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Items: 8

1.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 7

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. OI type VII is an autosomal recessive form of severe or lethal OI (summary by Barnes et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343981
Concept ID:
C1853162
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 17

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders that mainly affect the bones. The term "osteogenesis imperfecta" means imperfect bone formation. People with this condition have bones that break (fracture) easily, often from mild trauma or with no apparent cause. Multiple fractures are common, and in severe cases, can occur even before birth. Milder cases may involve only a few fractures over a person's lifetime.

There are at least 19 recognized forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, designated type I through type XIX. Several types are distinguished by their signs and symptoms, although their characteristic features overlap. Increasingly, genetic causes are used to define rarer forms of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type I (also known as classic non-deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with blue sclerae) is the mildest form of osteogenesis imperfecta. Type II (also known as perinatally lethal osteogenesis imperfecta) is the most severe. Other types of this condition, including types III (progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta) and IV (common variable osteogenesis imperfecta with normal sclerae), have signs and symptoms that fall somewhere between these two extremes.

Other types of osteogenesis imperfecta are more severe, causing frequent bone fractures that are present at birth and result from little or no trauma. Additional features of these types can include blue sclerae of the eyes, short stature, curvature of the spine (scoliosis), joint deformities (contractures), hearing loss, respiratory problems, and a disorder of tooth development called dentinogenesis imperfecta. Mobility can be reduced in affected individuals, and some may use a walker or wheelchair. The most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, particularly type II, can include an abnormally small, fragile rib cage and underdeveloped lungs. Infants with these abnormalities may have life-threatening problems with breathing and can die shortly after birth.

The milder forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, including type I, are characterized by bone fractures during childhood and adolescence that often result from minor trauma, such as falling while learning to walk. Fractures occur less frequently in adulthood. People with mild forms of the condition typically have a blue or grey tint to the part of the eye that is usually white (the sclera), and about half develop hearing loss in adulthood. Unlike more severely affected individuals, people with type I are usually of normal or near normal height. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
903845
Concept ID:
C4225301
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome

Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome is a rare, inherited bone disorder that affects primarily the hands and feet. Several individual bones make up each wrist (carpal bones) and ankle (tarsal bones). In tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, the carpal bones fuse together, as do the tarsal bones, which causes stiffness and immobility of the hands and feet. Symptoms of the condition can become apparent in infancy, and they worsen with age. The severity of the symptoms can vary, even among members of the same family.

In this condition, fusion at the joints between the bones that make up each finger and toe (symphalangism) can also occur. Consequently, the fingers and toes become stiff and difficult to bend. Stiffness of the pinky fingers and toes (fifth digits) is usually noticeable first. The joints at the base of the pinky fingers and toes fuse first, and slowly, the other joints along the length of these digits may also be affected. Progressively, the bones in the fourth, third, and second digits (the ring finger, middle finger, and forefinger, and the corresponding toes) become fused. The thumb and big toe are usually not involved. Affected individuals have increasing trouble forming a fist, and walking often becomes painful and difficult. Occasionally, there is also fusion of bones in the upper and lower arm at the elbow joint (humeroradial fusion). Less common features of tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome include short stature or the development of hearing loss. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
348322
Concept ID:
C1861305
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Question mark ears, isolated

Question mark ears (QME) is an auricular abnormality characterized by a cleft between the lobule and the lower part of the helix, sometimes accompanied by a prominent or deficient upper part of the helix, shallow skin dimple on the posterior surface of the ear, or transposition of the ear lobe/antitragus. It is more prevalent among boys than girls (2:1), usually sporadic, and can be unilateral or bilateral (Shkalim et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
411238
Concept ID:
C2748545
Anatomical Abnormality
5.

Ectodermal dysplasia 14, hair/tooth type with or without hypohidrosis

Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-14 of the hair/tooth type (ECTD14) is primarily characterized by scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Some patients have decreased sweating, and some show subtle facial dysmorphism (Peled et al., 2016). Rabie et al. (2022) tabulated the features of 24 patients with TSPEAR-associated ectodermal dysplasia, and found that of the various ectodermal derivatives, teeth were the most affected (82.6%), followed by hair (78.3%), nails (43.5%), and sweat glands (39.1%). The authors also noted that TSPEAR-associated dysmorphic facial features varied according to ethnic origin. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648329
Concept ID:
C4748560
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hypotrichosis 5

Hypotrichosis-5 (HYPT5), also known as Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis-2 (MUHH2), is a form of hereditary hypotrichosis characterized by twisting hair. Affected individuals have little or no scalp hair at birth, wiry and irregular scalp hair in childhood, and sparse or no forehead and parietal hair at puberty. Eyebrows and eyelashes are thin, and pubic and axillary hair fails to develop. Scarring alopecia is modest, and vertex hair is normal (summary by Zhang et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description of Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis, see MUHH1 (146550). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see 605389. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
440568
Concept ID:
C2748535
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Flat face-microstomia-ear anomaly syndrome

A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of dysmorphic facial features including high forehead, elongated and flattened midface, arched and sparse eyebrows, short palpebral fissures, telecanthus, long nose with hypoplastic nostrils, long philtrum, high and narrow palate and microstomia with downturned corners. Ears are characteristically malformed, large, low-set and posteriorly rotated and nasal speech is associated. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
356655
Concept ID:
C1866962
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hearing abnormality

An abnormality of the sensory perception of sound. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
871365
Concept ID:
C4025860
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