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Cutaneous mastocytosis

Mastocytosis, or mast cell disease, is a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders characterized by the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, especially in the skin and hematopoietic organs. Mastocytosis usually appears in infancy or early adulthood. In most pediatric cases, the disease is limited to the skin, but it can be associated with systemic symptoms due to the release of mediators from mast cells, even when there is no systemic infiltration. It usually has a good prognosis, with substantial improvement or spontaneous resolution before puberty. In rare cases, the disease may remain active through adolescence as a systemic adult mastocytosis. Cutaneous mastocytosis is characterized by macules, papules, nodules, or diffuse infiltration of the skin, often associated with localized hyperpigmentation. Gentle rubbing of the lesions induces histamine release from mechanically activated mast cells, causing local wheals, erythema, and often pruritus, a phenomenon termed the 'Darier sign.' In contrast to childhood-onset mastocytosis, adult-onset mastocytosis often persists for the lifetime of the patient and is also more likely to be a severe and systemic disease involving numerous organs. In some cases, it is associated with a clonal hematologic non-mast-cell lineage disease, such as a myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative disorder. Adult-onset mastocytosis can also lead to the rare mast cell leukemia, which carries a high risk of mortality (summary by Bodemer et al., 2010 and Kambe et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Finding; Neoplastic Process

Hennekam-Beemer syndrome

A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by cutaneous mastocytosis, microcephaly, microtia and/or hearing loss, hypotonia and skeletal anomalies (e.g. clinodactyly, camptodactyly, scoliosis). Additional common features are short stature, intellectual disability and difficulties. Facial dysmorphism may include upslanted palpebral fissures, highly arched palate and micrognathia. Rarely, seizures and asymmetrically small feet have been reported. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome

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