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Items: 16

1.

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a highly recognizable syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features, and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary and renal malformations, and cardiac defects, as well as a higher-than-normal prevalence of tumors, notably neuroepithelial neoplasia (summary by Hoischen et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120517
Concept ID:
C0265227
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate syndrome

The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98032
Concept ID:
C0406709
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Corpus callosum agenesis-abnormal genitalia syndrome

Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 1

Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (HPMRS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, various neurologic abnormalities such as seizures and hypotonia, and hyperphosphatasia. Other features include facial dysmorphism and variable degrees of brachytelephalangy (summary by Krawitz et al., 2010). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperphosphatasia with Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome See also HPMRS2 (614749), caused by mutation in the PIGO gene (614730) on chromosome 9p13; HPMRS3 (614207), caused by mutation in the PGAP2 gene (615187) on chromosome 11p15; HPMRS4 (615716), caused by mutation in the PGAP3 gene (611801) on chromosome 17q12; HPMRS5 (616025), caused by mutation in the PIGW gene (610275) on chromosome 17q12; and HPMRS6 (616809), caused by mutation in the PIGY gene (610662) on chromosome 4q22. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of HPMRS, noting that some patients have a distinct pattern of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison, particularly those with mutations in the PIGV and PGAP3 genes. Individuals with HPMRS have variable increased in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between HPMRS and MCAHS (see, e.g., 614080), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1647044
Concept ID:
C4551502
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Meier-Gorlin syndrome 1

The Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, bilateral microtia, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the patellae (summary by Shalev and Hall, 2003). While almost all cases have primordial dwarfism with substantial prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, not all cases have microcephaly, and microtia and absent/hypoplastic patella are absent in some. Despite the presence of microcephaly, intellect is usually normal (Bicknell et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Most forms of Meier-Gorlin syndrome are autosomal recessive disorders, including Meier-Gorlin syndrome-1; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-2 (613800), caused by mutation in the ORC4 gene (603056) on chromosome 2q23; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-3 (613803), caused by mutation in the ORC6 gene (607213) on chromosome 16q11; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-4 (613804), caused by mutation in the CDT1 gene (605525) on chromosome 16q24; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-5 (613805), caused by mutation in the CDC6 gene (602627) on chromosome 17q21; Meier-Gorlin syndrome-7 (617063), caused by mutation in the CDC45L gene (603465) on chromosome 22q11; and Meier-Gorlin syndrome-8 (617564), caused by mutation in the MCM5 gene (602696) on chromosome 22q12. An autosomal dominant form of the disorder, Meier-Gorlin syndrome-6 (616835), is caused by mutation in the GMNN gene (602842) on chromosome 6p22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1641240
Concept ID:
C4552001
Disease or Syndrome
7.

SIN3A-related intellectual disability syndrome due to a point mutation

Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (WITKOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with characteristic distinctive facial features, microcephaly, short stature, and mildly impaired intellectual development with delayed cognitive and motor development and subtle anomalies on MRI-brain imaging (summary by Balasubramanian et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934771
Concept ID:
C4310804
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hirschsprung disease, cardiac defects, and autonomic dysfunction

MedGen UID:
462587
Concept ID:
C3151237
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Keratosis linearis-ichthyosis congenita-sclerosing keratoderma syndrome

An inherited epidermal disorder with characteristics of palmoplantar keratoderma, linear hyperkeratotic papules on the flexural side of large joints (cord-like distribution around wrists, in antecubital and popliteal folds), hyperkeratotic plaques (on neck, axillae, elbows, wrists, and knees), mild ichthyosiform scaling, and sclerotic constrictions around fingers that present flexural deformities. The disease is caused by homozygous mutation in the POMP gene. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
356430
Concept ID:
C1866029
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Chromosome 17q12 deletion syndrome

The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482768
Concept ID:
C3281138
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome

A rare chromosomal anomaly with characteristics of psychomotor developmental delay, facial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, upslanting palpebral fissures, dysplastic small ears, flat nasal bridge with anteverted nostrils and long philtrum, micrognathia, choanal atresia, short neck), single umbilical artery, omphalocele, inguinal or umbilical hernia, genital abnormalities (hypospadia, cryptorchidism), muscular hypotonia and scoliosis. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
167073
Concept ID:
C0795830
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 2

Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (BRYLIB2) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome, see BRYLIB1 (619720). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1811435
Concept ID:
C5676906
Disease or Syndrome
13.

MOMO syndrome

A very rare genetic overgrowth/obesity syndrome with characteristics of macrocephaly, obesity, mental (intellectual) disability and ocular abnormalities. Other frequent clinical signs include macrosomia, downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, broad nasal root, high and broad forehead and delay in bone maturation, in association with normal thyroid function and karyotype. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
371897
Concept ID:
C1834759
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Orofacial-digital syndrome III

Abnormalities of the digits can affect both the fingers and the toes in people with oral-facial-digital syndrome. These abnormalities include fusion of certain fingers or toes (syndactyly), digits that are shorter than usual (brachydactyly), or digits that are unusually curved (clinodactyly). The presence of extra digits (polydactyly) is also seen in most forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome.

Distinctive facial features often associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split in the lip (a cleft lip); a wide nose with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism).

Other features occur in only one or a few types of oral-facial digital syndrome. These features help distinguish the different forms of the disorder. For example, the most common form of oral-facial-digital syndrome, type I, is associated with polycystic kidney disease. This kidney disease is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that interfere with the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood. Other forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome are characterized by neurological problems, particular changes in the structure of the brain, bone abnormalities, vision loss, and heart defects.

Abnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split (cleft) in the tongue, a tongue with an unusual lobed shape, and the growth of noncancerous tumors or nodules on the tongue. Affected individuals may also have extra, missing, or defective teeth. Another common feature is an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). Some people with oral-facial-digital syndrome have bands of extra tissue (called hyperplastic frenula) that abnormally attach the lip to the gums.

The signs and symptoms of oral-facial-digital syndrome vary widely. However, most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities and some degree of intellectual disability.

Researchers have identified at least 13 potential forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome. The different types are classified by their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some types are not well defined. The classification system for oral-facial-digital syndrome continues to evolve as researchers find more affected individuals and learn more about this disorder.

Oral-facial-digital syndrome is actually a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes). [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
96069
Concept ID:
C0406726
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pierre Robin syndrome-faciodigital anomaly syndrome

The association of Pierre Robin sequence (retrognathia, cleft palate and glossoptosis), facial dysmorphism (high forehead with frontal bossing) and digital anomalies (tapering fingers, hyper convex nails, clinodactyly of the fifth fingers and short distal phalanges, finger-like thumbs and easily subluxated first metacarpophalangeal joints). Growth and mental development are normal. It has been described in two half brothers born to the same mother. Transmission appears to be X-linked recessive. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
443969
Concept ID:
C2931064
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hyperconvex nail

When viewed on end (with the digit tip pointing toward the examiner's eye) the curve of the nail forms a tighter curve of convexity. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
488894
Concept ID:
C0423807
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