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1.

Marfan syndrome

FBN1-related Marfan syndrome (Marfan syndrome), a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (>50% of affected individuals); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a sensorineural peripheral polyneuropathy. Affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 individuals, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system (Skre, 1974). Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms have been recognized. Classification On the basis of electrophysiologic properties and histopathology, CMT has been divided into primary peripheral demyelinating (type 1, or HMSNI) and primary peripheral axonal (type 2, or HMSNII) neuropathies. The demyelinating neuropathies classified as CMT type 1 are characterized by severely reduced motor NCVs (less than 38 m/s) and segmental demyelination and remyelination with onion bulb formations on nerve biopsy. The axonal neuropathies classified as CMT type 2 are characterized by normal or mildly reduced NCVs and chronic axonal degeneration and regeneration on nerve biopsy (see CMT2A1; 118210). Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) (see 158590), or spinal CMT, is characterized by exclusive motor involvement and sparing of sensory nerves (Pareyson, 1999). McAlpine (1989) proposed that the forms of CMT with very slow nerve conduction be given the gene symbol CMT1A (118220) and CMT1B, CMT1A being the gene on chromosome 17 and CMT1B being the gene on chromosome 1. CMT2 was the proposed symbol for the autosomal locus responsible for the moderately slow nerve conduction form of the disease (axonal). For a phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the various subtypes of CMT, see CMTX1 (302800), CMT2A1 (118210), CMT3 (DSS; 145900), CMT4A (214400), and CMTDIB (606482). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Demyelinating CMT1 Autosomal dominant demyelinating CMT1 is a genetically heterogeneous disorder and can be caused by mutations in different genes; see CMT1A (118220), CMT1C (601098), CMT1D (607678), CMT1E (607734), CMT1F (607734), CMT1G (618279), CMT1H (619764), CMT1I (619742), and CMT1J (620111). See also 608236 for a related phenotype characterized by isolated slowed nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
124377
Concept ID:
C0270912
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type IA

For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). CMT1A is the most common form of CMT. The average age of onset of clinical symptoms is 12.2 +/- 7.3 years. Slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) less than 38 m/s is highly diagnostic and is a 100% penetrant phenotype independent of age (Lupski et al., 1991, 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75727
Concept ID:
C0270911
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A2

MFN2 hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (MFN2-HMSN) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, inherited in either an autosomal dominant (AD) manner (~90%) or an autosomal recessive (AR) manner (~10%). MFN2-HMSN is characterized by more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Median onset is age 12 years in the AD form and age eight years in the AR form. The prevalence of optic atrophy is approximately 7% in the AD form and approximately 20% in the AR form. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648317
Concept ID:
C4721887
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 5A

The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1723540
Concept ID:
C5399969
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Charlevoix-Saguenay spastic ataxia

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is clinically characterized by a progressive cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and spasticity. Disease onset of classic ARSACS is often in early childhood, leading to delayed walking because of gait unsteadiness in very young toddlers, while an increasing number of individuals with disease onset in teenage or early-adult years are now being described. Typically the ataxia is followed by lower-limb spasticity and later by peripheral neuropathy – although pronounced peripheral neuropathy has been observed as a first sign of ARSACS. Oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria, and upper-limb ataxia develop with slower progression than the other findings. Brain imaging demonstrates atrophy of the superior vermis and the cerebellar hemisphere with additional findings on MRI, such as linear hypointensities in the pons and hyperintense rims around the thalami. Many affected individuals (though not all) have yellow streaks of hypermyelinated fibers radiating from the edges of the optic disc noted on ophthalmologic exam, and thickened retinal fibers can be demonstrated by optical coherence tomography. Mild intellectual disability, hearing loss, and urinary urgency and incontinence have been reported in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338620
Concept ID:
C1849140
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C

SH3TC2-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (SH3TC2-HMSN) is a demyelinating neuropathy characterized by severe spine deformities (scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis) and foot deformities (pes cavus, pes planus, or pes valgus) that typically present in the first decade of life or early adolescence. Other findings can include cranial nerve involvement (most commonly tongue involvement, facial weakness/paralysis, hearing impairment, dysarthria) and respiratory problems. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356581
Concept ID:
C1866636
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease axonal type 2C

The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342947
Concept ID:
C1853710
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D

The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
316946
Concept ID:
C1832274
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4A

GDAP1-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (GDAP1-HMSN) is a peripheral neuropathy (also known as a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) that typically affects the lower extremities earlier and more severely than the upper extremities. As the neuropathy progresses, the distal upper extremities also become severely affected. Proximal muscles can also become weak. Age at onset ranges from infancy to early childhood. In most cases, disease progression causes disabilities within the first or second decade of life. At the end of the second decade, most individuals are wheelchair bound. Disease progression varies considerably even within the same family. The neuropathy can be either of the demyelinating type with reduced nerve conduction velocities or the axonal type with normal nerve conduction velocities. Vocal cord paresis is common. Intelligence is normal. Life expectancy is usually normal, but on occasion may be reduced because of secondary complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347821
Concept ID:
C1859198
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Dejerine-Sottas disease

Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy with onset in infancy. It can show autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. Affected individuals have delayed motor development due to severe distal motor and sensory impairment, resulting in difficulties in gait. Some patients have generalized hypotonia in infancy. Other features may include pes cavus, scoliosis, and sensory ataxia. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (sometimes less than 10 m/s), and sural nerve biopsy shows severe loss of myelinated fibers (summary by Baets et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
3710
Concept ID:
C0011195
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.

The eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.

People with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.

Heart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).

Teeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency

D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
15.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B

A severe form of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. Onset in the second or third decade has manifestations of ulceration and infection of the feet. Symmetric and distal weakness develops mostly in the legs together with a severe symmetric distal sensory loss. Tendon reflexes are only reduced at ankles and foot deformities including pes cavus or planus and hammer toes, appear in childhood. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
371512
Concept ID:
C1833219
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B2

Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B2 (CMT4B2) is a demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by abnormal folding of myelin sheaths. CMT4B1 (601382) is a clinically similar disorder caused by mutation in the MTMR2 gene (603557) on 11q22. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT, see CMT4A (214400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
346869
Concept ID:
C1858278
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4D (CMT4D) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by early-onset distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, and sensory loss affecting all modalities. Affected individuals develop deafness by the third decade of life (summary by Okamoto et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, see CMT4A (214400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
371304
Concept ID:
C1832334
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease recessive intermediate A

GDAP1-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (GDAP1-HMSN) is a peripheral neuropathy (also known as a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) that typically affects the lower extremities earlier and more severely than the upper extremities. As the neuropathy progresses, the distal upper extremities also become severely affected. Proximal muscles can also become weak. Age at onset ranges from infancy to early childhood. In most cases, disease progression causes disabilities within the first or second decade of life. At the end of the second decade, most individuals are wheelchair bound. Disease progression varies considerably even within the same family. The neuropathy can be either of the demyelinating type with reduced nerve conduction velocities or the axonal type with normal nerve conduction velocities. Vocal cord paresis is common. Intelligence is normal. Life expectancy is usually normal, but on occasion may be reduced because of secondary complications. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
334012
Concept ID:
C1842197
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Troyer syndrome

Troyer syndrome is characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, pseudobulbar palsy, distal amyotrophy, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. Most affected children exhibit delays in walking and speech and difficulty in managing oral secretions, followed by increased lower-limb spasticity and slow deterioration in both gait and speech. Mild cerebellar signs are common. The most severely affected individuals have choreoathetosis. Emotional lability / difficulty in controlling emotions and affective disorders, such as inappropriate euphoria and/or crying, are frequently described. Life expectancy is normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
97950
Concept ID:
C0393559
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1E

A rare subtype of CMT1 characterized by a variable clinical presentation. Onset within the first two years of life with a delay in walking is not uncommon; however, onset may occur later. CMT1E is caused by point mutations in the <i>PMP22</i> (17p12) gene. The disease severity depends on the particular <i>PMP22</i> mutation, with some cases being very mild and even resembling hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, while others having an earlier onset with a more severe phenotype (reminiscent of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) than that seen in CMT1A, caused by gene duplication. These severe cases may also report deafness and much slower motor nerve conduction velocities compared to CMT1A patients. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
501212
Concept ID:
C3495591
Disease or Syndrome
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