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Items: 17

1.

Familial X-linked hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) ranges from isolated hypophosphatemia to severe lower-extremity bowing. XLH frequently manifests in the first two years of life when lower-extremity bowing becomes evident with the onset of weight bearing; however, it sometimes is not manifest until adulthood, as previously unevaluated short stature. In adults, enthesopathy (calcification of the tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules) associated with joint pain and impaired mobility may be the initial presenting complaint. Persons with XLH are prone to spontaneous dental abscesses; sensorineural hearing loss has also been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
196551
Concept ID:
C0733682
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B

Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
350343
Concept ID:
C1864100
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type I A

Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
488447
Concept ID:
C3494506
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia

Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1C

Disorders of GNAS inactivation include the phenotypes pseudohypoparathyroidism Ia, Ib, and Ic (PHP-Ia, -Ib, -Ic), pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP), progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH), and osteoma cutis (OC). PHP-Ia and PHP-Ic are characterized by: End-organ resistance to endocrine hormones including parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins (LH and FSH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and CNS neurotransmitters (leading to obesity and variable degrees of intellectual disability and developmental delay); and The Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) phenotype (short stature, round facies, and subcutaneous ossifications) and brachydactyly type E (shortening mainly of the 4th and/or 5th metacarpals and metatarsals and distal phalanx of the thumb). Although PHP-Ib is characterized principally by PTH resistance, some individuals also have partial TSH resistance and mild features of AHO (e.g., brachydactyly). PPHP, a more limited form of PHP-Ia, is characterized by various manifestations of the AHO phenotype without the hormone resistance or obesity. POH and OC are even more restricted variants of PPHP: POH consists of dermal ossification beginning in infancy, followed by increasing and extensive bone formation in deep muscle and fascia. OC consists of extra-skeletal ossification that is limited to the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
420958
Concept ID:
C2932716
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Primary hypomagnesemia

Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a progressive renal disorder characterized by excessive urinary Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) excretion. There is progressive loss of kidney function, and in about 50% of cases, the need for renal replacement therapy arises as early as the second decade of life (summary by Muller et al., 2006). Amelogenesis imperfecta may also be present in some patients (Bardet et al., 2016). A similar disorder with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and nephrocalcinosis (HOMG5; 248190) is caused by mutations in another tight-junction gene, CLDN19 (610036), and is distinguished by the association of severe ocular involvement. For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of familial hypomagnesemia, see HOMG1 (602014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120640
Concept ID:
C0268448
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism

Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism usually manifests in the first 6 months of life with severe hypercalcemia, bone demineralization, and failure to thrive. Early diagnosis is critical because untreated NSHPT can be a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, which in some cases is lethal without parathyroidectomy. Some infants have milder hyperparathyroidism and a substantially milder clinical presentation and natural history (summary by Egbuna and Brown, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
331326
Concept ID:
C1832615
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Acrodysostosis 1 with or without hormone resistance

Acrodysostosis-1 (ACRDYS1) is a form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and nasal hypoplasia. Affected individuals often have advanced bone age and obesity. Laboratory studies show resistance to multiple hormones, including parathyroid, thyrotropin, calcitonin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin (summary by Linglart et al., 2011). However, not all patients show endocrine abnormalities (Lee et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acrodysostosis See also ACRDYS2 (614613), caused by mutation in the PDE4D gene (600129) on chromosome 5q12. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477858
Concept ID:
C3276228
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Fanconi renotubular syndrome 2

Any Fanconi syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC34A1 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
462002
Concept ID:
C3150652
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant

Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia (CDD) is a severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. Progressive bony encroachment upon cranial foramina leads to severe neurologic impairment in childhood (summary by Brueton and Winter, 1990). The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as 'leontiasis ossea' (leonine facies), and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina (summary by Kim et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
382678
Concept ID:
C2675746
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1

Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development that leads to softening and weakening of the bones (rickets). There are several forms of the condition that are distinguished primarily by their genetic causes: type 1A (VDDR1A), type 1B (VDDR1B), and type 2A (VDDR2A). There is also evidence of a very rare form of the condition, called type 2B (VDDR2B), although not much is known about this form.

The signs and symptoms of vitamin D-dependent rickets begin within months after birth, and most are the same for all types of the condition. The weak bones often cause bone pain and delayed growth and have a tendency to fracture. When affected children begin to walk, they may develop abnormally curved (bowed) legs because the bones are too weak to bear weight. Impaired bone development also results in widening of the areas near the ends of bones where new bone forms (metaphyses), especially in the knees, wrists, and ribs. Some people with vitamin D-dependent rickets have dental abnormalities such as thin tooth enamel and frequent cavities. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness are also common in this condition, and some affected individuals develop seizures.

Hair loss (alopecia) can occur in VDDR2A, although not everyone with this form of the condition has alopecia. Affected individuals can have sparse or patchy hair or no hair at all on their heads. Some affected individuals are missing body hair as well.

In vitamin D-dependent rickets, there is an imbalance of certain substances in the blood. An early sign in all types of the condition is low levels of the mineral calcium (hypocalcemia), which is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. Affected individuals also develop high levels of a hormone involved in regulating calcium levels called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to a condition called secondary hyperparathyroidism. Low levels of a mineral called phosphate (hypophosphatemia) also occur in affected individuals. Vitamin D-dependent rickets types 1 and 2 can be grouped by blood levels of a hormone called calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D; individuals with VDDR1A and VDDR1B have abnormally low levels of calcitriol and individuals with VDDR2A and VDDR2B have abnormally high levels. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
124344
Concept ID:
C0268689
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Tumoral calcinosis, hyperphosphatemic, familial, 3

Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the progressive deposition of basic calcium phosphate crystals in periarticular spaces, soft tissues, and sometimes bone (Chefetz et al., 2005). The biochemical hallmark of tumoral calcinosis is hyperphosphatemia caused by increased renal absorption of phosphate due to loss-of-function mutations in the FGF23 (605380) or GALNT3 (601756) gene. The term 'hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome' (HHS) is sometimes used when the disorder is characterized by involvement of the long bones associated with the radiographic findings of periosteal reaction and cortical hyperostosis. Although some have distinguished HHS from FTC by the presence of bone involvement and the absence of skin involvement (Frishberg et al., 2005), Ichikawa et al. (2010) concluded that the 2 entities represent a continuous spectrum of the same disease, best described as familial hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis. HFTC is considered to be the clinical converse of autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR; 193100), an allelic disorder caused by gain-of-function mutations in the FGF23 gene and associated with hypophosphatemia and decreased renal phosphate absorption (Chefetz et al., 2005; Ichikawa et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HFTC, see 211900. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1638917
Concept ID:
C4693864
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type II

Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders whose common feature is resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450). PHP type II is characterized by a normal cAMP response to PTH infusion, but a deficient phosphaturic response, indicating a defect distal to cAMP generation in renal cells. The clinical features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO; see 103580) are not present in PHP II (Mantovani and Spada, 2006). For a general phenotypic description, classification, and a discussion of molecular genetics of pseudohypoparathyroidism, see PHP1A (103580). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
444371
Concept ID:
C2932717
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 2B

Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2B with normal vitamin D receptor (VDDR2B) is an unusual form of rickets due to abnormal expression of a hormone response element-binding protein that interferes with the normal function of the vitamin D receptor. Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by mutation in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR; 601769), and most patients have alopecia in addition to rickets. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
411667
Concept ID:
C2748783
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism

MedGen UID:
383131
Concept ID:
C2677524
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 3

Vitamin D-dependent rickets-3 (VDDR3) is characterized by early-onset rickets, reduced serum levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and deficient responsiveness to the parent molecule as well as activated forms of vitamin D (Roizen et al., 2018). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of vitamin D-dependent rickets, see 264700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1725534
Concept ID:
C5436733
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Elevated circulating parathyroid hormone level

An abnormal increased concentration of parathyroid hormone. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
167805
Concept ID:
C0857973
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