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Items: 9

1.

Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia

Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids 1

CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is characterized by executive dysfunction, memory decline, personality changes, motor impairments, and seizures. A frontal lobe syndrome (e.g., loss of judgment, lack of social inhibitors, lack of insight, and motor persistence) usually appears early in the disease course. The mean age of onset is usually in the fourth decade. Affected individuals eventually become bedridden with spasticity and rigidity. The disease course ranges from two to 30 or more years (mean: 8 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1794139
Concept ID:
C5561929
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 5

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
815975
Concept ID:
C3809645
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-saccadic intrusion syndrome

VPS13D movement disorder is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (dystonia, chorea, and/or ataxia) of variable age of onset that can be associated with developmental delay. Onset ranges from birth to adulthood. Individuals can present in childhood with motor delays and gait instability. Cognitive impairment ranging from mild intellectual disability to developmental delay has been reported, and several individuals have normal cognitive function. Individuals have also presented as young adults with gait difficulties caused by spastic ataxia or ataxia. In addition to gait ataxia, affected individuals had limb ataxia, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities (macro-saccadic oscillations, nystagmus, and saccadic pursuit). Additional features reported in some individuals include peripheral neuropathy and/or seizures. The disorder progresses to spastic ataxia or generalized dystonia, which can lead to loss of independent ambulation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
335442
Concept ID:
C1846492
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Chromosome 15q11.2 deletion syndrome

A heterozygous deletion of chromosome 15q11.2 may increase the susceptibility to neuropsychiatric or neurodevelopmental problems, including delayed psychomotor development, speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and possibly seizures (summary by Doornbos et al., 2009 and Burnside et al., 2011). See also chromosome 15q11.2 duplication syndrome (608636). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
467404
Concept ID:
C3180937
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8

Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-8 (FTDALS8) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset dementia manifest as memory impairment, executive dysfunction, and behavioral or personality changes. Some patients may develop ALS or parkinsonism. Neuropathologic studies show frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with tau (MAPT; 157140)- and TDP43 (605078)-immunoreactive inclusions (summary by Dobson-Stone et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FTDALS, see FTDALS1 (105550). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1728824
Concept ID:
C5436881
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 50

Spinocerebellar ataxia-50 (SCA50) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculomotor apraxia and other eye movement abnormalities, and cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Most patients develop symptoms as adults, although childhood onset has rarely been reported. Additional more variable features may include tremor, dysarthria, dysphagia, and cognitive impairment with executive dysfunction (Coutelier et al., 2022; Schoggl et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824045
Concept ID:
C5774272
Disease or Syndrome
8.

CATARACTS, SPASTIC PARAPARESIS, AND SPEECH DELAY

Cataracts, spastic paraparesis, and speech delay (CSPSD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts. Speech delay is a common feature (Ferdinandusse et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1778818
Concept ID:
C5543440
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 27, juvenile

Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-27 (ALS27) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by early childhood-onset lower extremity spasticity manifesting as toe walking and gait abnormalities, followed by progressive lower motor neuron-mediated weakness without sensory signs or symptoms (Mohassel et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, see ALS1 (105400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1840995
Concept ID:
C5830359
Disease or Syndrome
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