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Items: 19

1.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 1 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
295872
Concept ID:
C1563719
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Aarskog syndrome

Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.

People with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).

Most males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).

The intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome

Virtually all individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome (WSS) have the endocrine findings of hypogonadism (evident at puberty) and progressive childhood-onset hair thinning that often progresses to alopecia totalis in adulthood. More than half of individuals have the neurologic findings of progressive extrapyramidal movements (dystonic spasms with dystonic posturing with dysarthria and dysphagia), moderate bilateral postlingual sensorineural hearing loss, and mild intellectual disability. To date, more than 40 families (including 33 with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis) with a total of 88 affected individuals have been reported in the literature. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
83337
Concept ID:
C0342286
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hereditary acrodermatitis enteropathica

Acrodermatitis enteropathica of the zinc deficiency type (AEZ) is characterized by intermittent simultaneous occurrence of diarrhea and dermatitis with failure to thrive. Alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes is a usual feature. The skin lesions are bullous. Noteworthy is the cure by diodoquin, or diiodohydroxyquinoline (Dillaha et al., 1953; Bloom and Sobel, 1955). Rodin and Goldman (1969) described autopsy findings, including pancreatic islet hyperplasia, absence of the thymus and of germinal centers, and plasmocytosis of lymph nodes and spleen. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
66355
Concept ID:
C0221036
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347328
Concept ID:
C1856897
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 16 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766935
Concept ID:
C3554021
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Isolated lutropin deficiency

Male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to isolated luteinizing hormone (LH) deficiency have normal sexual differentiation but fail to develop spontaneous puberty. Absence of LH alters Leydig cell proliferation and maturation and impairs the onset of normal spermatogenesis, which requires high levels of intratesticular testosterone. Infertility and very low levels of spermatogenesis generally persist in affected men despite long-term exposure to gonadotropin therapy. Female patients exhibit normal pubertal development and menarche, followed by oligomenorrhea and anovulatory secondary amenorrhea (summary by Basciani et al., 2012). Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, see 147950. Reviews Arnhold et al. (2009) noted that the clinical manifestations of female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to mutations in LHB are very similar to those of women with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to inactivating mutations of the LH receptor (see 238320): all have female external genitalia, spontaneous development of normal pubic hair and breasts at puberty, and normal to late menarche followed by oligoamenorrhea and infertility. Pelvic ultrasound shows a small or normal uterus and normal or enlarged ovaries with cysts. However, women with LHB mutations can be treated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG; 118860) replacement therapy; women with LH receptor mutations are resistant to LH, and no treatment is effective in recovering their fertility. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82881
Concept ID:
C0271582
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 10 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766757
Concept ID:
C3553843
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 22 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
863425
Concept ID:
C4014988
Disease or Syndrome
10.

46,XX sex reversal 2

Nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are characterized by: the presence of a 46,XX karyotype; external genitalia ranging from typical male to ambiguous; two testicles; azoospermia; absence of müllerian structures; and absence of other syndromic features, such as congenital anomalies outside of the genitourinary system, learning disorders / cognitive impairment, or behavioral issues. Approximately 85% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present after puberty with normal pubic hair and normal penile size but small testes, gynecomastia, and sterility resulting from azoospermia. Approximately 15% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present at birth with ambiguous genitalia. Gender role and gender identity are reported as male. If untreated, males with 46,XX testicular DSD experience the consequences of testosterone deficiency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
411414
Concept ID:
C2749215
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 26

SPG26 is an autosomal recessive form of complicated spastic paraplegia characterized by onset in the first 2 decades of life of gait abnormalities due to lower limb spasticity and muscle weakness. Some patients have upper limb involvement. Additional features include intellectual disability, peripheral neuropathy, dysarthria, cerebellar signs, extrapyramidal signs, and cortical atrophy. The disorder is slowly progressive (summary by Boukhris et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373138
Concept ID:
C1836632
Disease or Syndrome
12.

46,XY sex reversal 11

SRXY11 is characterized by a genital phenotype that may range from predominantly female to predominantly male, including marked sex ambiguity depending on the duration of normal testicular function prior to the loss of testicular tissue. Approximately half of patients present with micropenis and bilateral cryptorchidism, and half present with female-appearing or ambiguous external genitalia (da Silva et al., 2019; McElreavey et al., 2020). The testicular regression syndrome (TRS) was delineated by Sarto and Opitz (1973), who called it the XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome. It is characterized primarily by the absence of gonads in an XY person. In most cases, uterus and fallopian tubes are absent but small tubular structures interpreted as mullerian or wolffian rudiments (or both) are present. The range of virilizing effects due to early testicular tissue extends from none in phenotypic females with only slightly hypoplastic normal external genitalia, well-formed but hypoplastic uterus, and well-formed tubes (De Marchi et al., 1981) to the anorchic phenotypic male (Edman et al., 1977). Most affected individuals lack a vagina but a urogenital sinus or pseudovaginal urethral outpouching is found. Partial labioscrotal fusion and clitoris enlargement are common, breast development is absent, and postpubertal eunuchoid habitus is the rule. Sometimes nongenital anomalies are present (summary by Rosenberg et al., 1984). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78602
Concept ID:
C0266427
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Spermatogenic failure 28

Spermatogenic failure-28 (SPGF28) is characterized by nonobstructive azoospermia, with a Sertoli cell-only phenotype observed in testicular tissue (Kasak et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648494
Concept ID:
C4748117
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Xq27.3q28 duplication syndrome

Chromosome Xq27.3-q28 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild mental retardation, mild facial dysmorphism, short stature, and primary testicular failure manifest as high-pitched voice, sparse body hair, abdominal obesity, and small testes. Female carriers may have short stature and premature ovarian failure (summary by Rio et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477152
Concept ID:
C3275521
Disease or Syndrome
15.

BDV syndrome

BDV syndrome (BDVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset profound obesity, hyperphagia, and moderately impaired intellectual development accompanied by infantile hypotonia and other endocrine disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and insulin resistance (summary by Bosch et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1785671
Concept ID:
C5543403
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spermatogenic failure, X-linked, 4

X-linked spermatogenic failure-4 (SPGFX4) is characterized by male infertility due to azoospermia or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Some patients show maturation arrest, and Sertoli cell-only phenotype has been observed (Hardy et al., 2021; Arafat et al., 2021; Kherraf et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1804024
Concept ID:
C5676882
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 25 with anosmia

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-25 with anosmia (HH25) is characterized by delayed or absent puberty with low gonadotropic hormones in the setting of low testosterone or estradiol. Affected individuals also exhibit hyposmia or anosmia, with hypoplastic olfactory bulbs on MRI. Intrafamilial variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance has been observed (Messina et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, see 147950. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1717461
Concept ID:
C5394246
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Delayed puberty, self-limited

Self-limited delayed puberty (DPSL) is characterized by delayed development of Tanner stage G2 accompanied by low serum gonadotropins. Affected individuals experience spontaneous attainment of Tanner stage G4 by 18 years of age, with normalization of gonadotropins, which excludes a diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (see 147950) (Mancini et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1789612
Concept ID:
C2874202
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Decreased serum testosterone concentration

MedGen UID:
892974
Concept ID:
C4073137
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