaver CC, Leroy BP, Bergen AA, Boon CJF
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Aug 1;59(10):4123-4133. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-23453. PMID: 30105367
Birtel J, Eisenberger T, Gliem M, Müller PL, Herrmann P, Betz C, Zahnleiter D, Neuhaus C, Lenzner S, Holz FG, Mangold E, Bolz HJ, Charbel Issa P
Sci Rep 2018 Mar 19;8(1):4824. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22096-0. PMID: 29555955Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Kim DJ, Woo SJ, Joo K
Ophthalmic Res 2024;67(1):9-22. Epub 2023 Dec 13 doi: 10.1159/000535430. PMID: 38091967
Hadalin V, Šuštar M, Volk M, Maver A, Sajovic J, Jarc-Vidmar M, Peterlin B, Hawlina M, Fakin A
Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;12(4) doi: 10.3390/genes12040499. PMID: 33805381Free PMC Article
Talib M, van Schooneveld MJ, Van Cauwenbergh C, Wijnholds J, Ten Brink JB, Florijn RJ, Schalij-Delfos NE, Dagnelie G, van Genderen MM, De Baere E, Meester-Smoor MA, De Zaeytijd J, Cremers FPM, van den Born LI, Thiadens AA, Hoyng CB, Klaver CC, Leroy BP, Bergen AA, Boon CJF
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Aug 1;59(10):4123-4133. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-23453. PMID: 30105367

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