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1.

Bloom syndrome

Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
2.

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) ranges from typical X-SCID (early-onset disease in males that is fatal if not treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] or gene therapy) to atypical X-SCID (later-onset disease comprising phenotypes caused by variable immunodeficiency, immune dysregulation, and/or autoimmunity). Typical X-SCID. Prior to universal newborn screening (NBS) for SCID most males with typical X-SCID came to medical attention between ages three and six months because of recurrent infections, persistent infections, and infections with opportunistic organisms. With universal NBS for SCID, the common presentation for typical X-SCID is now an asymptomatic, healthy-appearing male infant. Atypical X-SCID, which usually is not detected by NBS, can manifest in the first years of life or later with one of the following: recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections with bronchiectasis; Omenn syndrome, a clinical phenotype caused by immune dysregulation; X-SCID combined immunodeficiency (often with recurrent infections, warts, and dermatitis); immune dysregulation and autoimmunity; or Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
220906
Concept ID:
C1279481
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic purine metabolic disorder that primarily affects lymphocyte development, viability, and function. The clinical phenotypic spectrum includes: Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), often diagnosed by age six months and usually by age 12 months; Less severe "delayed" onset combined immune deficiency (CID), usually diagnosed between age one and ten years; "Late/adult onset" CID, diagnosed in the second to fourth decades; Benign "partial ADA deficiency" (very low or absent ADA activity in erythrocytes but greater ADA activity in nucleated cells), which is compatible with normal immune function. Infants with typical early-onset ADA-deficient SCID have failure to thrive and opportunistic infections associated with marked depletion of T, B, and NK lymphocytes, and an absence of both humoral and cellular immune function. If immune function is not restored, children with ADA-deficient SCID rarely survive beyond age one to two years. Infections in delayed- and late-onset types (commonly, recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory) may initially be less severe than those in individuals with ADA-deficient SCID; however, by the time of diagnosis these individuals often have chronic pulmonary insufficiency and may have autoimmune phenomena (cytopenias, anti-thyroid antibodies), allergies, and elevated serum concentration of IgE. The longer the disorder goes unrecognized, the more immune function deteriorates and the more likely are chronic sequelae of recurrent infection. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354935
Concept ID:
C1863236
Disease or Syndrome
4.

X-linked agammaglobulinemia

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in affected males in the first two years of life. Recurrent otitis is the most common infection prior to diagnosis. Conjunctivitis, sinopulmonary infections, diarrhea, and skin infections are also frequently seen. Approximately 60% of individuals with XLA are recognized as having immunodeficiency when they develop a severe, life-threatening infection such as pneumonia, empyema, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis, or septic arthritis. S pneumoniae and H influenzae are the most common organisms found prior to diagnosis and may continue to cause sinusitis and otitis after diagnosis and the initiation of gammaglobulin substitution therapy. Severe, difficult-to-treat enteroviral infections (often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis) can be prevented by this treatment. The prognosis for individuals with XLA has improved markedly in the last 25 years as a result of earlier diagnosis, the development of preparations of gammaglobulin that allow normal concentrations of serum IgG to be achieved, and more liberal use of antibiotics. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
65123
Concept ID:
C0221026
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Transcobalamin II deficiency

Transcobalamin II deficiency (TCN2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in early infancy characterized by failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia. Other features include methylmalonic aciduria, recurrent infections, and vomiting and diarrhea. Treatment with cobalamin results in clinical improvement, but the untreated disorder may result in mental retardation and neurologic abnormalities (summary by Haberle et al., 2009). Hall (1981) gave a clinically oriented review of congenital defects of vitamin B12 transport, and Frater-Schroder (1983) gave a genetically oriented review. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
137976
Concept ID:
C0342701
Disease or Syndrome
7.

ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Myotonic dystrophy type 2

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia and muscle dysfunction (proximal and axial weakness, myalgia, and stiffness), and less commonly by posterior subcapsular cataracts, cardiac conduction defects, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities. While myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third to fourth decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and proximal and axial weakness of the neck flexors and the hip flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and finger flexors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms. In a subset of individuals, calf hypertrophy in combination with brisk reflexes is notable. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419137
Concept ID:
C2931689
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 1

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B cells are usually in the normal range, but can be low. Most individuals with CVID have onset of infections after age 10 years. CVID represents the most common form of primary immunodeficiency disorders and is the most common form of primary antibody deficiency. Approximately 10 to 20% of patients with a diagnosis of CVID have a family history of the disorder (reviews by Chapel et al., 2008, Conley et al., 2009, and Yong et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also CVID2 (240500), caused by mutation in the TACI gene (TNFRSF13B; 604907); CVID3 (613493), caused by mutation in the CD19 gene (107265); CVID4 (613494), caused by mutation in the BAFFR gene (TNFRSF13C; 606269); CVID5 (613495), caused by mutation in the CD20 gene (112210); CVID6 (613496), caused by mutation in the CD81 gene (186845); CVID7 (614699), caused by mutation in the CD21 gene (CR2; 120650); CVID8 (614700), caused by mutation in the LRBA gene (606453); CVID10 (615577), caused by mutation in the NFKB2 gene (164012); CVID11 (615767), caused by mutation in the IL21 gene (605384); CVID12 (616576), caused by mutation in the NFKB1 gene (164011); CVID13 (616873), caused by mutation in the IKZF1 gene (603023); CVID14 (617765), caused by mutation in the IRF2BP2 gene (615332); and CVID15 (620670), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SEC61A1 gene (609213). The disorder formerly designated CVID9 has been found to be a form of autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder; see ALPS3 (615559). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
460728
Concept ID:
C3149378
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Combined immunodeficiency due to STIM1 deficiency

Immunodeficiency-10 (IMD10) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in childhood due to defective T- and NK-cell function, although the severity is variable. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia, hypohidrosis, or dental enamel hypoplasia consistent with amelogenesis imperfecta (summary by Parry et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
440575
Concept ID:
C2748557
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Combined immunodeficiency due to DOCK8 deficiency

Hyper-IgE syndrome-2 with recurrent infections (HIES2) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin and respiratory tract, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E, and hypereosinophilia. It is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 (147060) by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see 147060. See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648410
Concept ID:
C4722305
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 2

MedGen UID:
461704
Concept ID:
C3150354
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Immunodeficiency 33

Immunodeficiency-33 (IMD33) is an X-linked recessive disorder that affects only males. It is characterized by early-onset severe infections, usually due to pneumococcus, H. influenzae, and atypical mycobacteria, although other organisms have also been detected. Immunologic investigations may show variable abnormalities or may be normal. Disturbances include dysgammaglobulinemia with hypogammaglobulinemia, decreased IgG2, aberrant levels of IgM and IgA, and decreased class-switched memory B cells. There is often poor, but variable, response to vaccination; in particular, most patients do not develop antibodies to certain polysaccharide vaccines, notably pneumococcus. Other immunologic abnormalities may include impaired NK cytotoxic function, impaired cytokine production upon stimulation with IL1B (147720) or TNFA (191160), low IL6 (147620), low IL12 (see 161561), and decreased IFNG (147570). Patients do not have overt abnormalities of T-cell proliferation, although signaling pathways, such as CD40LG (300386)/CD40 (109535), may be disturbed. There is heterogeneity in the immunologic phenotype, resulting in highly variable clinical courses, most likely due to the different effects of hypomorphic mutations. Treatment with antibiotics and IVIg is usually beneficial; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may not be necessary, but can be effective. Features of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia are generally not present, although some patients may have conical teeth or hypodontia (summary by Orange et al., 2004, Filipe-Santos et al., 2006, Salt et al., 2008, Heller et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
370376
Concept ID:
C1970879
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Sneddon syndrome

Sneddon syndrome is a noninflammatory arteriopathy characterized by onset of livedo reticularis in the second decade and onset of cerebrovascular disease in early adulthood (summary by Bras et al., 2014). Livedo reticularis occurs also with polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and central thrombocythemia, any one of which may be accompanied by cerebrovascular accidents (Bruyn et al., 1987). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
76449
Concept ID:
C0282492
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 3

MedGen UID:
462088
Concept ID:
C3150738
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2B

Caspase 8 deficiency is a syndrome of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, marginal elevation of 'double-negative T cells' (DNT; T-cell receptor alpha/beta+, CD4-/CD8-), defective FAS-induced apoptosis, and defective T-, B-, and natural killer (NK)-cell activation, with recurrent bacterial and viral infections (summary by Madkaikar et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
339548
Concept ID:
C1846545
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 2

Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial dysmorphism (ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency resulting in recurrent infections, and mental retardation. Laboratory studies of patient cells show hypomethylation of satellite regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, as well as pericentromeric chromosomal instability in response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation (summary by de Greef et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome, see ICF1 (242860). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481378
Concept ID:
C3279748
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Immunodeficiency, common variable, 10

Common variable immunodeficiency-10 (CVID10) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency characterized by childhood-onset of recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of memory and marginal zone B cells. Some patients may develop autoimmune features and have circulating autoantibodies. An unusual feature is central adrenal insufficiency (summary by Chen et al., 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816321
Concept ID:
C3809991
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Autoinflammation-PLCG2-associated antibody deficiency-immune dysregulation

Autoinflammation, antibody deficiency, and immune dysregulation (APLAID) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by recurrent blistering skin lesions with a dense inflammatory infiltrate and variable involvement of other tissues, including joints, the eye, and the gastrointestinal tract. Affected individuals have a mild humoral immune deficiency associated with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, but no evidence of circulating autoantibodies (summary by Zhou et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766875
Concept ID:
C3553961
Disease or Syndrome
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