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1.

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1

The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1826136
Concept ID:
C5779875
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 2A

The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462705
Concept ID:
C3151355
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 2B, remitting, with or without intellectual disability

The classic phenotype of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is characterized by early-onset macrocephaly, often in combination with mild gross motor developmental delay and seizures; gradual onset of ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes extrapyramidal findings; and usually late onset of mild mental deterioration. Macrocephaly, observed in virtually all individuals, may be present at birth but more frequently develops during the first year of life. The degree of macrocephaly is variable and can be as great as 4 to 6 SD above the mean in some individuals. After the first year of life, head growth rate normalizes and growth follows a line parallel to and usually several centimeters above the 98th centile. Initial mental and motor development is normal in most individuals. Walking is often unstable, followed by ataxia of the trunk and extremities, then minor signs of pyramidal dysfunction and brisk deep-tendon stretch reflexes. Almost all individuals have epilepsy from an early age. The epilepsy is typically well controlled with anti-seizure medication, but status epilepticus occurs relatively frequently. Mental deterioration is late and mild. Disease severity ranges from independent walking for a few years only to independent walking in the fifth decade. Some individuals have died in their teens or twenties; others are alive in their fifties. An improving phenotype has a similar initial presentation with delayed mental or motor development, followed by an improving clinical course: macrocephaly usually persists, but some children become normocephalic; motor function improves or normalizes; hypotonia and clumsiness may persist in some or neurologic examination may become normal. Some have intellectual disability that is stable, with or without autism. Epilepsy and status epilepticus may occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462706
Concept ID:
C3151356
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Diffuse swelling of cerebral white matter

MedGen UID:
347007
Concept ID:
C1858855
Finding
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