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Items: 18

1.

Glycogen storage disease, type II

Pompe disease is classified by age of onset, organ involvement, severity, and rate of progression. Infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD; individuals with onset before age 12 months with cardiomyopathy) may be apparent in utero but more typically onset is at the median age of four months with hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, respiratory distress, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Without treatment by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), IOPD commonly results in death by age two years from progressive left ventricular outflow obstruction and respiratory insufficiency. Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD; including: (a) individuals with onset before age 12 months without cardiomyopathy; and (b) all individuals with onset after age 12 months) is characterized by proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency; clinically significant cardiac involvement is uncommon. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
5340
Concept ID:
C0017921
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type 4

Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is characterized by arterial, intestinal, and/or uterine fragility; thin, translucent skin; easy bruising; characteristic facial appearance (thin vermilion of the lips, micrognathia, narrow nose, prominent eyes); and an aged appearance to the extremities, particularly the hands. Vascular dissection or rupture, gastrointestinal perforation, or organ rupture are the presenting signs in most adults with vEDS. Arterial rupture may be preceded by aneurysm, arteriovenous fistulae, or dissection but also may occur spontaneously. The majority (60%) of individuals with vEDS who are diagnosed before age 18 years are identified because of a positive family history. Neonates may present with clubfoot, hip dislocation, limb deficiency, and/or amniotic bands. Approximately half of children tested for vEDS in the absence of a positive family history present with a major complication at an average age of 11 years. Four minor diagnostic features – distal joint hypermobility, easy bruising, thin skin, and clubfeet – are most often present in those children ascertained without a major complication. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82790
Concept ID:
C0268338
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382398
Concept ID:
C2674574
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1646567
Concept ID:
C4551955
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II

Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), the most common form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is characterized by extreme short stature and microcephaly along with distinctive facial features. Associated features that differentiate it from other forms of primordial dwarfism and that may necessitate treatment include: abnormal dentition, a slender bone skeletal dysplasia with hip deformity and/or scoliosis, insulin resistance / diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiac malformations, and global vascular disease. The latter includes neurovascular disease such as moyamoya vasculopathy and intracranial aneurysms (which can lead to strokes), coronary artery disease (which can lead to premature myocardial infarctions), and renal vascular disease. Hypertension, which is also common, can have multiple underlying causes given the complex comorbidities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462437
Concept ID:
C3151087
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Autosomal dominant familial hematuria-retinal arteriolar tortuosity-contractures syndrome

The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382033
Concept ID:
C2673195
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome

Smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome (SMDYS) presents with a recognizable pattern of complications, including congenital mydriasis, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pulmonary artery hypertension, aortic and other arterial aneurysms, moyamoya-like cerebrovascular disease, intestinal hypoperistalsis and malrotation, and hypotonic bladder. It is caused by heterozygous mutations of the ACTA2 gene altering the arginine-179 codon (summary by Regalado et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462551
Concept ID:
C3151201
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Polycystic kidney disease 3 with or without polycystic liver disease

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is generally a late-onset multisystem disorder characterized by bilateral kidney cysts, liver cysts, and an increased risk of intracranial aneurysms. Other manifestations include: cysts in the pancreas, seminal vesicles, and arachnoid membrane; dilatation of the aortic root and dissection of the thoracic aorta; mitral valve prolapse; and abdominal wall hernias. Kidney manifestations include early-onset hypertension, kidney pain, and kidney insufficiency. Approximately 50% of individuals with ADPKD have end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) by age 60 years. The prevalence of liver cysts increases with age and occasionally results in clinically significant severe polycystic liver disease (PLD), most often in females. Overall, the prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is fivefold higher than in the general population and further increased in those with a positive family history of aneurysms or subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is substantial variability in the severity of kidney disease and other extra-kidney manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854672
Concept ID:
C3887964
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Aneurysm, intracranial berry type 1

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, an outpouching or sac-like widening of a cerebral artery, leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, a sudden-onset disease that can lead to severe disability and death. Several risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, and excessive alcohol intake are associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (summary by Krischek and Inoue, 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Intracranial Berry Aneurysm Intracranial berry aneurysm-1 (ANIB1) has been mapped to chromosome 7q11.2. Other mapped loci for intracranial berry aneurysm include ANIB2 (608542) on chromosome 19q13, ANIB3 (609122) on 1p36.13-p34.3, ANIB4 (610213) on 5p15.2-14.3, ANIB5 (300870) on Xp22, ANIB6 (611892) on 9p21, ANIB7 (612161) on 11q24-q25, ANIB8 (612162) on 14q23, ANIB9 (612586) on 2q, ANIB10 (612587) on 8q, and ANIB11 (614252) on 8p22. ANIB12 (618734) is caused by mutation in the THSD1 gene (616821). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
354864
Concept ID:
C1862932
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Meester-Loeys syndrome

Meester-Loeys syndrome (MRLS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by early-onset aortic aneurysm and dissection. Other recurrent findings include hypertelorism, pectus deformity, joint hypermobility, contractures, and mild skeletal dysplasia (Meester et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934778
Concept ID:
C4310811
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 6

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1794251
Concept ID:
C5562041
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Bone fragility with contractures, arterial rupture, and deafness

Connective tissue disorder due to lysyl hydroxylase-3 deficiency is a rare, genetic disease, caused by lack of lysyl hydrohylase 3 (LH3) activity, characterized by multiple tissue and organ involvement, including skeletal abnormalities (club foot, progressive scoliosis, osteopenia, pathologic fractures), ocular involvement (flat retinae, myopia, cataracts) and hair, nail and skin anomalies (coarse, abnormally distributed hair, skin blistering, reduced palmar creases, hypoplastic nails). Patients also present intrauterine growth retardation, facial dysmorphism (flat facial profile, low-set ears, shallow orbits, short and upturned nose, downturned corners of mouth) and joint flexion contractures. Growth and developmental delay, bilateral sensorineural deafness, friable diaphragm and later-onset spontaneous vascular ruptures are additional reported features. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
382811
Concept ID:
C2676285
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Rajab interstitial lung disease with brain calcifications 1

Rajab interstitial lung disease with brain calcifications-1 (RILCBC1) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with poor growth and interstitial lung disease, which may lead to death. Some may also have liver, skeletal, and renal abnormalities, and most have intracranial calcifications on brain imaging. Some may have early impaired motor development, but most have normal cognitive development (summary by Xu et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Rajab Interstitial Lung Disease with Brain Calcifications Also see Rajab interstitial disease with brain calcifications-2 (RILDBC2; 619013), caused by mutation in the FARSA gene (602918). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1750003
Concept ID:
C5436276
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Fibromuscular dysplasia, multifocal

Multifocal fibromuscular dysplasia (FMDMF) is characterized histologically by medial fibroplasia and angiographically by multiple arterial stenoses with intervening mural dilations. Arterial tortuosity, macroaneurysms, dissections, and rupture may occur (summary by Richer et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1778238
Concept ID:
C5543412
Disease or Syndrome
16.

VISS syndrome

VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities

Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Dilatation of the cerebral artery

The presence of a localized dilatation or ballooning of a cerebral artery. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
1386760
Concept ID:
C4476540
Anatomical Abnormality
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