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1.

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency

Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency can occur as a severe neonatal-onset disease in males (but rarely in females) and as a post-neonatal-onset (also known as "late-onset" or partial deficiency) disease in males and females. Males with severe neonatal-onset OTC deficiency are asymptomatic at birth but become symptomatic from hyperammonemia in the first week of life, most often on day two to three of life, and are usually catastrophically ill by the time they come to medical attention. After successful treatment of neonatal hyperammonemic coma these infants can easily become hyperammonemic again despite appropriate treatment; they typically require liver transplant to improve quality of life. Males and heterozygous females with post-neonatal-onset (partial) OTC deficiency can present from infancy to later childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. No matter how mild the disease, a hyperammonemic crisis can be precipitated by stressors and become a life-threatening event at any age and in any situation in life. For all individuals with OTC deficiency, typical neuropsychological complications include developmental delay, learning disabilities, intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and executive function deficits. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75692
Concept ID:
C0268542
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Citrullinemia type I

Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) presents as a spectrum that includes a neonatal acute form (the "classic" form), a milder late-onset form (the "non-classic" form), a form in which women have onset of symptoms at pregnancy or post partum, and a form without symptoms or hyperammonemia. Distinction between the forms is based primarily on clinical findings, although emerging evidence suggests that measurement of residual argininosuccinate synthase enzyme activity may help to predict those who are likely to have a severe phenotype and those who are likely to have an attenuated phenotype. Infants with the acute neonatal form appear normal at birth. Shortly thereafter, they develop hyperammonemia and become progressively lethargic, feed poorly, often vomit, and may develop signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Without prompt intervention, hyperammonemia and the accumulation of other toxic metabolites (e.g., glutamine) result in increased ICP, increased neuromuscular tone, spasticity, ankle clonus, seizures, loss of consciousness, and death. Children with the severe form who are treated promptly may survive for an indeterminate period of time, but usually with significant neurologic deficits. Even with chronic protein restriction and scavenger therapy, long-term complications such as liver failure and other (rarely reported) organ system manifestations are possible. The late-onset form may be milder than that seen in the acute neonatal form, but commences later in life for reasons that are not completely understood. The episodes of hyperammonemia are similar to those seen in the acute neonatal form, but the initial neurologic findings may be more subtle because of the older age of the affected individuals. Women with onset of severe symptoms including acute hepatic decompensation during pregnancy or in the postpartum period have been reported. Furthermore, previously asymptomatic and non-pregnant individuals have been described who remained asymptomatic up to at least age ten years, with the possibility that they could remain asymptomatic lifelong. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648491
Concept ID:
C4721769
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency

Deficiency of argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the enzyme that cleaves argininosuccinic acid to produce arginine and fumarate in the fourth step of the urea cycle, may present as a severe neonatal-onset form or a late-onset form: The severe neonatal-onset form is characterized by hyperammonemia within the first few days after birth that can manifest as increasing lethargy, somnolence, refusal to feed, vomiting, tachypnea, and respiratory alkalosis. Absence of treatment leads to worsening lethargy, seizures, coma, and even death. In contrast, the manifestations of late-onset form range from episodic hyperammonemia triggered by acute infection or stress to cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and/or learning disabilities in the absence of any documented episodes of hyperammonemia. Manifestations of ASL deficiency that appear to be unrelated to the severity or duration of hyperammonemic episodes: Neurocognitive deficiencies (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental delay, seizures, and learning disability). Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis). Trichorrhexis nodosa (coarse brittle hair that breaks easily). Systemic hypertension. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78687
Concept ID:
C0268547
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hyperammonemia, type III

N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. The clinical and biochemical features of the disorder are indistinguishable from carbamoyl phosphate synthase I deficiency (237300), since the CPS1 enzyme (608307) has an absolute requirement for NAGS (Caldovic et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120649
Concept ID:
C0268543
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency

Most children with carbonic anhydrase VA (CA-VA) deficiency reported to date have presented between day 2 of life and early childhood (up to age 20 months) with hyperammonemic encephalopathy (i.e., lethargy, feeding intolerance, weight loss, tachypnea, seizures, and coma). Given that fewer than 20 affected individuals have been reported to date, the ranges of initial presentations and long-term prognoses are not completely understood. As of 2021 the oldest known affected individual is an adolescent. Almost all affected individuals reported to date have shown normal psychomotor development and no further episodes of metabolic crisis; however, a few have shown mild learning difficulties or delayed motor skills. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
816734
Concept ID:
C3810404
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency

Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency is a very rare inborn error of metabolism disorder, with a highly variable phenotype, typically characterized by neonatal to infancy-onset of seizures, psychomotor delay, and abnormal muscle tone that may include hypo- and/or hypertonia, resulting in generalized weakness, dystonic movements, and/or progressive respiratory distress, associated with severe lactic acidosis and elevated lactate, ketoglutarate and 2-oxoacids in urine. Additional manifestations may include dehydration, vomiting, signs of liver dysfunction, extrapyramidal signs, spastic tetraparesis, brisk deep tendon reflexes, speech impairment, swallowing difficulties, and pulmonary hypertension. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
904073
Concept ID:
C4225379
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine

Patients with global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine (GDPAG) present in early childhood with delay of both gross and fine motor skills and delayed speech. Ataxia develops by mid- to late childhood, necessitating use of a walker or wheelchair. Plasma glutamine is persistently elevated by a factor of 2.5 despite normal plasma ammonia levels. Residual glutaminase (GLS) activity can be detected in fibroblasts and lymphocytes. One or both alleles of the GLS gene carry an expanded GCA trinucleotide repeat in the 5-prime untranslated region (UTR); the repeat expansion may be found in compound heterozygosity with another GLS mutation. Three patients have been reported (summary by van Kuilenburg et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1680160
Concept ID:
C5193080
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 22

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 22 (MC4DN22) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy, and severe lactic acidosis with fatal outcome (Wintjes et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1786100
Concept ID:
C5543491
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hyperglutaminemia

An increased concentration of glutamine in the blood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
326901
Concept ID:
C1839533
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