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Items: 12

1.

Progressive myositis ossificans

Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is characterized by congenital bilateral hallux valgus malformations and early-onset heterotopic ossification, which may be spontaneous or precipitated by trauma including intramuscular vaccinations. Painful, recurrent soft-tissue swellings (flare-ups) may precede localized heterotopic ossification. Heterotopic ossification can occur at any location, but typically affects regions in close proximity to the axial skeleton in the early/mild stages, before progressing to the appendicular skeleton. This can lead to restriction of movement as a result of ossification impacting joint mobility. Problems with swallowing and speaking can occur with ossification affecting the jaw, head, and neck, and restriction of the airway and breathing may lead to thoracic insufficiency syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4698
Concept ID:
C0016037
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hyperparathyroidism 2 with jaw tumors

The spectrum of CDC73-related disorders includes the following phenotypes: Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome. Primary hyperparathyroidism, the main finding of HPT-JT syndrome, occurs in up to 95% of affected individuals; onset is typically in late adolescence or early adulthood. HPT-JT-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a single parathyroid adenoma. In approximately 10%-15% of individuals, primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid carcinoma. Ossifying fibromas of the mandible or maxilla, also known as cementifying fibromas and cemento-ossifying fibromas, occur in 30%-40% of individuals with HPT-JT syndrome. Although benign, these tumors can be locally aggressive and may continue to enlarge if not treated. Approximately 20% of individuals with HPT-JT syndrome have kidney lesions, most commonly cysts; renal hamartomas and (more rarely) Wilms tumor have also been reported. Benign and malignant uterine tumors appear to be common in women with HPT-JT syndrome. Parathyroid carcinoma. Most parathyroid carcinomas are functional, resulting in hyperparathyroidism and a high serum calcium level; however, nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinomas are also rarely described in individuals with a CDC73-related disorder. A germline CDC73 pathogenic variant has been identified in 20%-29% of individuals with apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). FIHP is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism without other associated syndromic features. Individuals with CDC73-related FIHP tend to have a more severe clinical presentation and younger age of onset than individuals with FIHP in whom a CDC73 pathogenic variant has not been identified. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
310065
Concept ID:
C1704981
Neoplastic Process
3.

Branchiooculofacial syndrome

The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 15 with polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). SRTD15 is characterized by narrow thorax, oral and cardiovascular anomalies, short long bones, and postaxial polydactyly, in addition to other congenital anomalies. Considerable variability in features and in severity has been reported, with some affected individuals succumbing shortly after birth and others living to adulthood, even within the same family. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934691
Concept ID:
C4310724
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Orofaciodigital syndrome IX

Syndrome with characteristics of highly arched palate with bifid tongue and bilateral supernumerary lower canines, hamartomatous tongue, multiple frenula, hypertelorism, telecanthus, strabismus, broad and/or bifid nasal tip, short stature, bifid hallux, forked metatarsal, poly and syndactyly, mild intellectual deficit and specific retinal abnormalities (bilateral optic disc coloboma and retinal dysplasia with partial detachment). Less than ten cases have been described in the literature. The causative gene has not yet been identified. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
162908
Concept ID:
C0796102
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Nasopalpebral lipoma-coloboma syndrome

Nasopalpebral lipoma-coloboma syndrome (NPLCS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by upper eyelid and nasopalpebral lipomas, colobomas of upper and lower eyelids, telecanthus, and maxillary hypoplasia (summary by Suresh et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
358378
Concept ID:
C1868660
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cowden syndrome 4



The features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.

Some people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.

Cowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.

Almost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.

Cowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
767431
Concept ID:
C3554517
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Orofaciodigital syndrome VIII

Other features occur in only one or a few types of oral-facial digital syndrome. These features help distinguish the different forms of the disorder. For example, the most common form of oral-facial-digital syndrome, type I, is associated with polycystic kidney disease. This kidney disease is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that interfere with the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood. Other forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome are characterized by neurological problems, particular changes in the structure of the brain, bone abnormalities, vision loss, and heart defects.

Distinctive facial features often associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split in the lip (a cleft lip); a wide nose with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism).

Abnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split (cleft) in the tongue, a tongue with an unusual lobed shape, and the growth of noncancerous tumors or nodules on the tongue. Affected individuals may also have extra, missing, or defective teeth. Another common feature is an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). Some people with oral-facial-digital syndrome have bands of extra tissue (called hyperplastic frenula) that abnormally attach the lip to the gums.

Abnormalities of the digits can affect both the fingers and the toes in people with oral-facial-digital syndrome. These abnormalities include fusion of certain fingers or toes (syndactyly), digits that are shorter than usual (brachydactyly), or digits that are unusually curved (clinodactyly). The presence of extra digits (polydactyly) is also seen in most forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome.

The signs and symptoms of oral-facial-digital syndrome vary widely. However, most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities and some degree of intellectual disability.

Researchers have identified at least 13 potential forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome. The different types are classified by their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some types are not well defined. The classification system for oral-facial-digital syndrome continues to evolve as researchers find more affected individuals and learn more about this disorder.

Oral-facial-digital syndrome is actually a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
208667
Concept ID:
C0796101
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hamartoma, Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous

MedGen UID:
342846
Concept ID:
C1853298
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Lip, hamartomatous

MedGen UID:
331965
Concept ID:
C1835395
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome

Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome is a rare, genetic skin disease characterized by multiple milium-like, comedone-like lesions and skin-colored to hyperpigmented, 1 to 2 mm-sized papules, associated with hypotrichosis and palmar/plantar pits. Lesions are usually first noticed on cheeks or neck and gradually increase in size and number to involve the scalp, face, ears, shoulders, chest, axillas, and upper arms. In severe cases, lower back, lower arms, and back of the legs can be involved. Mild hypohidrosis has also been reported. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
343009
Concept ID:
C1853919
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hamartoma

A disordered proliferation of mature tissues that is native to the site of origin, e.g., exostoses, nevi and soft tissue hamartomas. Although most hamartomas are benign, some histologic subtypes, e.g., neuromuscular hamartoma, may proliferate aggressively such as mesenchymal cystic hamartoma, Sclerosing epithelial hamartoma, Sclerosing metanephric hamartoma. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
6713
Concept ID:
C0018552
Neoplastic Process
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