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1.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Azorean disease

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including pyramidal signs, a dystonic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, significant peripheral amyotrophy and generalized areflexia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, action-induced facial and lingual fasciculations, and bulging eyes. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disorder progresses. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements, and in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Meckel syndrome, type 1

Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q12; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q32; MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13; and MKS14 (619879), caused by mutation in the TXNDC15 gene (617778) on chromosome 5q31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Joubert syndrome 6

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342805
Concept ID:
C1853153
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type

CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 20

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, and impaired language (NEDHSIL) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, poor motor development with limited walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities. Almost all affected individuals demonstrate repetitive stereotypic hand movements that can be categorized as hyperkinetic and resembling those of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750). About 80% of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features, particularly dysplastic ears, poor eye contact, episodic hyperventilation, tendency to infection, and abnormalities on brain imaging, such as enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Vrecar et al., 2017, Paciorkowski et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome

Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Meckel syndrome, type 10

Meckel syndrome is a disorder with severe signs and symptoms that affect many parts of the body. The most common features are enlarged kidneys with numerous fluid-filled cysts; an occipital encephalocele, which is a sac-like protrusion of the brain through an opening at the back of the skull; and the presence of extra fingers and toes (polydactyly). Most affected individuals also have a buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the liver.

Other signs and symptoms of Meckel syndrome vary widely among affected individuals. Numerous abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) have been reported in people with Meckel syndrome, including a group of birth defects known as neural tube defects. These defects occur when a structure called the neural tube, a layer of cells that ultimately develops into the brain and spinal cord, fails to close completely during the first few weeks of embryonic development. Meckel syndrome can also cause problems with development of the eyes and other facial features, heart, bones, urinary system, and genitalia.

Because of their serious health problems, most individuals with Meckel syndrome die before or shortly after birth. Most often, affected infants die of respiratory problems or kidney failure. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
481666
Concept ID:
C3280036
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Dandy-Walker syndrome

Dandy-Walker malformation is defined by hypoplasia and upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis and cystic dilation of the fourth ventricle. Affected individuals often have motor deficits such as delayed motor development, hypotonia, and ataxia; about half have mental retardation and some have hydrocephalus. DWM is a heterogeneous disorder. The low empiric recurrence risk of approximately 1 to 2% for nonsyndromic DWM suggests that mendelian inheritance is unlikely (summary by Murray et al., 1985). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4150
Concept ID:
C0010964
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Ataxia - intellectual disability - oculomotor apraxia - cerebellar cysts syndrome

Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar dysplasia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, cerebellar cysts in most patients, high myopia, variable retinal dystrophy, and eye movement abnormalities. Affected individuals have delayed motor development and often have speech delay. Cognitive function can range from normal to intellectually disabled (summary by Aldinger et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863258
Concept ID:
C4014821
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766730
Concept ID:
C3553816
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 6

Any complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TUBB gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
862720
Concept ID:
C4014283
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 2

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-2 is an neurologic disorder characterized by onset of impaired motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood. Additional features often include loss of fine motor skills, dysarthria, nystagmus, cerebellar signs, and delayed cognitive development with intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Overall, the disorder is non- or slowly progressive, with survival into adulthood (summary by Jobling et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
349134
Concept ID:
C1859298
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 11

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 11 (MC4DN11) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a childhood-onset sensory neuronopathy and additional features which may include hypotonia, cerebellar ataxia, tremor, dystonia, choreoathetosis, and/or dysarthria. Patients may have variable motor delay, speech delay, or impaired intellectual development (summary by Doss et al., 2014; Otero et al., 2019; Xu et al., 2019; Dong et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1760275
Concept ID:
C5436694
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Joubert syndrome with oculorenal defect

Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340930
Concept ID:
C1855675
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 48

A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay and moderate to severe intellectual disability, as well as variable other manifestations, such as macro- or microcephaly, epilepsy, hypotonia, behavioral problems, stereotypic movements, and facial dysmorphism (including arched eyebrows, long palpebral fissures, prominent nasal bridge, upturned nose, dysplastic ears, and broad mouth), among others. Brain imaging may show cerebellar anomalies, hypoplastic corpus callosum, enlarged ventricles, polymicrogyria, or white matter abnormalities. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
1619532
Concept ID:
C4540321
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
19.

Dandy-Walker malformation-postaxial polydactyly syndrome

A syndromic disorder with the association between Dandy-Walker malformation and postaxial polydactyly as a major feature. The Dandy-Walker malformation has a variable expression and characteristics of a posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle, the partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis, and facultative hydrocephalus. Postaxial polydactyly includes tetramelic postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet with possible enlargement of the fifth metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as bifid fifth metacarpals. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
341751
Concept ID:
C1857351
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome

Neurocardiofaciodigital syndrome (NCFD) is characterized by severe developmental delay, variable brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and a distinctive type of synpolydactyly with a supernumerary hypoplastic digit between the fourth and fifth digits of the hands and/or feet. Other features include eye abnormalities, hearing impairment, and electroencephalogram anomalies (summary by Horn et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1804193
Concept ID:
C5677020
Disease or Syndrome
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