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Items: 19

1.

Severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, T cell-negative, B cell-negative, NK cell-negative, due to adenosine deaminase deficiency

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a systemic purine metabolic disorder that primarily affects lymphocyte development, viability, and function. The clinical phenotypic spectrum includes: Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), often diagnosed by age six months and usually by age 12 months; Less severe "delayed" onset combined immune deficiency (CID), usually diagnosed between age one and ten years; "Late/adult onset" CID, diagnosed in the second to fourth decades; Benign "partial ADA deficiency" (very low or absent ADA activity in erythrocytes but greater ADA activity in nucleated cells), which is compatible with normal immune function. Infants with typical early-onset ADA-deficient SCID have failure to thrive and opportunistic infections associated with marked depletion of T, B, and NK lymphocytes, and an absence of both humoral and cellular immune function. If immune function is not restored, children with ADA-deficient SCID rarely survive beyond age one to two years. Infections in delayed- and late-onset types (commonly, recurrent otitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory) may initially be less severe than those in individuals with ADA-deficient SCID; however, by the time of diagnosis these individuals often have chronic pulmonary insufficiency and may have autoimmune phenomena (cytopenias, anti-thyroid antibodies), allergies, and elevated serum concentration of IgE. The longer the disorder goes unrecognized, the more immune function deteriorates and the more likely are chronic sequelae of recurrent infection. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
354935
Concept ID:
C1863236
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome

Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a kidney condition that begins in infancy and typically leads to irreversible kidney failure (end-stage renal disease) by early childhood. Children with congenital nephrotic syndrome begin to have symptoms of the condition between birth and 3 months.

The features of congenital nephrotic syndrome are caused by failure of the kidneys to filter waste products from the blood and remove them in urine. Signs and symptoms of this condition are excessive protein in the urine (proteinuria), increased cholesterol in the blood (hypercholesterolemia), an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites), and swelling (edema). Affected individuals may also have blood in the urine (hematuria), which can lead to a reduced number of red blood cells (anemia) in the body, abnormal blood clotting, or reduced amounts of certain white blood cells. Low white blood cell counts can lead to a weakened immune system and frequent infections in people with congenital nephrotic syndrome.

Children with congenital nephrotic syndrome typically develop end-stage renal disease between ages 2 and 8, although with treatment, some may not have kidney failure until adolescence or early adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
98011
Concept ID:
C0403399
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Drash syndrome

WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
181980
Concept ID:
C0950121
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 4

WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462918
Concept ID:
C3151568
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Familial steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with sensorineural deafness

Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766263
Concept ID:
C3553349
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1

MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Pierson syndrome

Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 3

Nephrotic syndrome, a malfunction of the glomerular filter, is characterized clinically by proteinuria, edema, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Renal histopathology may show diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (Hinkes et al., 2006). Most patients with NPHS3 show diffuse mesangial sclerosis on renal biopsy, which is a pathologic entity characterized by mesangial matrix expansion with no mesangial hypercellularity, hypertrophy of the podocytes, vacuolized podocytes, thickened basement membranes, and diminished patency of the capillary lumen (Gbadegesin et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
377831
Concept ID:
C1853124
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Nephrotic syndrome 14

Sphingosine phosphate lyase insufficiency syndrome (SPLIS) is characterized by varying combinations of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ranging from nonimmune fetal hydrops to adolescent onset), primary adrenal insufficiency (with or without mineralocorticoid deficiency), testicular insufficiency, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, lymphopenia/immunodeficiency, and neurologic abnormalities that can include developmental delay, regression / progressive neurologic involvement, cranial nerve deficits, and peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1617660
Concept ID:
C4540559
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 3

Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities of the brain, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1627611
Concept ID:
C4540266
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 12

Nephrotic syndrome type 12 (NPHS12) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder caused by defects in the renal glomerular filter. Affected individuals have onset of progressive renal failure in the first years of life. Renal biopsy typically shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (summary by Braun et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
904365
Concept ID:
C4225166
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 8

Any nephrotic syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ARHGDIA gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
815283
Concept ID:
C3808953
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 11

Nephrotic syndrome type 11 (NPHS11) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the kidney with onset in the first decade of life. The disorder is progressive and usually results in end-stage renal disease necessitating renal transplantation, although some patients may have a slightly milder phenotype (Miyake et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
898622
Concept ID:
C4225228
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 4

Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a renal-neurologic disease characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome associated with microcephaly, gyral abnormalities, and delayed psychomotor development. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often including hypertelorism, ear abnormalities, and micrognathia. Other features, such as arachnodactyly and visual impairment, are more variable. Most patients die in the first years of life (summary by Braun et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1613511
Concept ID:
C4540270
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7

Galloway-Mowat syndrome-7 (GAMOS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, microcephaly, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome (summary by Rosti et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1679283
Concept ID:
C5193044
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 10

Galloway-Mowat syndrome-10 (GAMOS10) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of symptoms soon after birth. Affected individuals have progressive renal dysfunction with proteinuria associated with diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS) on renal biopsy. Other features include global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypothyroidism, arachnodactyly, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients may have seizures or abnormalities on brain imaging. All reported patients have died in infancy (summary by Arrondel et al., 2019 and Schmidt et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794230
Concept ID:
C5562020
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 21

Nephrotic syndrome type 21 (NPHS21) is an autosomal recessive renal disorder characterized by onset of kidney dysfunction in the first year of life. Laboratory studies show proteinuria and renal biopsy shows diffuse mesangial sclerosis. The disorder is rapidly progressive and ultimately results in end-stage renal disease. Some patients with variable extrarenal manifestations, such as microcephaly or impaired intellectual development, have been reported, but it is not clear whether these features are consistently part of the phenotype (summary by Rao et al., 2017). (Rao et al. (2017) designated the disorder NPHS25.) For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684676
Concept ID:
C5231498
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 9

Galloway-Mowat syndrome-9 (GAMOS9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of nephrotic syndrome with proteinuria in infancy or early childhood. The renal disease is slowly progressive, but some affected individuals may develop end-stage renal disease in the first decade. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) or diffuse mesangial sclerosis (DMS). Affected individuals also have developmental delay and secondary microcephaly. Additional features may include facial dysmorphism and gastroesophageal reflux. Early death may occur (Arrondel et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794226
Concept ID:
C5562016
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Diffuse mesangial sclerosis

Diffuse sclerosis of the mesangium, as manifestated by diffuse mesangial matrix expansion. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
78698
Concept ID:
C0268747
Disease or Syndrome
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