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1.

Thanatophoric dysplasia type 1

Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is a short-limb skeletal dysplasia that is usually lethal in the perinatal period. TD is divided into subtypes: TD type I is characterized by micromelia with bowed femurs and, uncommonly, the presence of craniosynostosis of varying severity. TD type II is characterized by micromelia with straight femurs and uniform presence of moderate-to-severe craniosynostosis with cloverleaf skull deformity. Other features common to type I and type II include: short ribs, narrow thorax, relative macrocephaly, distinctive facial features, brachydactyly, hypotonia, and redundant skin folds along the limbs. Most affected infants die of respiratory insufficiency shortly after birth. Rare long-term survivors have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
358383
Concept ID:
C1868678
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 1

Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1748029
Concept ID:
C5399763
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Heterotopia, periventricular, X-linked dominant

FLNA deficiency is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes FLNA-related periventricular nodular heterotopia (Huttenlocher syndrome), congenital heart disease (patent ductus arteriosus, atrial and ventricular septal defects), valvular dystrophy, dilation and rupture of the thoracic aortic, pulmonary disease (pulmonary hypertension, alveolar hypoplasia, emphysema, asthma, chronic bronchitis), gastrointestinal dysmotility and obstruction, joint hypermobility, and macrothrombocytopenia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
376309
Concept ID:
C1848213
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Orofaciodigital syndrome I

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
7.

FG syndrome 1

MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1657090
Concept ID:
C4749301
Congenital Abnormality
9.

Lissencephaly type 1 due to doublecortin gene mutation

DCX-related disorders include the neuronal migration disorders: Classic thick lissencephaly (more severe anteriorly), usually in males. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), primarily in females. Males with classic DCX-related lissencephaly typically have early and profound cognitive and language impairment, cerebral palsy, and epileptic seizures. The clinical phenotype in females with SBH varies widely with cognitive abilities that range from average or mild cognitive impairment to severe intellectual disability and language impairment. Seizures, which frequently are refractory to anti-seizure medication, may be either focal or generalized and behavioral problems may also be observed. In DCX-related lissencephaly and SBH the severity of the clinical manifestation correlates roughly with the degree of the underlying brain malformation as observed in cerebral imaging. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1644310
Concept ID:
C4551968
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Koolen-de Vries syndrome

Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Lissencephaly due to TUBA1A mutation

A congenital cortical development anomaly due to abnormal neuronal migration involving neocortical and hippocampal lamination, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem. A large clinical spectrum can be observed, from children with severe epilepsy and intellectual and motor deficit to cases with severe cerebral dysgenesis in the antenatal period leading to pregnancy termination due to the severity of the prognosis. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
930822
Concept ID:
C4305153
Congenital Abnormality
12.

Microcephaly 2, primary, autosomal recessive, with or without cortical malformations

In WDR62 primary microcephaly (WDR62-MCPH), microcephaly (occipitofrontal circumference [OFC] = -2 SD) is usually present at birth, but in some instances becomes evident later in the first year of life. Growth is otherwise normal. Except for brain malformations in most affected individuals, no other congenital malformations are observed. Central nervous system involvement can include delayed motor development, mild-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), behavior problems, epilepsy, spasticity, and ataxia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346929
Concept ID:
C1858535
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Chudley-McCullough syndrome

Chudley-McCullough syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and specific brain anomalies on MRI, including hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlarged cysterna magna with mild focal cerebellar dysplasia, and nodular heterotopia. Some patients have hydrocephalus. Psychomotor development is normal (summary by Alrashdi et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347699
Concept ID:
C1858695
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1

Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
15.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 7

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Roscioli et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766244
Concept ID:
C3553330
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Vici syndrome

With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 13A (Zellweger)

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group K (CGK) have mutations in the PEX14 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766918
Concept ID:
C3554004
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Bohring-Opitz syndrome

Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial features may include microcephaly or trigonocephaly / prominent (but not fused) metopic ridge, hypotonic facies with full cheeks, synophrys, glabellar and eyelid nevus flammeus (simplex), prominent globes, widely set eyes, palate anomalies, and micrognathia. The BOS posture, which is most striking in early childhood and often becomes less apparent with age, is characterized by flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints. Feeding difficulties in early childhood, including cyclic vomiting, have a significant impact on overall health; feeding tends to improve with age. Seizures are common and typically responsive to standard epileptic medications. Minor cardiac anomalies and transient bradycardia and apnea may be present. Affected individuals may experience recurrent infections, which also tend to improve with age. Isolated case reports suggest that individuals with BOS are at greater risk for Wilms tumor than the general population, but large-scale epidemiologic studies have not been conducted. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
208678
Concept ID:
C0796232
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 4

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome-4 (MMRCS4) is an autosomal recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early-onset leukemia/lymphoma, brain tumors, colorectal/gastrointestinal cancers, and other rare malignancies, including rhabdomyosarcoma (summary by Li et al., 2015). Cafe-au-lait spots are usually present (De Vos et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mismatch repair cancer syndrome, see MMRCS1 (276300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1745382
Concept ID:
C5436817
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects primarily females. Initially it was characterized by a typical triad of agenesis of the corpus callosum, central chorioretinal lacunae, and infantile spasms. As more affected individuals have been ascertained, it has become clear that not all affected girls have all three features of the classic triad and that other neurologic and systemic defects are common, including other brain malformations, optic nerve abnormalities, other seizure types, intellectual disability of varying severity, and scoliosis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61236
Concept ID:
C0175713
Disease or Syndrome
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