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Items: 14

  • Wrong UID 989417
1.

Wilson disease

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary liability to pressure palsies

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is characterized by recurrent acute sensory and motor neuropathy in a single or multiple nerves. The most common initial manifestation is the acute onset of a non-painful focal sensory and motor neuropathy in a single nerve (mononeuropathy). The first attack usually occurs in the second or third decade but earlier onset is possible. Neuropathic pain is increasingly recognized as a common manifestation. Recovery from acute neuropathy is usually complete; when recovery is not complete, the resulting disability is mild. Some affected individuals also demonstrate a mild-to-moderate peripheral neuropathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98291
Concept ID:
C0393814
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hereditary angioedema type 1

A form of hereditary angioedema characterized by acute edema in subcutaneous tissues, viscera and/or the upper airway. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
403466
Concept ID:
C2717906
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 1

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is characterized by progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility (manifesting as early satiety, nausea, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, postprandial emesis, episodic abdominal pain and/or distention, and diarrhea); cachexia; ptosis/ophthalmoplegia or ophthalmoparesis; leukoencephalopathy; and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (manifesting as paresthesias (tingling, numbness, and pain) and symmetric and distal weakness more prominently affecting the lower extremities). The order in which manifestations appear is unpredictable. Onset is usually between the first and fifth decades; in about 60% of individuals, symptoms begin before age 20 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1631838
Concept ID:
C4551995
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis

POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+"). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4H

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4H (CMT4H) is a demyelinating CMT peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It has been described in 10 individuals from two large consanguineous families from Lebanon and Algeria. Onset occurs within the first two years of life with slowly progressive muscle weakness in the distal extremities. Other common features include delayed walking, an abnormal gait, scoliosis and pes equines with toe retraction. CMT4H is caused by mutations in the FGD4 gene (12p11.1). Transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
324487
Concept ID:
C1836336
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 2C

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
481798
Concept ID:
C3280168
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C

For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75728
Concept ID:
C0270913
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Congenital insensitivity to pain-hypohidrosis syndrome

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VIII is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by congenital insensitivity to pain resulting in ulceration to the fingers, tongue, lips, and other distal appendages. Affected individuals may also have decreased sweating and tear production (summary by Chen et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1A (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
894363
Concept ID:
C4225308
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 1F

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IF is an autosomal dominant sensory neuropathy affecting the lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment becomes apparent during the second or third decade of life, resulting in painless ulceration of the feet with poor healing, which can progress to osteomyelitis, bone destruction, and amputation. There is no autonomic involvement, spasticity, or cognitive impairment (summary by Kornak et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSN, see HSAN1A (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816524
Concept ID:
C3810194
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 7, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive idiopathic basal ganglia calcification-7 is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in adulthood. Patients present with dysarthria, gait abnormalities, various movement abnormalities, and often cognitive decline. Brain imaging shows abnormal accumulation of calcium deposits in deep brain regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, dentate nuclei, cerebellum, and sometimes other areas of the brain and spinal cord. Some patients with brain imaging abnormalities may be clinically asymptomatic (summary by Yao et al., 2018). For a detailed phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IBGC, see IBGC1 (213600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1683911
Concept ID:
C5193025
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, autosomal dominant 11

Autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuronopathy-11 (HMND11) is a peripheral axonal motor neuropathy characterized by juvenile or young-adult onset of distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy mainly affecting the lower limbs, resulting in gait instability and walking difficulties. Foot deformities may also be present. The disorder is usually slowly progressive, and patients remain ambulatory until late adulthood. Some affected individuals may have distal upper limb and hand involvement or mild distal sensory abnormalities, but motor symptoms dominate the clinical picture. Electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a length-dependent axonal motor or sensorimotor neuropathy. Seizures are not present and brain imaging is normal (Beijer et al., 2019). One reported affected individual had a marfanoid habitus and mild speech delay with learning disabilities, suggesting possible expansion of the phenotypic spectrum (Ylikallio et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant distal HMN, see HMND1 (182960). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1849676
Concept ID:
C5882697
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 54

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-54 (COXPD54) is an autosomal recessive disorder with pleiotropic multisystem presentations resulting from a disruption in mitochondrial transcription and translation. The phenotype is highly variable. Many patients have early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes in isolation, and sometimes associated with global developmental delay or primary ovarian failure. Other features may include peripheral hypertonia, seizures, muscle weakness, behavioral abnormalities, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Serum lactate may or may not be elevated (summary by Hochberg et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1812715
Concept ID:
C5676912
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Arthrogryposis, distal, type 12

Distal arthrogryposis type 12 (DA12) is characterized by congenital contractures, primarily affecting the small joints of the fingers and toes. Additional features include contractures of the knees and Achilles tendons, spinal stiffness, scoliosis, and orthodontic abnormalities. Radiographic investigations excluded bony abnormalities of the affected joints (Boschann et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1A (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1847896
Concept ID:
C5882704
Disease or Syndrome
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