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1.

Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy

X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Wilson disease

Wilson disease is a disorder of copper metabolism that can present with hepatic, neurologic, or psychiatric disturbances, or a combination of these, in individuals ranging from age three years to older than 50 years; symptoms vary among and within families. Liver disease includes recurrent jaundice, simple acute self-limited hepatitis-like illness, autoimmune-type hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, or chronic liver disease. Neurologic presentations include movement disorders (tremors, poor coordination, loss of fine-motor control, chorea, choreoathetosis) or rigid dystonia (mask-like facies, rigidity, gait disturbance, pseudobulbar involvement). Psychiatric disturbance includes depression, neurotic behaviors, disorganization of personality, and, occasionally, intellectual deterioration. Kayser-Fleischer rings, frequently present, result from copper deposition in Descemet's membrane of the cornea and reflect a high degree of copper storage in the body. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42426
Concept ID:
C0019202
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome

Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease 2

Parkin type of early-onset Parkinson disease (PARK-Parkin) is characterized by the cardinal signs of Parkinson disease (PD): bradykinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity. The median age at onset is 31 years (range: 3-81 years). The disease is slowly progressive: disease duration of more than 50 years has been reported. Clinical findings vary; hyperreflexia is common. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign and cognitive decline appears to be no more frequent than in the general population. Dyskinesia as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occurs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
401500
Concept ID:
C1868675
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Hyperekplexia 1

Hyperekplexia is an early-onset neurologic disorder characterized by an exaggerated startle response to sudden, unexpected auditory or tactile stimuli. Affected individuals have brief episodes of intense, generalized hypertonia in response to stimulation. Neonates may have prolonged periods of rigidity and are at risk for sudden death from apnea or aspiration. Many affected infants have inguinal hernias. The symptoms tend to resolve after infancy, but adults may have increased startle-induced falls and/or experience nocturnal muscle jerks (summary by Ryan et al., 1992). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperekplexia See also HKPX2 (614619), caused by mutation in the GLRB gene (138492) on chromosome 4q31; HKPX3 (614618), caused by mutation in the GLYT2 gene (SLC6A5; 604159) on chromosome 11p15; and HKPX4 (618011), caused by mutation in the ATAD1 gene (614452) on chromosome 10q23. Hyperekplexia can also occur in developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-8 (DEE8; 300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429). See also sporadic stiff-man syndrome (184850) and the 'Jumping Frenchmen of Maine' (244100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1647581
Concept ID:
C4551954
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Danon disease

Danon disease is a multisystem condition with predominant involvement of the heart, skeletal muscles, and retina, with overlying cognitive dysfunction. Males are typically more severely affected than females. Males usually present with childhood onset concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy that is progressive and often requires heart transplantation. Rarely, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can evolve to resemble dilated cardiomyopathy. Most affected males also have cardiac conduction abnormalities. Skeletal muscle weakness may lead to delayed acquisition of motor milestones. Learning disability and intellectual disability, most often in the mild range, are common. Additionally, affected males can develop retinopathy with subsequent visual impairment. The clinical features in females are broader and more variable. Females are more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, with a smaller proportion requiring heart transplantation compared to affected males. Cardiac conduction abnormalities, skeletal muscle weakness, mild cognitive impairment, and pigmentary retinopathy are variably seen in affected females. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
209235
Concept ID:
C0878677
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Gaucher disease perinatal lethal

Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal recessive DOPA responsive dystonia

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum. Based on severity of symptoms/signs as well as responsiveness to levodopa therapy, clinical phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in TH are divided into (1) TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (the mild form of TH deficiency), (2) TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay (the severe form), and (3) TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy (the very severe form). In individuals with TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5b, DYT-TH), onset is between age 12 months and 12 years; initial symptoms are typically lower-limb dystonia and/or difficulty in walking. Diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (worsening of the symptoms toward the evening and their alleviation in the morning after sleep) may be present. In most individuals with TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay, onset is between age three and 12 months. In contrast to TH-deficient DRD, motor milestones are overtly delayed in this severe form. Affected infants demonstrate truncal hypotonia and parkinsonian symptoms and signs (hypokinesia, rigidity of extremities, and/or tremor). In individuals with TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy, onset is before age three to six months. Fetal distress is reported in most. Affected individuals have marked delay in motor development, truncal hypotonia, severe hypokinesia, limb hypertonia (rigidity and/or spasticity), hyperreflexia, oculogyric crises, ptosis, intellectual disability, and paroxysmal periods of lethargy (with increased sweating and drooling) alternating with irritability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382128
Concept ID:
C2673535
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1

Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hepatoencephalopathy due to combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 1

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with variable manifestations resulting from a defect in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Onset occurs at or soon after birth, and features can include growth retardation, microcephaly, hypertonicity, axial hypotonia, encephalopathy, cardiomyopathy, and liver dysfunction. Death usually occurs in the first weeks or years of life (summary by Smits et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency See also COXPD2 (610498), caused by mutation in the MRPS16 gene (609204) on 10q22; COXPD3 (610505), caused by mutation in the TSFM gene (604723) on 12q14; COXPD4 (610678), caused by mutation in the TUFM gene (602389) on 16p11; COXPD5 (611719), caused by mutation in the MRPS22 gene (605810) on 3q23; COXPD6 (300816), caused by mutation in the AIFM1 gene (300169) on Xq26; COXPD7 (613559), caused by mutation in the MTRFR gene (613541) on 12q24; COXPD8 (614096), caused by mutation in the AARS2 gene (612035) on 6p21; COXPD9 (614582), caused by mutation in the MRPL3 gene (607118) on 3q22; COXPD10 (614702), caused by mutation in the MTO1 gene (614667) on 6q13; COXPD11 (614922), caused by mutation in the RMND1 gene (614917) on 6q25; COXPD12 (614924), caused by mutation in the EARS2 gene (612799) on 16p13; COXPD13 (614932), caused by mutation in the PNPT1 gene (610316) on 2p16; COXPD14 (614946), caused by mutation in the FARS2 gene (611592) on 6p25; COXPD15 (614947), caused by mutation in the MTFMT gene (611766) on 15q; COXPD16 (615395), caused by mutation in the MRPL44 gene (611849) on 2q36; COXPD17 (615440), caused by mutation in the ELAC2 gene (605367) on 17p11; COXPD18 (615578), caused by mutation in the SFXN4 gene (615564) on 10q26; COXPD19 (615595), caused by mutation in the LYRM4 gene (613311) on 6p25; COXPD20 (615917), caused by mutation in the VARS2 gene (612802) on 6p21; COXPD21 (615918), caused by mutation in the TARS2 gene (612805) on 1q21; COXPD22 (616045), caused by mutation in the ATP5A1 gene (164360) on 18q12; COXPD23 (616198), caused by mutation in the GTPBP3 (608536) gene on 19p13; COXPD24 (616239), caused by mutation in the NARS2 gene (612803) on 11q14; COXPD25 (616430), caused by mutation in the MARS2 gene (609728) on 2q33; COXPD26 (616539), caused by mutation in the TRMT5 gene (611023) on 14q23; COXPD27 (616672), caused by mutation in the CARS2 gene (612800) on 13q34; COXPD28 (616794), caused by mutation in the SLC25A26 gene (611037) on 3p14; COXPD29 (616811), caused by mutation in the TXN2 gene (609063) on 22q12; COXPD30 (616974), caused by mutation in the TRMT10C gene (615423) on 3q12; and COXPD31 (617228), caused by mutation in the MIPEP gene (602241) on 13q12; COXPD32 (617664), caused by mutation in the MRPS34 gene (611994) on 16q13; COXPD33 (617713), caused by mutation in the C1QBP gene (601269) on 17p13; and COXPD34 (617872), caused by mutation in the MRPS7 gene (611974) on 17q25; COXPD35 (617873), caused by mutation in the TRIT1 gene (617840) on 1p34; COXPD36 (617950), caused by mutation in the MRPS2 gene (611971) on 9q34; COXPD37 (618329), caused by mutation in the MICOS13 gene (616658) on 19p13; COXPD38 (618378), caused by mutation in the MRPS14 gene (611978) on 1q23; COXPD39 (618397), caused by mutation in the GFM2 gene (606544) on 5q13; COXPD40 (618835), caused by mutation in the QRSL1 gene (617209) on 6q21; COXPD41 (618838), caused by mutation in the GATB gene (603645) on 4q31; COXPD42 (618839), caused by mutation in the GATC gene (617210) on 12q24; COXPD43 (618851), caused by mutation in the TIMM22 gene (607251) on 17p13; COXPD44 (618855), caused by mutation in the FASTKD2 gene (612322) on 2q33; COXPD45 (618951), caused by mutation in the MRPL12 gene (602375) on 17q25; COXPD46 (618952), caused by mutation in the MRPS23 gene (611985) on 17q22; COXPD47 (618958), caused by mutation in the MRPS28 gene (611990) on 8q21; COXPD48 (619012), caused by mutation in the NSUN3 gene (617491) on 3q11; COXPD49 (619024), caused by mutation in the MIEF2 gene (615498) on 17p11; COXPD50 (619025), caused by mutation in the MRPS25 gene (611987) on 3p25; COXPD51 (619057), caused by mutation in the PTCD3 gene (614918) on 2p11; COXPD52 (619386), caused by mutation in the NFS1 gene (603485) on 20q11; COXPD53 (619423), caused by mutation in the C2ORF69 gene (619219) on 2q33; and COXPD54 (619737), caused by mutation in the PRORP gene (609947) on 14q13.; COXPD55 (619743), caused by mutation in the POLRMT gene (601778) on 19p13; COXPD56 (620139), caused by mutation in the TAMM41 gene (614948) on 3p25; COXPD57 (620167), caused by mutation in the CRLS1 gene (608188) on 20p12; COXPD58 (620451), caused by mutation in the TEFM gene (616422) on 17q11; and COXPD59 (620646), caused by mutation in the MRPL39 gene (611845) on 21q21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
322999
Concept ID:
C1836797
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Congenital muscular dystrophy with intellectual disability and severe epilepsy

A rare fatal inborn error of metabolism disorder with characteristics of respiratory distress and severe hypotonia at birth, severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, myopathic facies with craniofacial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly/progressive microcephaly, low anterior hairline, arched eyebrows, hypotelorism, strabismus, small nose, prominent philtrum, thin upper lip, high-arched palate, micrognathia, malocclusion), severe, congenital flexion joint contractures and elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Scoliosis, optic atrophy, mild hepatomegaly, and hypoplastic genitalia may also be associated. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the DPM2 gene on chromosome 9q34. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1682844
Concept ID:
C5190603
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 2

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome-2 (BVVLS2) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by early childhood onset of sensorineural deafness, bulbar dysfunction, and severe diffuse muscle weakness and wasting of the upper and lower limbs and axial muscles, resulting in respiratory insufficiency. Some patients may lose independent ambulation. Because it results from a defect in riboflavin metabolism, some patients may benefit from high-dose riboflavin supplementation (summary by Johnson et al., 2012; Foley et al., 2014). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, see BVVLS1 (211530). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766452
Concept ID:
C3553538
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Severe X-linked mitochondrial encephalomyopathy

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-6 (COXPD6) is an X-linked recessive severe encephalomyopathic disorder with onset in utero or in infancy. Affected patients have hypotonia and severely impaired psychomotor development associated with variably decreased enzymatic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. More variable features may include sensorimotor neuropathy, seizures, severe muscle weakness, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness, swallowing difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Berger et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463103
Concept ID:
C3151753
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2

SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 2

A rare mitochondrial disorder due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal limb edema and redundant skin on the neck (hydrops), developmental brain defects (corpus callosum agenesis, ventriculomegaly), brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features with low set ears, severe intractable neonatal lactic acidosis with lethargy, hypotonia, absent spontaneous movements and fatal outcome. Markedly decreased activity of complex I, II + III and IV in muscle and liver have been determined. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
400626
Concept ID:
C1864843
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 28

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-28 (DEE28) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia and profoundly impaired psychomotor development. More severely affected patients have acquired microcephaly, poor or absent visual contact, and retinal degeneration; early death may occur (summary by Mignot et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863956
Concept ID:
C4015519
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Megarbane type

Autosomal recessive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Mégarbané type is a rare, primary bone dysplasia characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, pre- and postnatal disproportionate short stature with short, rhizomelic limbs, facial dysmorphism, a short neck and small thorax. Hypotonia, cardiomegaly and global developmental delay have also been associated. Several radiographic findings have been reported, including ribs with cupped ends, platyspondyly, square iliac bones, horizontal and trident acetabula, hypoplastic ischia, and delayed epiphyseal ossification. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
413221
Concept ID:
C2750075
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 2

Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-2 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, severely delayed motor development, muscle weakness with areflexia, and severely decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCV) resulting from improper myelination of axons. The severity is variable: some patients may present at birth with contractures and respiratory insufficiency, whereas others may achieve walking (summary by Warner et al., 1996). CHN shows significant phenotypic overlap with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS; 145900), which is also a neuropathy with early onset. Some classify the disorders differently, noting that CHN is characterized by hypo- or amyelination resulting from a congenital defect in myelin formation, whereas DSS has features of continuous myelin breakdown, with demyelination and remyelination (summary by Smit et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648446
Concept ID:
C4722277
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Autosomal dominant striatal neurodegeneration type 1

Autosomal dominant striatal degeneration is a neurologic disorder characterized by variable movement abnormalities due to dysfunction in the striatal part of the basal ganglia (summary by Kuhlenbaumer et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Striatal Degeneration See also ADSD2 (616922), caused by mutation in the PDE10A gene (610652) on chromosome 6q27. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934775
Concept ID:
C4310808
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 37

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-37 (DEE37) is an autosomal recessive epileptic-dyskinetic neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures or abnormal movements in the first months or years of life. Patients typically have normal or only mildly delayed development in early infancy, but then show developmental regression and stagnation after the onset of seizures, which can occur between about 6 months to 2 years of age. In addition to epileptic encephalopathy, affected individuals also manifest a hyperkinetic movement disorder with choreoathetosis, spasticity, and rigidity. There is severely impaired intellectual development and function, loss of verbal skills with absent speech, and impaired volitional movements (summary by Madeo et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934737
Concept ID:
C4310770
Disease or Syndrome
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