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1.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D

The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
316946
Concept ID:
C1832274
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 17

The spectrum of BSCL2-related neurologic disorders includes Silver syndrome and variants of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) type V, and spastic paraplegia 17. Features of these disorders include onset of symptoms ranging from the first to the seventh decade, slow disease progression, upper motor neuron involvement (gait disturbance with pyramidal signs ranging from mild to severe spasticity with hyperreflexia in the lower limbs and variable extensor plantar responses), lower motor neuron involvement (amyotrophy of the peroneal muscles and small muscles of the hand), and pes cavus and other foot deformities. Disease severity is variable among and within families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419034
Concept ID:
C2931276
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, Type 2HH

Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2HH (CMT2HH) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized predominantly by onset of vocal cord weakness resulting in stridor in infancy or early childhood. The vocal cord paresis remains throughout life and may be severe enough to require tracheostomy. Additional features of the disorder usually include pes cavus and scoliosis. Some patients have mild distal muscle weakness and atrophy primarily affecting the lower limbs, although the upper limbs may also be involved, and distal sensory impairment, often with hyporeflexia (Sullivan et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794213
Concept ID:
C5562003
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 38

A complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of mild to severe lower limbs spasticity, hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, pes cavus and significant wasting and weakness of the small hand muscles. Impaired vibration sensation, temporal lobe epilepsy and cognitive dysfunction were also reported. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
436764
Concept ID:
C2676732
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5

Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-5 (HMND5), also known as distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type VA (dHMN5A or HMN5A), is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the upper limbs in the first few decades of life. The disorder is slowly progressive, and most patients eventually have lower limb involvement with foot deformities. Although sensory impairment is uncommon, some patients show this feature, illustrating the phenotypic overlap with CMT2D. Rare patients may have pyramidal signs or hyperreflexia (summary by Christodoulou et al., 1995 and Dubourg et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
318838
Concept ID:
C1833308
Disease or Syndrome
6.

First dorsal interossei muscle weakness

MedGen UID:
371289
Concept ID:
C1832277
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