U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 68

1.

PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

PMM2-CDG, the most common of a group of disorders of abnormal glycosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides, is divided into three clinical stages: infantile multisystem, late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability, and adult stable disability. The clinical manifestations and course are highly variable, ranging from infants who die in the first year of life to mildly affected adults. Clinical findings tend to be similar in sibs. In the infantile multisystem presentation, infants show axial hypotonia, hyporeflexia, esotropia, and developmental delay. Feeding problems, vomiting, faltering growth, and developmental delay are frequently seen. Subcutaneous fat may be excessive over the buttocks and suprapubic region. Two distinct clinical courses are observed: (1) a nonfatal neurologic course with faltering growth, strabismus, developmental delay, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hepatopathy in infancy followed by neuropathy and retinitis pigmentosa in the first or second decade; and (2) a more severe neurologic-multivisceral course with approximately 20% mortality in the first year of life. The late-infantile and childhood ataxia–intellectual disability stage, which begins between ages three and ten years, is characterized by hypotonia, ataxia, severely delayed language and motor development, inability to walk, and IQ of 40 to 70; other findings include seizures, stroke-like episodes or transient unilateral loss of function, coagulopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, joint contractures, and skeletal deformities. In the adult stable disability stage, intellectual ability is stable; peripheral neuropathy is variable, progressive retinitis pigmentosa and myopia are seen, thoracic and spinal deformities with osteoporosis worsen, and premature aging is observed; females may lack secondary sexual development and males may exhibit decreased testicular volume. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and coagulopathy may occur. The risk for deep venous thrombosis is increased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
138111
Concept ID:
C0349653
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
3.

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SH2D1A deficiency

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1770239
Concept ID:
C5399825
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Wilson disease

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome

The nephrotic syndrome is characterized clinically by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. Approximately 20% of affected individuals have an inherited steroid-resistant form and progress to end-stage renal failure (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Nephrotic syndrome type 1 (NPHS1) is characterized by prenatal onset of massive proteinuria followed by severe steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome apparent at birth with rapid progression to end-stage renal failure (Kestila et al., 1998). Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Nephrotic Syndrome and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Nephrotic syndrome and FSGS are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397); NPHS22 (619155), caused by mutation in the NOS1AP gene (605551); NPHS23 (619201), caused by mutation in the KIRREL1 gene (607428); NPHS24 (619263), caused by mutation in the DAAM2 gene (606627); and NPHS26 (620049), caused by mutation in the LAMA5 gene (601033). The symbol NPHS25 has been used as an alternative designation for NPHS21. See also FSGS1 (603278), caused by mutation in the ACTN4 gene (604638); FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); and FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98011
Concept ID:
C0403399
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) is characterized by predisposition to hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. The term "juvenile" refers to the type of polyp rather than to the age of onset of polyps. Most individuals with JPS have some polyps by age 20 years; some may have only four or five polyps over their lifetime, whereas others in the same family may have more than 100. If the polyps are left untreated, they may cause bleeding and anemia. Most juvenile polyps are benign; however, malignant transformation can occur. Risk for GI cancers ranges from 11% to 86%. Most of this increased risk is attributed to colon cancer, but cancers of the stomach, upper GI tract, and pancreas have also been reported. A combined syndrome of JPS and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is present in most individuals with an SMAD4 pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87518
Concept ID:
C0345893
Neoplastic Process
7.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 3 (hepatocerebral type)

The two forms of deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) deficiency are a neonatal multisystem disorder and an isolated hepatic disorder that presents later in infancy or childhood. The majority of affected individuals have the multisystem illness with hepatic disease (jaundice, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and elevated transaminases) and neurologic manifestations (hypotonia, nystagmus, and psychomotor retardation) evident within weeks of birth. Those with isolated liver disease may also have renal involvement and some later develop mild hypotonia. Progressive hepatic disease is the most common cause of death in both forms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1682503
Concept ID:
C5191055
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia

Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Nephrotic syndrome, type 2

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by childhood onset of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Kidney biopsies show nonspecific histologic changes such as minimal change, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and diffuse mesangial proliferation. The disorder is resistant to steroid treatment and progresses to end-stage renal failure in the first or second decades (summary by Fuchshuber et al., 1996). Some patients show later onset of the disorder (Tsukaguchi et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
358380
Concept ID:
C1868672
Disease or Syndrome
10.

MPI-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). CDG Ib is clinically distinct from most other CDGs by the lack of significant central nervous system involvement. The predominant symptoms are chronic diarrhea with failure to thrive and protein-losing enteropathy with coagulopathy. Some patients develop hepatic fibrosis. CDG Ib is also different from other CDGs in that it can be treated effectively with oral mannose supplementation, but can be fatal if untreated (Marquardt and Denecke, 2003). Thus, CDG Ib should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained hypoglycemia, chronic diarrhea, liver disease, or coagulopathy in order to allow early diagnosis and effective therapy (Vuillaumier-Barrot et al., 2002) Freeze and Aebi (1999) reviewed CDG Ib and CDG Ic (603147). Marques-da-Silva et al. (2017) systematically reviewed the literature concerning liver involvement in CDG. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400692
Concept ID:
C1865145
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 1

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a macrophage activation syndrome with an onset usually occurring within a few months or less common several years after birth. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1642840
Concept ID:
C4551514
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome

The action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome, also known as progressive myclonic epilepsy-4 with or without renal failure (EPM4), is an autosomal recessive progressive myoclonic epilepsy associated with renal failure. Cognitive function is preserved (Badhwar et al., 2004). Some patients do not develop renal failure (Dibbens et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
155629
Concept ID:
C0751779
Disease or Syndrome
14.

ALG8 congenital disorder of glycosylation

CDGs, previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes, grew from hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). CDG1H is a severe form of CDG. The majority of patients have brain involvement, liver pathology, gastrointestinal symptoms, dysmorphism (including brachydactyly), eye involvement (especially cataract), and skin symptoms. Most patients die within the first year of life (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419692
Concept ID:
C2931002
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Immunoglobulin-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
767244
Concept ID:
C3554330
Disease or Syndrome
16.

ALG9 congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) that represent defects of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide assembly are classified as CDG type I. For a general description and a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443955
Concept ID:
C2931006
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic finding in several renal disorders that manifest clinically as proteinuria and progressive decline in renal function. Some patients with FSGS develop the clinical entity called 'nephrotic syndrome' (see NPHS1; 256300), which includes massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. However, patients with FSGS may have proteinuria in the nephrotic range without other features of the nephrotic syndrome (summary by D'Agati et al., 2004; Mathis et al., 1998). D'Agati et al. (2011) provided a detailed review of FSGS, emphasizing that the disorder results from defects of the podocyte. Because of confusion in the literature regarding use of the terms 'nephrotic syndrome' and 'focal segmental glomerulosclerosis' (see NOMENCLATURE section), these disorders in OMIM are classified as NPHS or FSGS according to how they were first designated in the literature. Genetic Heterogeneity of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Nephrotic Syndrome Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome are genetically heterogeneous disorders representing a spectrum of hereditary renal diseases. See also FSGS2 (603965), caused by mutation in the TRPC6 gene (603652); FSGS3 (607832), associated with variation in the CD2AP gene (604241); FSGS4 (612551), mapped to chromosome 22q12; FSGS5 (613237), caused by mutation in the INF2 gene (610982); FSGS6 (614131), caused by mutation in the MYO1E gene (601479); FSGS7 (616002), caused by mutation in the PAX2 gene (167409); FSGS8 (616032), caused by mutation in the ANLN gene (616027); FSGS9 (616220), caused by mutation in the CRB2 gene (609720); and FSGS10 (256020), caused by mutation in the LMX1B gene (602575). See also NPHS1 (256300), caused by mutation in the NPHS1 gene (602716); NPHS2 (600995), caused by mutation in the podocin gene (604766); NPHS3 (610725), caused by mutation in the PLCE1 gene (608414); NPHS4 (256370), caused by mutation in the WT1 gene (607102); NPHS5 (614199), caused by mutation in the LAMB2 gene (150325); NPHS6 (614196), caused by mutation in the PTPRO gene (600579); NPHS7 (615008), caused by mutation in the DGKE gene (601440); NPHS8 (615244), caused by mutation in the ARHGDIA gene (601925); NPHS9 (615573), caused by mutation in the COQ8B gene (615567); NPHS10 (615861), caused by mutation in the EMP2 gene (602334); NPHS11 (616730), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); NPHS12 (616892), caused by mutation in the NUP93 gene (614351); NPHS13 (616893), caused by mutation in the NUP205 gene (614352); NPHS14 (617575), caused by mutation in the SGPL1 gene (603729); NPHS15 (617609), caused by mutation in the MAGI2 gene (606382); NPHS16 (617783), caused by mutation in the KANK2 gene (614610), NPHS17 (618176), caused by mutation in the NUP85 gene (170285); NPHS18 (618177), caused by mutation in the NUP133 gene (607613); NPHS19 (618178), caused by mutation in the NUP160 gene (607614); NPHS20 (301028), caused by mutation in the TBC1D8B gene (301027); and NPHS21 (618594) caused by mutation in the AVIL gene (613397). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1636833
Concept ID:
C4551527
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Acute infantile liver failure due to synthesis defect of mtDNA-encoded proteins

Acute infantile liver failure resulting from TRMU mutation is a transient disorder of hepatic function. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, jaundice, vomiting, coagulopathy, and hyperbilirubinemia, the presence of increased serum lactate is consistent with a defect in mitochondrial respiratory function. With supportive care, patients who survive the initial acute episode can recover and show normal development (Zeharia et al., 2009). See also transient infantile mitochondrial myopathy (MMIT; 500009), which is a similar disorder. A more severe, permanent disorder with some overlapping features is associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion (251880). See ILFS1 (615438) for information on syndromic infantile liver failure. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
480294
Concept ID:
C3278664
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 3

Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766272
Concept ID:
C3553358
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1

MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity