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Items: 15

1.

Malignant hyperthermia, susceptibility to, 1

Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated with uncontrolled skeletal muscle hypermetabolism. Manifestations of malignant hyperthermia (MH) are precipitated by certain volatile anesthetics (i.e., halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, enflurane), either alone or in conjunction with a depolarizing muscle relaxant (specifically, succinylcholine). The triggering substances cause uncontrolled release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and may promote entry of extracellular calcium into the myoplasm, causing contracture of skeletal muscles, glycogenolysis, and increased cellular metabolism, resulting in production of heat and excess lactate. Affected individuals experience acidosis, hypercapnia, tachycardia, hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis with subsequent increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration, hyperkalemia with a risk for cardiac arrhythmia or even cardiac arrest, and myoglobinuria with a risk for renal failure. In nearly all cases, the first manifestations of MH (tachycardia and tachypnea) occur in the operating room; however, MH may also occur in the early postoperative period. There is mounting evidence that some individuals with MHS will also develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. Without proper and prompt treatment with dantrolene sodium, mortality is extremely high. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
443948
Concept ID:
C2930980
Finding
2.

Glycogen storage disease, type V

Glycogen storage disease type V (GSDV, McArdle disease) is a metabolic myopathy characterized by exercise intolerance manifested by rapid fatigue, myalgia, and cramps in exercising muscles. Symptoms are usually precipitated by isometric exercise or sustained aerobic exercise. Most individuals improve their exercise tolerance by exploiting the "second-wind" phenomenon with relief of myalgia and fatigue after a few minutes of rest. Age of onset is frequently in the first decade of life but can vary; however, diagnosis is typically delayed as myalgia and fatigability are dismissed/overlooked. Fixed muscle weakness occurs in approximately 25% of affected individuals, is more likely to involve proximal muscles, and is more common in individuals of advanced age. Approximately 50% of affected individuals have recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria that can – on occasion – eventually result in acute renal failure. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
5341
Concept ID:
C0017924
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, myopathic form

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371584
Concept ID:
C1833508
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency are caused by impairment of mitochondrial TFP. TFP has three enzymatic activities – long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. In individuals with LCHAD deficiency, there is isolated deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, while deficiency of all three enzymes occurs in individuals with TFP deficiency. Individuals with TFP deficiency can present with a severe-to-mild phenotype, while individuals with LCHAD deficiency typically present with a severe-to-intermediate phenotype. Neonates with the severe phenotype present within a few days of birth with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, encephalopathy, and often cardiomyopathy. The intermediate phenotype is characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia precipitated by infection or fasting in infancy. The mild (late-onset) phenotype is characterized by myopathy and/or neuropathy. Long-term complications include peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370665
Concept ID:
C1969443
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Deficiency of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase

3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats to energy, particularly during prolonged periods without food (fasting).

Initial signs and symptoms of this disorder typically occur during infancy or early childhood and can include poor appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lack of energy (lethargy). Affected individuals can also have muscle weakness (hypotonia), liver problems, low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), and abnormally high levels of insulin (hyperinsulinism). Insulin controls the amount of glucose that moves from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. Individuals with 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency are also at risk for complications such as seizures, life-threatening heart and breathing problems, coma, and sudden death. This condition may explain some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), which is defined as unexplained death in babies younger than 1 year.

Problems related to 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency can be triggered by periods of fasting or by illnesses such as viral infections. This disorder is sometimes mistaken for Reye syndrome, a severe disorder that may develop in children while they appear to be recovering from viral infections such as chicken pox or flu. Most cases of Reye syndrome are associated with the use of aspirin during these viral infections. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
266222
Concept ID:
C1291230
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Glycogen storage disease type X

Phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency is a disorder that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Beginning in childhood or adolescence, affected individuals experience muscle aches or cramping following strenuous physical activity. Some people with this condition also have recurrent episodes of myoglobinuria. Myoglobinuria occurs when muscle tissue breaks down abnormally and releases a protein called myoglobin, which is processed by the kidneys and released in the urine. If untreated, myoglobinuria can lead to kidney failure.

In some cases of phosphoglycerate mutase deficiency, microscopic tube-shaped structures called tubular aggregates are seen in muscle fibers. It is unclear how tubular aggregates are associated with the signs and symptoms of the disorder. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
120613
Concept ID:
C0268149
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Glycogen storage disease due to lactate dehydrogenase M-subunit deficiency

Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the body breaks down sugar to use as energy in cells, primarily muscle cells.

There are two types of this condition: lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency (sometimes called glycogen storage disease XI) and lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency.

People with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency experience fatigue, muscle pain, and cramps during exercise (exercise intolerance). In some people with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency, high-intensity exercise or other strenuous activity leads to the breakdown of muscle tissue (rhabdomyolysis). The destruction of muscle tissue releases a protein called myoglobin, which is processed by the kidneys and released in the urine (myoglobinuria). Myoglobin causes the urine to be red or brown. This protein can also damage the kidneys, in some cases leading to life-threatening kidney failure. Some people with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency develop skin rashes. The severity of the signs and symptoms among individuals with lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency varies greatly.

People with lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency typically do not have any signs or symptoms of the condition. They do not have difficulty with physical activity or any specific physical features related to the condition. Affected individuals are usually discovered only when routine blood tests reveal reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
419152
Concept ID:
C2931743
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis due to ISCU deficiency

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of exercise intolerance with muscle tenderness, cramping, dyspnea, and palpitations. Biochemical features include lactic acidosis and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. It is a chronic disorder with remission and exacerbation of the muscle phenotype (summary by Sanaker et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342573
Concept ID:
C1850718
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Myoglobinuria, acute recurrent, autosomal recessive

Recurrent myoglobinuria is characterized by recurrent attacks of rhabdomyolysis associated with muscle pain and weakness and followed by excretion of myoglobin in the urine. Renal failure may occasionally occur. Onset is usually in early childhood under the age of 5 years. Unlike the exercise-induced rhabdomyolyses such as McArdle syndrome (232600), carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency (see 255110), and the Creteil variety of phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency (311800), the attacks in recurrent myoglobinuria no relation to exercise, but are triggered by intercurrent illnesses, commonly upper respiratory tract infections (Ramesh and Gardner-Medwin, 1992). See 160010 for discussion of a possible autosomal dominant form of myoglobinuria. Severe rhabdomyolysis is a major clinical feature of anesthetic-induced malignant hyperthermia (145600), an autosomal dominant disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340308
Concept ID:
C1849386
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome

Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency 2

The mitochondrial trifunctional protein, composed of 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, catalyzes 3 steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, and long-chain thiolase activities. Trifunctional protein deficiency is characterized by decreased activity of all 3 enzymes. Clinically, classic trifunctional protein deficiency can be classified into 3 main clinical phenotypes: neonatal onset of a severe, lethal condition resulting in sudden unexplained infant death (SIDS; 272120), infantile onset of a hepatic Reye-like syndrome, and late-adolescent onset of primarily a skeletal myopathy (summary by Spiekerkoetter et al., 2003). Some patients with MTP deficiency show a protracted progressive course associated with myopathy, recurrent rhabdomyolysis, and sensorimotor axonal neuropathy. These patients tend to survive into adolescence and adulthood (den Boer et al., 2003). See mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency-1 (609015), caused by mutation in the HADHA gene (600890), the alpha subunit of mitochondrial trifunctional protein. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841010
Concept ID:
C5830374
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Medium chain 3-ketoacyl-Coa thiolase deficiency

MedGen UID:
356367
Concept ID:
C1865781
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Myopathy with myalgia, increased serum creatine kinase, and with or without episodic rhabdomyolysis

Myopathy with myalgia, increased serum creatine kinase, and with or without episodic rhabdomyolysis (MMCKR) is an autosomal recessive disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by the onset of muscle cramping and stiffness on exertion in infancy or early childhood, although later (even adult) onset has also been reported. The features remit with rest, but some individuals develop mild proximal or distal muscle weakness. Rare affected individuals may demonstrate cardiac involvement, including left ventricular dysfunction or rhythm abnormalities. Laboratory studies show increased baseline serum creatine kinase levels with episodic spikes that may coincide with rhabdomyolysis. EMG shows myopathic changes, and muscle biopsy shows nonspecific myopathic or degenerative features (Lopes Abath Neto et al., 2021; Salzer-Sheelo et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824033
Concept ID:
C5774260
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autosomal dominant myoglobinuria

A rare metabolic myopathy with characteristics of episodic myalgia with myoglobinuria which is induced by fever, viral or bacterial infection, prolonged exercise or alcohol abuse, and could, on occasion, lead to acute renal failure. Between episodes, patients may be asymptomatic or could present elevated creatine kinase levels and mild muscle weakness. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1997. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
320384
Concept ID:
C1834567
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hereditary myoglobinuria

Presence of myoglobin in the urine. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
44557
Concept ID:
C0027080
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