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Items: 16

1.

Desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy

Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) is a noncommittal term that refers to a group of morphologically homogeneous, but genetically heterogeneous chronic neuromuscular disorders. The morphologic changes in skeletal muscle in MFM result from disintegration of the sarcomeric Z disc and the myofibrils, followed by abnormal ectopic accumulation of multiple proteins involved in the structure of the Z disc, including desmin, alpha-B-crystallin (CRYAB; 123590), dystrophin (300377), and myotilin (TTID; 604103). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myofibrillar Myopathy Other forms of MFM include MFM2 (608810), caused by mutation in the CRYAB gene (123590); MFM3 (609200), caused by mutation in the MYOT gene (604103); MFM4 (609452), caused by mutation in the ZASP gene (LDB3; 605906); MFM5 (609524), caused by mutation in the FLNC gene (102565); MFM6 (612954), caused by mutation in the BAG3 gene (603883); MFM7 (617114), caused by mutation in the KY gene (605739); MFM8 (617258), caused by mutation in the PYROXD1 gene (617220); MFM9 (603689), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840); MFM10 (619040), caused by mutation in the SVIL UNC45B gene (611220); MFM11 (619178), caused by mutation in the UNC45B gene (611220); and MFM12 (619424), caused by mutation in the MYL2 gene (160781). 'Desmin-related myopathy' is another term referring to MFM in which there are intrasarcoplasmic aggregates of desmin, usually in addition to other sarcomeric proteins. Rigid spine syndrome (602771), caused by mutation in the SEPN1 gene (606210), is another desmin-related myopathy. Goebel (1995) provided a review of desmin-related myopathy. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
330449
Concept ID:
C1832370
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Giant axonal neuropathy 1

GAN-related neurodegeneration comprises a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe (sometimes called classic giant axonal neuropathy) to milder pure early-onset peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The classic giant axonal neuropathy phenotype typically manifests as an infantile-onset neurodegenerative disorder, starting as a severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathy and evolving into central nervous system impairment (intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar signs, and pyramidal tract signs). Most affected individuals become wheelchair dependent in the second decade of life and eventually bedridden with severe polyneuropathy, ataxia, and dementia. Death usually occurs in the third decade. At the milder end of the spectrum are predominantly motor and sensory neuropathies (with little to no CNS involvement) that overlap with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
376775
Concept ID:
C1850386
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Myofibrillar myopathy 3

Myofibrillar myopathy refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of muscular disorders characterized by a pathologic morphologic pattern of myofibrillar degradation and abnormal accumulation of proteins involved with the sarcomeric Z disc (summary by Foroud et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811509
Concept ID:
C3714934
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Myofibrillar myopathy 4

Myofibrillar myopathy-4 (MFM4) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset distal muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs at onset. Affected individuals usually present with gait difficulties in their forties, followed by slow progression with eventual involvement of the hands and proximal muscles of the lower limbs. Rare patients may develop cardiomyopathy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with myofibrillar changes (Selcen and Engel, 2005; Griggs et al., 2007). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648314
Concept ID:
C4721886
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 2A

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects nerve cells in the spinal cord. It results in muscle weakness and affects movement, primarily in the legs.

Onset of distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II ranges from the teenage years through mid-adulthood. The initial symptoms of the disorder are cramps or weakness in the muscles of the big toe and later, the entire foot. Over a period of approximately 5 to 10 years, affected individuals experience a gradual loss of muscle tissue (atrophy) in the lower legs. They begin to have trouble walking and running, and eventually may have complete paralysis of the lower legs. The thigh muscles may also be affected, although generally this occurs later and is less severe.

Some individuals with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II have weakening of the muscles in the hands and forearms. This weakening is less pronounced than in the lower limbs and does not usually result in paralysis. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
322471
Concept ID:
C1834692
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 1

Tubular aggregates in muscle, first described by Engel (1964), are structures of variable appearance consisting of an outer tubule containing either one or more microtubule-like structures or amorphous material. They are a nonspecific pathologic finding that may occur in a variety of circumstances, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps or muscle weakness, and inherited myopathies. Tubular aggregates are derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Salviati et al., 1985) and are believed to represent an adaptive mechanism aimed at regulating an increased intracellular level of calcium in order to prevent the muscle fibers from hypercontraction and necrosis (Martin et al., 1997; Muller et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Tubular Aggregate Myopathy See also TAM2 (615883), caused by mutation in the ORAI1 gene (610277) on chromosome 12q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
860163
Concept ID:
C4011726
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 2B

Some individuals with distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II have weakening of the muscles in the hands and forearms. This weakening is less pronounced than in the lower limbs and does not usually result in paralysis.

Onset of distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II ranges from the teenage years through mid-adulthood. The initial symptoms of the disorder are cramps or weakness in the muscles of the big toe and later, the entire foot. Over a period of approximately 5 to 10 years, affected individuals experience a gradual loss of muscle tissue (atrophy) in the lower legs. They begin to have trouble walking and running, and eventually may have complete paralysis of the lower legs. The thigh muscles may also be affected, although generally this occurs later and is less severe.

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects nerve cells in the spinal cord. It results in muscle weakness and affects movement, primarily in the legs. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
382017
Concept ID:
C2608087
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type 1C

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IC (HSAN1C) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by sensory neuropathy with variable autonomic and motor involvement. Most patients have adult onset of slowly progressive distal sensory impairment manifest as numbness, tingling, or pain, as well as distal muscle atrophy. Complications include ulceration and osteomyelitis. Some patients may have a more severe phenotype with onset in childhood. Electrophysiologic studies show a predominantly axonal neuropathy with some demyelinating features. Some patients may have evidence of central nervous system involvement, including macular telangiectasia type 2 and/or pyramidal signs. Affected individuals have increased levels of plasma 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs), which are thought to be neurotoxic. (summary by Rotthier et al., 2010, Gantner et al., 2019, and Triplett et al., 2019). Oral supplementation with serine decreases 1-deoxySL and may offer some clinical benefits (Fridman et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSAN, see HSAN1A (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462246
Concept ID:
C3150896
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy with contractures

SMALED2A is an autosomal dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by early childhood onset of muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the proximal and distal muscles of the lower extremity, although some patients may show upper extremity involvement. The disorder results in delayed walking, waddling gait, difficulty walking, and loss of distal reflexes. Some patients may have foot deformities or hyperlordosis, and some show mild upper motor signs, such as spasticity. Sensation, bulbar function, and cognitive function are preserved. The disorder shows very slow progression throughout life (summary by Oates et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1669929
Concept ID:
C4747715
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 44

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-44 (COXPD44) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with multisystemic manifestations. Most affected individuals present in infancy or early childhood with global developmental delay, hypotonia, and abnormal movements. Most patients develop seizures, often associated with status epilepticus, and some patients may have optic atrophy. One patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been reported. Serum lactate may be increased, although that finding is inconsistent. Detailed biochemical analysis shows variable combined deficiencies of mitochondrial oxidative complexes that appear to be tissue-specific (summary by Wei et al., 2020). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1718899
Concept ID:
C5394293
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 75

Spastic paraplegia-75 (SPG75) is an autosomal recessive, slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and cognitive impairment in childhood (summary by Lossos et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
896387
Concept ID:
C4225250
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 15

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-15 (SCAR15) is characterized by early-onset ataxia, cognitive impairment, dysarthria, and developmental delay. Variable features include seizures, nystagmus, and abnormal reflexes (Seidahmed et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816656
Concept ID:
C3810326
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 1F

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IF is an autosomal dominant sensory neuropathy affecting the lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment becomes apparent during the second or third decade of life, resulting in painless ulceration of the feet with poor healing, which can progress to osteomyelitis, bone destruction, and amputation. There is no autonomic involvement, spasticity, or cognitive impairment (summary by Kornak et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HSN, see HSAN1A (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816524
Concept ID:
C3810194
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Myopathy, distal, 5

Distal myopathy-5 (MPD5) is an autosomal recessive, slowly progressive muscle disorder characterized by adolescent onset of distal muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Other features include facial weakness and hyporeflexia. Patients remain ambulatory even after long disease duration (summary by Park et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1798944
Concept ID:
C5567521
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Neuropathy, congenital, with arthrogryposis multiplex

MedGen UID:
320286
Concept ID:
C1834206
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hyporeflexia of lower limbs

Reduced intensity of muscle tendon reflexes in the lower limbs. Reflexes are elicited by stretching the tendon of a muscle, e.g., by tapping. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
371881
Concept ID:
C1834696
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