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1.

Glycogen storage disease due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency type IA

Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
415885
Concept ID:
C2919796
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Glucose-6-phosphate transport defect

Glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI) is characterized by accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys resulting in hepatomegaly and nephromegaly. Severely affected infants present in the neonatal period with severe hypoglycemia due to fasting intolerance. More commonly, untreated infants present at age three to four months with hepatomegaly, severe hypoglycemia with or without seizures, lactic acidosis, hyperuricemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Affected children typically have doll-like faces with full cheeks, relatively thin extremities, short stature, and a protuberant abdomen. Xanthoma and diarrhea may be present. Impaired platelet function and development of reduced or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor can lead to a bleeding tendency with frequent epistaxis and menorrhagia in females. Individuals with untreated GSDIb are more likely to develop impaired neutrophil and monocyte function as well as chronic neutropenia resulting in recurrent bacterial infections, gingivitis, periodontitis, and genital and intestinal ulcers. Long-term complications of untreated GSDI include short stature, osteoporosis, delayed puberty, renal disease (including proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, renal stones, and renal failure), gout, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hepatic adenomas with potential for malignancy, pancreatitis, and polycystic ovaries. Seizures and cognitive impairment may occur in individuals with prolonged periods of hypoglycemia. Normal growth and puberty are expected in treated children. Most affected individuals live into adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78644
Concept ID:
C0268146
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy type 1

Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease – UMOD (ADTKD-UMOD) is characterized by normal urinalysis and slowly progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD), usually first noted in the teen years and progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) between the third and seventh decades. Hyperuricemia is often present from an early age, and gout (resulting from reduced kidney excretion of uric acid) occurs in the teenage years in about 8% of affected individuals and develops in 55% of affected individuals over time. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645893
Concept ID:
C4551496
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Alkaptonuria

Alkaptonuria is caused by deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, an enzyme that converts homogentisic acid (HGA) to maleylacetoacetic acid in the tyrosine degradation pathway. The three major features of alkaptonuria are dark urine or urine that turns dark on standing, ochronosis (bluish-black pigmentation in connective tissue), and arthritis of the spine and larger joints. Ochronosis generally occurs after age 30 years; arthritis often begins in the third decade. Other manifestations can include pigment in the sclera, ear cartilage, and skin of the hands; aortic or mitral valve calcification or regurgitation and occasionally aortic dilatation; renal stones; prostate stones; and hypothyroidism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1413
Concept ID:
C0002066
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia 1

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-1 is associated with low or normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations (PTH). Approximately 50% of patients have mild or asymptomatic hypocalcemia; about 50% have paresthesias, carpopedal spasm, and seizures; about 10% have hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or kidney stones; and more than 35% have ectopic and basal ganglia calcifications (summary by Nesbit et al., 2013). Thakker (2001) noted that patients with gain-of-function mutations in the CASR gene, resulting in generally asymptomatic hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria, have low-normal serum PTH concentrations and have often been diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism because of the insensitivity of earlier PTH assays. Because treatment with vitamin D to correct the hypocalcemia in these patients causes hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment, these patients need to be distinguished from those with other forms of hypoparathyroidism (see 146200). Thakker (2001) suggested the designation 'autosomal dominant hypocalcemic hypercalciuria' for this CASR-related disorder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-2 (HYPOC2; 615361) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
87438
Concept ID:
C0342345
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Bartter disease type 4A

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355430
Concept ID:
C1865270
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Bartter disease type 4B

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal (or neonatal) forms of Bartter syndrome (e.g., BARTS1, 601678) typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934772
Concept ID:
C4310805
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Phosphate transport defect

Glycogenosis due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P) type b, or glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1b, is a type of glycogenosis due to G6P deficiency (see this term). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
87455
Concept ID:
C0342749
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Tubulointerstitial kidney disease, autosomal dominant, 2

Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease – MUC1 (ADTKD-MUC1) is characterized by slowly progressive tubulointerstitial disease that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation. The rate of loss of kidney function for individuals is variable within and between families, with a median age of onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of 46 years (range: ages 20-70 years). There are no other systemic manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
358137
Concept ID:
C1868139
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome

Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Fanconi renotubular syndrome 2

Any Fanconi syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC34A1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
462002
Concept ID:
C3150652
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Polycystic kidney disease 6 with or without polycystic liver disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral kidney cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Kidney manifestations include early-onset hypertension, kidney pain, and kidney insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD), most often in females. Overall, the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of kidney disease and other extra-kidney manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648469
Concept ID:
C4748044
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Orthostatic hypotension 2

Orthostatic hypotension-2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe orthostatic hypotension, recurrent hypoglycemia, and low norepinephrine levels. The disorder has onset in infancy or early childhood. Some patients may also have renal dysfunction and reduced life expectancy. The disorder results from a defect in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine due to a cofactor deficiency. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ORTHYP, see ORTHYP1 (223360). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648282
Concept ID:
C4748569
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal impairment syndrome

Ichthyosis-intellectual disability-dwarfism-renal impairment syndrome is characterised by nonbullous congenital ichthyosis, intellectual deficit, dwarfism and renal impairment. It has been described in four members of one Iranian family. Transmission is autosomal recessive. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
340966
Concept ID:
C1855787
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Decreased glomerular filtration rate

An abnormal reduction in the volume of fluid filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
163428
Concept ID:
C0853068
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